Citrus Health Response Program
The Citrus Health Response Program (CHRP) began in response to establishment of citrus canker and huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening) in Florida, and the potential for other pests and pathogens to enter US citrus production areas. The program focuses on citrus disease management using harmonized production standards across all citrus producing states. A technical working group (TWG), reviews, defines, and identifies conditions under which nursery stock may be shipped to non-citrus producing states with no (or very low) risk of spread of citrus canker, HLB, or Asian citrus psyllid, the vector of HLB.
Potato Cyst Nematode
A technical working group (TWG) for potato cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera pallida, was convened to make management recommendations based on current scientific knowledge and expertise in response to the detection of PCN in a localized outbreak in Idaho potato fields. The PCN TWG provided scientific support to the regulatory program based on timely information as the response and resulting infrastructure developed. The TWG also supported issues related to survey and detection of PCN in a national survey for this pest. After the discovery of potato cyst nematode in Idaho, the area was quarantined and fumigated. Since the nematode can remain dormant for long periods, methods were developed to eradicate the nematode by planting oil radish as a biofumigant. A national survey and trace-back investigations began in 2007 and continues indefinitely. Currently, there are no other detections.
CPHST provides on-going scientific support, including participating in science panel meetings and recommending modifications to eradication protocols made necessary as new scientific information becomes available. Rapid incorporation of new scientific developments continues to be a major driver of our response and recovery efforts.
A technical working group meeting was held to review information on the biology of the gladiolus rust (GR) pathogen, evaluate the control recommendations already in practice for this disease, and evaluate progress towards eradication. New measures were incorporated and recent surveys have been negative for the pathogen. An additional TWG meeting is expected to reevaluate the feasibility of eradication, develop management options if eradication is deemed infeasible, and determine ongoing research needs to support regulatory decision-making.
National Ornamentals Research Site at Dominican University of California
The NORS-DUC is a biosecure research site designed to simulate the nursery environment. This will allow scientists and managers to observe the epidemiology and behavior of pests and diseases in a “real world” settting. Research at the site will provide (1) valuable data that will aid in reducing the long range spread of Phytophthora ramorum (and other plant pests and pathogens) through infested nursery stock shipments, and (2) validation of established and development of new Best Management Practices (BMPs) for nursery stock production.
As defined by the Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002, select agents are pathogens that have the potential to pose a severe threat to plant health or plant products by a potential bioterrorist. CPHST is the point of contact on issues regarding agricultural bioterrorism and supports the Select Agent program by collecting scientific literature and development of reports in order to provide rapid and up-to-date information on world scientific expertise, diagnostics, risk analysis, mitigation, and other biological information on the select agents.
Plum Pox Virus Eradication Program
CPHST has hosted a series of Science Panels to review the biology, distribution, control, and survey methodology for plum pox virus (PPV). The purpose of these meetings is to help formulate appropriate responses to PPV eradication efforts, especially in Michigan and New York. The Science Panel consists of government and university scientists; key personnel from state, federal, and Canadian regulatory agencies; and grower representatives. Five meetings have already been conducted in which recommendations were made on matters related to survey, detection, control, and identification of PPV. Additional meetings will convene as this year's survey continues.
Black Stem Rust/Barberry
CPHST provides technical and scientific support for the Black Stem Rust (BSR)/Barberry regulatory program by updating program leadership on new developments concerning the disease and threats posed by the recent emergence of dangerous strains of the pathogen, including Ug99. CPHST and the BSR/Barberry program recently coordinated an update and review of the scientific components of the program, including: new molecular-based identification tools for the pathogen and host varieties, the current status of European barberry in the U.S., the relationship between the disease and its host (Japanese barberry), aerial epidemiology of wind-borne spores, new fungicidal and cultural control treatments, and identification of potential pathways for new pathogen strains like Ug99 into the U.S. CPHST is also engaging scientists for applied research into these scientific components of the program through Farm Bill funding and cooperative agreements.
Chrysanthemum White Rust
CPHST provides technical and scientific support for the Chrysanthemum White Rust (CWR) regulatory program by updating program leadership on new developments concerning the disease and engaging scientists to conduct basic and applied methods development. We are currently evaluating the potential of Puccinia horiana to survive winter environmental conditions on ornamental plants in our Laboratory in Otis, MA.