Detections of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Birds

Last Modified: July 10, 2024
ducks in flight

Wild birds can be infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and show no signs of illness. They can carry the disease to new areas when migrating, potentially exposing domestic poultry to the virus.

APHIS’ wild bird surveillance program provides an early warning system for the introduction and distribution of avian influenza viruses of concern in the United States, allowing APHIS and the poultry industry to take timely and rapid action to reduce the risk of spread to our poultry industry and other populations of concern.

Confirmed HPAI Detections

Captive wild birds, defined by the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH) as a wild animal that is captive or otherwise lives under or requires human supervision or control, are included in the numbers reported on this page. Captive wild birds, including sick wild birds that may have died after being found and taken to a rehabilitator or sanctuary, will have the designation of “captive wild bird” in the WOAH Classification column. To remain consistent with current reporting, information will continue to be broken down to the county level. To protect privacy, private or business names will not be released. This is consistent with current reporting of wild birds as well as commercial and backyard flocks.

APHIS is continuing to process samples collected over the past year from State and partner agencies and will continue to post this information on this page. The detection date is the date of National Veterinary Services Laboratories confirmatory testing. APHIS will provide updates below when there are significant differences between sample collection and detection dates.

For submitting agencies who notice data errors or omissions, please send an email with supporting documentation (laboratory report/accession number/data collection) to wslabresults@usda.gov.

The two maps below represent:

  1. A comprehensive view of all HPAI detections in wild birds since the beginning of the U.S. outbreak in January 2022, and 
  2. The number of HPAI detections in wild birds from the past 30 days. 

Both maps represent samples collected by APHIS Wildlife Services as well as morbidity/mortality samples submitted by State agencies and private facilities. The data presented visually in these maps is also available in the table below.

map showing HPAI in wild birds detections
map showing States with HPAI detections in wild birds in the last 30 days

Users may need to refresh the page to see the latest table data. To refresh the page, hold down the shift key and click the Reload Page button in the upper left corner of your browser.

Table Notes

Date Detected: Specimens detected by the NAHLN H5 assay were further tested by a developmental real-time RT PCR targeting the Eurasian lineage goose/Guangdong H5 clade 2.3.4.4b. "Date Detected" indicates the date when a positive detection was obtained by the developmental RRT PCR targeting the Eurasian lineage goose/Guangdong H5 clade 2.3.4.4b.

HPAI Strain:

EA = Eurasian; AM = North American; the EA H5 (2.3.4.4) viruses are highly pathogenic to poultry.

EA/AM: reassortant of H5 goose/Guangdong and North American wild bird lineage

Virus lineage, subtype, and pathotype per cleavage site analysis are determined from sequence data direct from the sample or virus isolate. An incomplete subtype indicates either (1) the specimen is pending virus isolation and/or sequencing results, or (2) the specimen was detected by the developmental H5 RRT PCR targeting the Eurasian lineage goose/Guangdong H5 clade 2.3.4.4b but could not be further characterized, often due to a low level of virus or viral RNA present in a given sample.

Sampling Sources:

  • AK DFG = Alaska Department of Fish and Game
    CA DFW = California Department of Fish and Wildlife
    DOI = Department of the Interior
    FL FWCC = Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
    GA DNR = Georgia Department of Natural Resources
    IA DNR = Iowa Department of Natural Resources
    ID Fish and Game = Idaho Fish & Game
    KS DWP = Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks
    KY DFW = Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife
    LA DWF = Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries
    MA DFW = Massachusetts Department of Fish and Wildlife
    MD DNR = Maryland Department of Natural Resources
    ME DIFW = Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife
    MN DNR = Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
    MO DOC = Missouri Department of Conservation
    MT FWP = Montana Fish, Wildlife, and parks
    NC WRC = North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission
    ND Game and Fish = North Dakota Game and Fish
    NE Dept of Ag = Nebraska Department of Agriculture
    NH FGD = New Hampshire Fish and Game Department
    NPS = DOI National Park Service
    NV DOW = Nevada Division of Wildlife
    NWDP = USDA Wildlife Services National Wildlife Disease Program
    NY DEC = New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
    NY State Dept of Ag and Markets = New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets
    OH DNR = Ohio Department of Natural Resources
    PA Game Commission = Pennsylvania Game Commission
    SC DNR = South Carolina Department of Natural Resources
    SCWDS = Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study
    SD GFP = South Dakota Game, Fish, and Parks
    USACE = U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
    USFWS = DOI U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
    USGS = U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center
    VA DWR = Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources
    WA DFW = Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
    WI DNR = Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

About Avian Influenza

Avian influenza is caused by influenza Type A virus (influenza A). Avian-origin influenza viruses are broadly categorized based on a combination of two groups of proteins on the surface of the influenza A virus: hemagglutinin or “H” proteins, of which there are 16 (H1–H16), and neuraminidase or “N” proteins, of which there are 9 (N1–N9). Many different combinations of “H” and “N” proteins are possible. Each combination is considered a different subtype, and related viruses within a subtype may be referred to as a lineage. Avian influenza viruses are classified as either “low pathogenic” or “highly pathogenic” based on their genetic features and the severity of the disease they cause in poultry. Most viruses are of low pathogenicity, meaning they cause no signs or only minor clinical signs of infection in poultry.