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Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
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Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis (NAPPRA)

Plants for planting can carry a wide variety of pests that are more likely to become established in the United States because they are already on a suitable host. In some cases, the plants themselves are the pest. To ensure U.S. import regulations provide adequate protection against the risk posed by plants for planting, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) established a new regulated category called not authorized pending pest risk analysis (NAPPRA). NAPPRA allows APHIS to more fully protect U.S. agriculture from foreign pests while minimizing adverse economic and trade impacts.

Before NAPPRA, APHIS' plants for planting regulations (also known as Q37) categorized imported plants as either prohibited (not allowed) or restricted (allowed under certain conditions). The regulations did not require a pest risk analysis prior to the importation of a new taxonomic group of plants. This differed from APHIS' fruits and vegetables regulations (Q56) where the importation of regulated articles is prohibited until APHIS completes a pest risk analysis.

The NAPPRA Process

If scientific evidence indicates that a taxon of plants for planting is a quarantine pest or a host of a quarantine pest and has little or no recent import history, APHIS will publish a proposed notice in the Federal Register proposing the taxon as NAPPRA. The notice will cite the scientific evidence we considered in making this determination, and give stakeholders the opportunity to comment on our determination. If the comments we receive do not lead us to revise our determination, we will add the taxon to the NAPPRA list.   A plant taxon is added to NAPPRA for the listed pest and for all other quarantine pests for which the taxon is a host.  This process allows us to take prompt action in response to evidence that the importation of a taxon of plants for planting may pose a risk while allowing public participation. Limited quantities of material may be imported under a controlled import permit for experimental, therapeutic or developmental purposes.

Requesting a Pest Risk Analysis

Importers who wish to import plants or plant materials on the NAPPRA list must submit a request per the instructions included in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations: 7 CFR 319.5(d). Upon receipt of a completed request, APHIS will develop the Pest Risk Analysis (PRA).  Based on the PRA results, we will either remove the taxon from the NAPPRA list from the country or countries for which we had conducted the PRA, and then allow its importation subject to general requirements, allow its importation subject to specific restrictions, or continue to prohibit its importation.

Importing Small Quantities of Plant Taxa on the NAPPRA List

Importers who wish to import small quantities of plants or plant material on the NAPPRA list for experimental, therapeutic, or developmental purposes may apply for a controlled import permit (CIP, also referred to as PPQ Form 588).

Federal Register Publications


For more specific information on plants for planting import restrictions, please see the Plants for Planting Manual.

Pest Datasheets

Supporting Documents

Stakeholder Suggestions

APHIS is currently accepting suggestions from stakeholders for taxa to add to the NAPPRA list. Learn more >>

Frequently Asked Questions

View a list of commonly asked questions about NAPPRA. 

Contact Information

Please submit questions regarding NAPPRA to one of the following addresses:

  • Email:
  • Mail: ATTN: NAPPRA Questions, Unit 133, IRM, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road, Riverdale, MD 20737-1236

Stakeholders Registry

If you wish to be notified about changes to the NAPPRA list, please subscribe to the APHIS Stakeholder Registry and select the “Plants for Planting” topic under “Importations into the United States.”

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