Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis (NAPPRA)

Last Modified: May 16, 2024

NAPPRA allows APHIS to better protect U.S. agriculture from foreign pests while minimizing adverse economic and trade impacts.

Imported plants for planting can carry a variety of pests into the United States. Since the pests are already on a host, it is easier for them to become established in this country. In some cases, the plant itself is the pest.

To ensure U.S. import regulations protect the United States from pests that may be on live plants for planting, APHIS has a regulated category called Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis (NAPPRA). Under NAPPRA, plants for planting must undergo a pest risk analysis before APHIS will authorize the taxon for importation.

The NAPPRA Process

APHIS-PPQ may propose to designate plant taxa as NAPPRA under either of the following conditions:

  • When APHIS-PPQ has evidence that a plant taxon is a host of a quarantine pest and is from a country with little or no recent import history, then PPQ proposes to add the country/plant combination as NAPPRA; or
  • When APHIS-PPQ has evidence that a plant taxa itself is a quarantine pest and the plant is not known to occur in the U.S. or is under official control, then we propose to add that species as NAPPRA from all countries.

The Federal Register notice includes the scientific evidence we considered and allows stakeholders the opportunity to comment on the proposal.

If stakeholder feedback does not provide enough new information to revise the proposal, we add the taxon to the NAPPRA list for the listed pest and all other quarantine pests in that taxon. Quarantine pest plants (weeds) and hosts of quarantine pests are added to the NAPPRA lists in each round.

The NAPPRA process allows us to quickly respond to evidence that the importation of a taxon of plants for planting may pose a risk while giving stakeholders the opportunity to participate.

Importing Small Quantities of Plant Taxa on the NAPPRA List

To import small quantities of plants or plant material on the NAPPRA list for experimental, therapeutic, or developmental purposes, you may apply for a controlled import permit using PPQ Form 588.

Requesting a Pest Risk Analysis

If you want to import plants or plant materials into the United States from the NAPPRA list for any other purposes, you must submit a detailed market access request (MAR) using instructions in the Code of Federal Regulations (7 CFR 319.5[d]).

Once APHIS receives your request, we develop a pest risk analysis. Based on the results of this analysis, we will take one of the following actions:

  • Remove the plants or plant materials from the NAPPRA list and allow their importation with general requirements
  • Remove the plants or plant materials from the NAPPRA list and allow their importation with specific restrictions
  • Continue to prohibit their importation

More Information

Visit the Agricultural Commodity Import Requirements (ACIR) database or the Plants for Planting Manual for more information about import restrictions on plants for planting.


Quarantine Pest Plants

All propagative plant parts of quarantine pest plants listed here–including seed and cut flowers and greenery–are NAPPRA from all countries.

Hosts of Quarantine Pests

All propagative plant parts, except seed, are regulated under NAPPRA, including cut flowers and greenery.

Adding a Taxon to the NAPPRA List

To suggest a taxon to APHIS as a possible NAPPRA category, email us at or mail the information to:

Plants for Planting Policy
ATTN: NAPPRA List Candidates
APHIS, PPQ, IRM, Unit 133
4700 River Road
Riverdale, MD 20737-1236

Submission Process

Anyone can submit a suggestion for APHIS to evaluate. We need only the taxon or pest's name and your contact information, so we can follow up if needed.

If you have more specific information, we welcome that as well. This could include the taxon or pest's scientific name, author, and common name (such as in examples below) and any supporting references.


  • Pest plant: Lygodium flexuosum (Linnaeus) Swartz (maidenhair creeper)
  • Host of a quarantine pest: Castanea spp. (chestnut)
  • Quarantine pest: Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr (chestnut blight)

Other Helpful Information for Evaluating a Taxon

Below is other helpful information for a taxon to be evaluated. We've listed it here for general reference. (Note: If you don't have this information, that is okay. As mentioned earlier, APHIS needs only the name of the plant or pest to begin evaluating a taxon; we will gather other details as needed during our evaluation.)

  • If and where it is present in the United States, along with any official control efforts
  • Predicted U.S. ecological range
  • Dispersal potential and biological characteristics associated with invasiveness
  • Potential economic impacts (potential to reduce crop yields, lower commodity values, or cause loss of markets for U.S. goods)
  • Potential environmental impacts (impacts on ecosystem processes, natural community composition or structure, human health, recreation patterns, property values, or use of chemicals to control it)
  • Potential pathways into and within the United States, along with likelihood of spread and survival within each pathway
  • If the pest is a pathogen:
    • Whether it can be introduced and established in the United States through imports of seeds or other propagative material
    • Host range of the pest
    • How the pest infests plants and what plant parts it infests

Supporting Documents

These documents include data and references to support APHIS' NAPPRA decisions.

This document includes taxa that were formerly listed as prohibited articles in 7 CFR 319.37-2(a), which are now listed as NAPPRA plants in the Plants for Planting Manual (effective April 18, 2018).

Prohibited articles taxa (7 CFR 319.37-2a) (includes seeds only if specifically mentioned) which are listed in plants for planting manual as NAPPRA: Effective April 18, 2018).

NAPPRA Plants From the Prohibited Articles List (146.54 KB)

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