Dr. Nathan P. Snow

Contact Information: 
Title: Research Biologist

Address: 4101 Laporte Avenue, Fort Collins CO  80521-2154

Telephone: 970-266-6041

Fax: 970-266-6010

Email: Nathan.P.Snow@aphis.usda.gov

Research Project: Feral Swine and Ungulate Impacts


PhD, Michigan State University “Hotspots, underreporting, and dynamic space-time influences of wildlife-vehicle collisions”, 2014

MS, Colorado State University, “Survival, effects of roads, and characteristics of road-kill locations for the San Clemente Island fox”, 2009

BS, Central Michigan University, Biology, 2004

Affiliations: Department of Animal, Rangeland, and Wildlife Sciences, Texas A&M University-Kingsville

Current Research:  

  • Finding solutions to wildlife damage issues and human-wildlife conflicts, and managing threats from invasive species.
  • Appling field and laboratory studies, and ecological modeling to address these issues.
  • Working to develop new management techniques for invasive feral swine in the United States and Australia.

International Experience: Australia (feral swine) 

Dr. Snow is a wildlife biologist that develops solutions for wildlife damage management and resolving human-wildlife conflicts. In particular, Dr. Snow works to minimize impacts from invasive species on agriculture and natural resources. Currently, he focuses primarily on developing new management tools for feral swine in the United States and Australia. Dr. Snow combines field studies, pen studies, and statistical modeling to tackle this challenging problem.


Lavelle, M.J., N.P. Snow, J.M. Halseth, E.H. VanNatta, H.N. Sanders, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2018. Evaluation of movement behaviors to inform toxic baiting strategies for invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa). Pest Management Science 74(11):2504-2510. doi: 10.1002/ps.4929

Lavelle, M.J., N.P. Snow, J.M. Halseth, J.C. Kinsey, J.A. Foster, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2018. Development and evaluation of a bait station for selectively dispensing bait to invasive wild pigs. Wildlife Society Bulletin 42(1): 102-110. doi: 10.1002/wsb.856

Resnik, J.R., W.F. Andelt, T.R. Stanley, and N.P. Snow. 2018. Island fox spatial ecology and implications for management of disease. Journal of Wildlife Management 82(6):1185-1198. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.21464

Snow, N. P., J. A. Foster, E. H. VanNatta, K. E. Horak, S. T. Humphrys, L. D. Staples, D. G. Hewitt, and K. C. VerCauteren. 2018. Potential secondary poisoning risks to non-targets from a sodium nitrite toxic bait for invasive wild pigs. Pest Management Science 74:181–188.

Snow, N.P., Z. Zhang, A.O. Finley, B.A. Rudolph, W.F. Porter, D.M. Williams, and S.R. Winterstein. 2018. Regional-based mitigation to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. Journal of Wildlife Management 82(4)-756-765. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.21420

Lavelle, M. J., N. P. Snow, J. W. Fischer, J. M. Halseth, E. H. VanNatta, and K. C. VerCauteren. 2017. Attractants for wild pigs: current use, availability, needs, and future potential. European Journal of Wildlife Research 63:86.

Snow, N.P., J.A. Foster, J.C. Kinsey, S.T.Humphrys, L.D. Staples, D.G. Hewitt, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2017. Development of toxic bait to control invasive wild pigs and reduce damage. Wildlife Society Bulletin 41(2):256-263.  doi: 10.1002/wsb.775

Snow, N.P., M.A. Jarzyna, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2017. Interpreting and predicting the spread of invasive wild pigs. Journal of Applied Ecology.  doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12866
Snow, N.P., M.J. Lavelle, J.M. Halseth, C.R. Blass, J.A. Foster, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2017. Strength testing of raccoons and invasive wild pigs for a species-specific bait station. Wildlife Society Bulletin 41(2):264-270.  doi: 10.1002/wsb.756  

Snow, N.P., J.M. Halseth, M.J. Lavelle, T.E. Hanson, C.R. Blass, J.A. Foster, S.T. Humphrys, L.D. Staples, D.G. Hewitt, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2016. Bait preference of a free-ranging feral swine for delivery of a novel toxicant. PLoS One 11(1):e0146712.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146712

Witmer, G.W., N.P. Snow, and R.S. Moulton. 2016. Retention time of chlorophacinone in black‐tailed prairie dogs informs secondary hazards from a prairie dog rodenticide bait. Pest Management Science 72(4):725-730.  doi:  10.1002/ps.4045   

Blass, C.R., N.P. Snow, J.C. Kinsey, J.A. Foster, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2016. Evaluation of potential food items as challenge diets to 2-choice tests with feral swine. Proceedings of the 27th Vertebrate Pest Conference 27:174-177

Witmer, G.W., N.P. Snow, and R.S. Moulton. 2015. Efficacy of potential chemical control compounds for removing invasive American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). SpringerPlus 4(1):497.  doi: 10.1186/s40064-015-1319-6

Snow, N. P., W. F. Porter, and D. M. Williams. 2015. Underreporting of wildlife-vehicle collisions does not hinder predictive models for large ungulates. Biological Conservation 181:44–53

Witmer, G.W., N.P. Snow, and R.S. Moulton. 2014. Responses by wild house mice (Mus musculus) to various stimuli in a novel environment. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 159:99-106.  doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2014.07.007

Snow, N. P., D. M. Williams, and W. F. Porter. 2014. A landscape-based approach for delineating hotspots of wildlife-vehicle collisions. Landscape Ecology 29:817–829

Snow, N. P., and W. F. Andelt. 2013. Capture success higher near roads for San Clemente Island foxes. Wildlife Society Bulletin 37:623–630

Witmer, Gary W., N.P. Snow, and R.S. Moulton. 2013. The effects of vitamin K1-rich plant foods on the efficacy of the anticoagulant rodenticides chlorophacinone and diphacinone, used against Montane voles (Microtus montanus). International Journal of Pest Management 59(3):205-210. doi: 10.1080/09670874.2013.816453

Witmer, G.W., N.P. Snow, R.S. Moulton, and J.L. Swartz. 2012. An assessment of seedling damage by wild house mice (Mus musculus) and wild deer mice (Peromyscus spp.). Canadian Journal of Forest Research 42:1168-1172. doi: 10.1139/x2012-065

Snow, N. P., W. F. Andelt, T. R. Stanley, J. R. Resnik., and L. Munson. 2012. Effects of roads on survival of San Clemente Island foxes. Journal of Wildlife Management 76:243–252

Witmer, G.W., R.S. Moulton, N. Snow, and J. Swartz. 2012. Vole damage seedlings, but do deer mice and house mice? Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 25: 206-207

Snow, N. P., W. F. Andelt, and N. P. Gould. 2011. Characteristics of road-kill locations of San Clemente Island foxes. Wildlife Society Bulletin 35:32–39

Snow, N. P., and G. W. Witmer. 2011. A field evaluation of a trap for invasive American bullfrogs. Pacific Conservation Biology 17:285–291

Witmer, G. W., N. P. Snow, and P. W. Burke. 2010. Evaluating commercially available rodenticide baits for efficacy with Gambian giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus). Crop Protection 29:1011–1014

Witmer, G. W., N. P. Snow, and P. W. Burke. 2010. Potential attractants for detecting and removing invading Gambian giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus). Pest Management Science 66:412–416

Witmer, G. W., N. P. Snow, and R. Piergross. 2010. Identifying effective attractants and rodenticide baits for Gambian giant pouched rats  in R. M. Timm and K. A. Fagerstone (eds.), Proceedings of the 24th Vertebrate Pest Conference 24:218–221

Witmer, G. W., N. P. Snow, L. Humberg, and T. Salmon. 2009. Vole problems, management options, and research needs in the United States in J. R. Boulanger (ed.), Wildlife Damage Management Conference 13:235–249.