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Shelagh T. Deliberto

Shelagh T. Deliberto is a Wildlife Biologist with the USDA APHIS Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO.  Her areas of expertise includes avian conservation and ecology, and wildlife damage management.   Her primary focus has been on evaluating the efficacy of repellents and other non-lethal methods to reduce bird damage to agricultural crops.  She has also conducted research related to avian use of utility structures and avian perch deterrents.  Currently her research focuses on repellent application strategies and novel applications of current technology to existing human-wildlife conflicts.

Current Research

  • Identifying dairy total mixed ration formulations resistant to European starling depredation

  • Evaluating bird-repellent surface applications

Research Project: Development of Repellent Applications for the Protection of Plant and Animal Agriculture 


  • M.S., Colorado State University, Wildlife Management
  • B.A., Ithaca College, Biology, Environmental studies 

Contact Information

  • Address: USDA Wildlife Services, NWRC, 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, CO, 80526
  • Telephone: 970-266-6121
  • Fax: 970-266-6157
  • E-mail:


Carlson, J.C., R.S. Stahl, S.T. Deliberto, J.J. Wagner, T.E. Engle, R.M. Engeman, C.S. Olson, J.W. Ellis, and S.J. Werner. 2017. Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by European starlings: Projected effects on dairy cow performance and potential intervention strategies to mitigate damage. Journal of Dairy Science 101:1777-1784. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-12858

Werner, S.J., S.T. DeLiberto, R.A. Baldwin, and G.W Witmer. 2016. Repellent application strategy for wild rodents and cottontail rabbits. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 185:95-102.  

DeLiberto, S.T. and S.J. Werner. 2016. Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection. Pest Management Science 72:1813-1825.  

Werner, S.J., S.T. DeLiberto, A.M. Mangan, S.E. Pettit, J.W. Ellis, and J.C. Carlson. 2015.  Anthraquinone-based repellent for horned larks, great-tailed grackles, American crows and the protection of California's specialty crops. Crop Protection 72:158-162.  doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2015.03.020

Werner, S.J., S.T. DeLiberto, S.E. Pettit, and A.M. Mangan. 2014. Synergistic effect of an ultraviolet feeding cue for an avian repellent and protection of agricultural crops. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 159:107-113.  doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2014.06.012.

Tupper, S.K., S.J. Werner, J.C. Carlson, S.E. Petit, J.C. Wise, C.A. Lindell, and G.M. Linz. 2014. European starling feeding activity on repellent treated crops and pellets. Crop Protection 63:76-82. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2014.05.001.

Werner, S.J., R. Buchholz, S.K. Tupper, S.E. Pettit, and J.W. Ellis. 2014. Functional significance of ultraviolet feeding cues in wild turkeys.Physiology and Behavior 123: 162-167. doi 10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.10.010.

Werner, S.J., S.K. Tupper, S.E. Pettit, J.W. Ellis, J.C. Carlson, D.A. Goldade, N.M. Hofmann, H.J. Homan, and G.M. Linz. 2014. Application strategies for an anthraquinone-based repellent to protect oilseed sunflower crops from pest blackbirds. Crop Protection 59: 63-70.

Carlson, J. C., S. K. Tupper, S. J. Werner, S. E. Pettit, M. M. Santer, and G. M. Linz. 2013. Laboratory efficacy of an anthraquinone-based repellent for reducing bird damage to ripening corn. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 145:26-31.

 Werner, S.J., S.K., Tupper, J.C. Carlson, S.E. Pettit, J.W. Ellis, and G.M. Linz. 2012. The role of a generalized ultraviolet cue for blackbird food selection. Physiology & Behavior 106:597-601.

Werner, S.J., S.K., Tupper, S.E. Pettit, J.C. Carlson, and G.M. Linz. 2011. Anthraquinone repellent to reduce take of non-target birds from zinc phosphide rodenticide applications. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 135:146-153.

Tupper, S.K., J.L. Cummings, W.F. Andelt, S.J. Werner, and R.E. Harness. 2011. Evaluation of Sonic Dissuader® to reduce damage by pileated woodpeckers. Wildlife Society Bulletin 35: 40-44.

Werner, S.J., G.M. Linz, J.C. Carlson, S.E. Pettit, S.K. Tupper, M.M. Santer. 2011. Anthraquinone-based bird repellent for sunflower crops. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 129: 162-169.

Tupper, S.K., W.F. Andelt, J.L. Cummings, C. Weisner, R.E. Harness.  2010.  Polyurea elastomer protects utility pole crossarms from damage by pileated woodpeckers.  Journal of Wildlife Management 74: 605-608.

Werner, S.J., G.M. Linz, S.K. Tupper, and J.C. Carlson. 2010. Laboratory efficacy of chemical repellents for reducing blackbird damage in rice and sunflower crops. Journal of Wildlife Management 74: 1400-1404.

Werner, S.J., J.C. Carlson, S.K. Tupper, M.M. Santer, and G.M. Linz. 2009. Threshold concentrations of an anthraquinone-based repellent for Canada geese, red-winged blackbirds, and ring-necked pheasants. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 121: 190-196.

Tupper, S.K., J.L. Cummings, and R.M. Engeman.  2009.  Longevity of Dayglo Fluorescent Particle Marker Used to Mark Birds in Flight Pen and Field.  Wildlife Research 319-323.

Cummings, J.L., L.W. Handley, B. MacBryde, S.K. Tupper, S.J. Werner, and Z.J. Byram. 2008. Dispersal of viable row-crop seeds of commercial agriculture by farmland birds: implication for genetically modified crops. Environmental Biosafety Research 7: 241-252.

Werner, S.J., J.L. Cummings, P.A. Pipas, S.K. Tupper, and R.W. Byrd. 2008. Registered pesticides and citrus terpenes as blackbird repellents for rice. Journal of Wildlife Management 72: 1863-1868.

Werner, S.J., J.L. Cummings, S.K. Tupper, D.A. Goldade, D. Beighley. 2008. Blackbird repellency of selected registered pesticides. Journal of Wildlife Management 72: 1007-1011.

Werner, S.J., B.A. Kimball, and F.D. Provenza. 2008. Food color, flavor, and conditioned avoidance among red-winged blackbirds. Physiology & Behavior 93: 110-117.

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