Animal and Plant Diseases and Pests of Concern

Last Modified: January 30, 2024

Section 12203(b) of the 2018 Farm Bill required APHIS to develop a list of pests and diseases that pose the most significant threat to U.S. agriculture. This section of the Farm Bill codifies many activities that APHIS already performs, including the development and exercising of emergency response plans.

Based on our years of experience and the latest science, we named 59 pests and diseases that warrant efforts at prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery. The presence or absence of a pest or disease on this list doesn't preclude APHIS from taking appropriate actions to protect plant or animal health. If a threat emerges that isn't on the list, APHIS will respond appropriately.

Common NameScientific Name/Causative Agent
African swine feverAfrican swine fever virus
Classical swine feverClassical swine fever virus
Foot-and-mouth diseaseFoot-and-mouth disease virus
Highly pathogenic avian influenzaAvian influenza virus
Low pathogenicity avian influenza (H5 and H7 subtypes)Avian influenza virus
New World screwwormCochliomyia hominivorax
Rift Valley feverRift Valley fever virus
Virulent Newcastle diseaseNewcastle disease virus
Common NameScientific Name/Causative Agent
Alder root and collar rotPhytophthora alni
Almond witches' broomCandidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium 16SrIX-B
Apple proliferationCandidatus Phytoplasma mali 16SrX-A
Ash diebackHymenoscyphus fraxineus
Asiatic rice borerChilo suppressalis
Australian grapevine yellowsCandidatus Phytoplasma australiense 16SrXII-B
Bacterial blightXanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzae
Bacterial leaf streakXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola
Bacterial wiltRalstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2
Beech bleeding cankerPhytophthora kernoviae
Black maize beetleHeteronychus arator
Bois noir; StolburCandidatus Phytoplasma solani 16SrXII-A
Christmas berry webwormCryptoblabes gnidiella
Citrus longhorned beetleAnoplophora chinensis
Coconut cadang-cadangCocadviroid Coconut cadang-cadang viroid
Cotton cutwormSpodoptera litura
Cotton seed bugOxycarenus hyalinipennis
Cucumber green mottle mosaicTobamovirus
Cucurbit beetleDiabrotica speciosa
European stone fruit yellowsCandidatus Phytoplasma prunorum 16SrX-F
False codling mothThaumatotibia leucotreta
Flavescence doréeCandidatus Phytoplasma vitis 16SrV-C
Groundnut bud necrosisOrthotospovirus
Guatemalan potato mothTecia solanivora
Japanese oak wiltRaffaelea quercivora
Japanese wax scaleCeroplastes japonicus
Java downy mildewPeronosclerospora maydis
Khapra beetleTrogoderma granarium
Late wilt of cornMagnaporthiopsis maydis
Masson pine mothDendrolimus punctatus
No common name, an ambrosia beetleMegaplatypus mutatus
Oak ambrosia beetlePlatypus quercivorus
Oak processionary mothThaumetopoea processionea
Oak splendour beetleAgrilus biguttatus
Old world bollwormHelicoverpa armigera
Palm lethal yellowingCandidatus Phytoplasma palmae 16Sr-IV
Philippine downy mildewPeronosclerospora philippinensis
Pine processionary mothThaumetopoea pityocampa
Pine-tree lappetDendrolimus pini
Potato wartSynchytrium endobioticum
Red ring nematodeBursaphelenchus cocophilus
RotbrennerPseudopezicula tracheiphila
Scots pine blister rustCronartium flaccidum
Siberian silk mothDendrolimus sibiricus
Silver Y mothAutographa gamma
Small brown planthopperLaodelphax striatellus
South American palm borerPaysandisia archon
Sunn pestEurygaster integriceps
Tomato fruit borerNeoleucinodes elegantalis
Tomato leafminerTuta absoluta
Wheat seed gall nematodeAnguina tritici

Updating the List

Do you have feedback on the contents of this list? APHIS is seeking and reviewing comments on a rolling basis. If suggesting additions or changes, we ask that you provide references/documentation on how the pest/disease meets the definition of "likely to pose a significant risk to the food and agriculture critical infrastructure." We intend to review this list of pests and diseases on an annual basis and update it as needed.

Send your suggestions to

Other Pest and Disease Lists Maintained by APHIS

The list of Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases of Concern differs from the following lists:

  • Veterinary Services High-Consequence List of Diseases - Veterinary Services maintains a list of foreign animal diseases and pests based on risk and consequences of introduction into the United States. This list is used to guide APHIS preparedness and response activities.
  • National List of Reportable Animal Diseases (NLRAD) - The NLRAD list of diseases, agreed upon by State and Federal partners, ensures standardized reporting and information sharing for various animal diseases. The diseases are divided into two categories: notifiable diseases and conditions and monitored diseases.
  • National Priority Pest List - The National Priority Pest List presents the national priorities for pest detection surveys conducted under the Cooperative Agricultural Survey Program. The Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases of Concern list is a subset of the National Priority Pest List.
  • U.S. Regulated Plant Pest List - This list includes those pests that Plant Protection and Quarantine regulates under the authority of the Plant Protection Act.