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Dr. Scott J. Werner

Dr. Scott J. Werner is a Research Wildlife Biologist at the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) in Fort Collins, Colorado. He earned a Ph.D. in Range Science (Animal Behavior) at Utah State University where he studied the behavior and thermal ecology of pocket gophers associated with impacts to forest production in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. After a postdoctoral appointment with USDA’s Agricultural Research Service, Dr. Werner served as the Project Leader at NWRC’s Field Station in Starkville, Mississippi, where he researched bird-aquaculture conflicts. He has been at the Fort Collins headquarters of NWRC since 2002.

Dr. Werner’s research interests include the physiological bases of food and habitat selection, and the development of non-lethal repellents for wildlife damage management.

NWRC Research Project: Development of Repellent Applications for the Protection of Plant and Animal Agriculture

Current Research

  • Sensory cues for wildlife repellents
  • Anthraquinone-based repellents for crop protection
  • Caffeine and registered pesticides as avian repellents
  • Developing technologies for wildlife hazing devices


  • Ph.D., Utah State University, Range Science (Animal Behavior), “Behavioral analysis of pocket gopher spatial preference: effects of thermal and light environments”
  • M.S., Utah State University, Range Science, “Elk herbivory within rested units of rest-rotation grazing systems in southcentral Utah”
  • B.S., Penn State University, Wildlife and Fisheries Science, minor- Forestry Science


  • Address: APHIS Wildlife Services, NWRC 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521
  • Telephone: 970.266.6136
  • Fax: 970.266.6138
  • Email:



Fernandez-Juricic, E.; P.E. Baumhardt, L.P. Tyrrell, A. Elmore, S.T. DeLiberto, and S.J. Werner. 2019. Vision in an abundant North American bird: The red-winged blackbird. The Auk 136(3):ukz039. doi: 10.1093/auk/ukz039

Werner, S.J., M. Gottlob, C.D. Dieter, and J.D. Stafford. 2019. Application strategy for an anthraquinone-based repellent and the protection of soybeans from Canada goose depredation. Human-Wildlife Interactions 13(2):308-316.


Baldwin, R.A., R. Meinerz, G.W. Witmer, and S.J. Werner. 2018. The elusive search for an effective repellent against voles: an assessment of anthraquinone for citrus crops. Journal of Pest Science 91:1107-1113. doi: 10.1007/s10340-018-0979-8

Carlson, J.C., R.S. Stahl, S.T. DeLiberto, J.J. Wagner, T.E. Engle, R.M. Engeman, C.S. Olson, J.W. Ellis, and S.J. Werner. 2018. Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by European Starlings: Projected effects on dairy cow performance and potential intervention strategies to mitigate damage. Journal of Dairy Science 101(2):1777-1784. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-12858

Carlson, J.C., R.S. Stahl, J.J. Wagner, T.E. Engle, S.T. DeLiberto, D.A. Reid, and S.J. Werner. 2018.Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by red-winged blackbirds and projected impacts on dairy cow performance. Journal of Dairy Research 85(3): 273-276. doi: 10.1017/S0022029918000481

DeLiberto, S.T., H.E. McLean, and S.J. Werner. 2018. Efficacy of repellent-treated structural barriers for Richardson's ground squirrels (Urocitellus richardsonni (Sabine)) and house mice (Mus musculus L.). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 204:122-127. doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2018.04.010

Mangan, A.M., A.J. Piaggio, M.W. Hopken, S.J. Werner, and L. Pejchar. 2018. A molecular analysis to assess codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) predation by orchard birds.Ecological Indicators. 93:1222-1225. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.06.025

O'Daniels, S.T., D.C. Kesler, J.D. Mihail, E.B. Webb, and S.J. Werner. 2018. Visual cues for woodpeckers: light reflectance of decayed wood varies by decay fungus. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 130(1):200-212. doi: 10.1676/16-171.1


Avery, M.L. and S.J. Werner. 2017. Frightening devices. In: G.M. Linz, M.L. Avery, and R.A. Dolbeer, editors. Ecology and management of blackbirds (Icteridae) in North America. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Pgs. 159-174.

Carlson, J.C., R.S. Stahl, S.T. Deliberto, J.J. Wagner, T.E. Engle, R.M. Engeman, C.S. Olson, J.W. Ellis, and S.J. Werner. 2017. Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by European starlings: Projected effects on dairy cow performance and potential intervention strategies to mitigate damage. Journal of Dairy Science 101:1777-1784. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-12858

Mangan, A.M., L. Pejchar, and S.J. Werner. 2017. Bird use of organic apple orchards: Frugivory, pest control and implications for production. PLoS ONE 12(9):e0183405. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0183405

O'Daniels, S.T., D.C. Kesler, J.D. Mihail, E.B. Webb, and S.J. Werner. 2017. Functional visual sensitivity to ultraviolet wavelengths in the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), and its influence on foraging substrate selection. Physiology & Behavior 174:144-154.  doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.02.041  

Werner, S.J. and M.L. Avery. 2017. Chemical Repellents. In: G.M. Linz, M.L. Avery, and R.A. Dolbeer, editors. Ecology and management of blackbirds (Icteridae) in North America. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Pgs. 135-158.


DeLiberto, S.T. and S.J. Werner. 2016. Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection. Pest Management Science 72:1813-1825.  doi:10.1002/ps.4330   

Schillinger, W.F. and S.J. Werner. 2016. Horned lark damage to pre-emerged canola seedlings. Industrial Crops and Products 89:465-467.  doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.05.045         

Werner,S.J., K.A. Hobson, S.L. Van Wilgenburg and J.W. Fischer. Multi-isotpic (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N) tracing of molt origin for Red-winged blackbirds associated with agro-ecosystems. 2016. Plos One 11(11).  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165996

Werner, S.J., S.T. DeLiberto, R.A. Baldwin, and G.W Witmer. 2016. Repellent application strategy for wild rodents and cottontail rabbits. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 185:95-102.  doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2016.10.008


Werner, S.J., S.T. DeLiberto, A.M. Mangan, S.E. Pettit, J.W. Ellis, and J.C. Carlson. 2015.  Anthraquinone-based repellent for horned larks, great-tailed grackles, American crows and the protection of California's specialty crops. Crop Protection 72:158-162.  doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2015.03.020


Werner, S.J., S.T. DeLiberto, S.E. Pettit, and A.M. Mangan. 2014. Synergistic effect of an ultraviolet feeding cue for an avian repellent and protection of agricultural crops. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 159:107-113.  doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2014.06.012.

Linz, G., S. Werner, M. Niner, and J. Homan. 2014. Effectiveness of foliar applications of 9, 10-anthraquinone for reducing blackbird damage to sunflowers. Proceedings of the 26th Vertebrate Pest Conference 26:335-337.  

Werner, S.J., S.A. Shwiff, J.L. Elser, K.N. Kirkpatrick, S.E. Pettit, J.Suckow, R.C. Willging, J.A. Tharman, and J. Heil. 2014. Perceived impacts of wild turkeys and management techniques for Wisconsin ginseng production. Crop Protection 65:221-226.  doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2014.08.004.

Tupper, S.K., S.J. Werner, J.C. Carlson, S.E. Petit, J.C. Wise, C.A. Lindell, and G.M. Linz. 2014. European starling feeding activity on repellent treated crops and pellets. Crop Protection 63:76-82. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2014.05.001.

Werner, S.J., R. Buchholz, S.K. Tupper, S.E. Pettit, and J.W. Ellis. 2014. Functional significance of ultraviolet feeding cues in wild turkeys.Physiology and Behavior 123: 162-167. doi 10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.10.010.

Werner, S.J., S.K. Tupper, S.E. Pettit, J.W. Ellis, J.C. Carlson, D.A. Goldade, N.M. Hofmann, H.J. Homan, and G.M. Linz. 2014. Application strategies for an anthraquinone-based repellent to protect oilseed sunflower crops from pest blackbirds. Crop Protection 59: 63-70.


Carlson, J. C., S. K. Tupper, S. J. Werner, S. E. Pettit, M. M. Santer, and G. M. Linz. 2013. Laboratory efficacy of an anthraquinone-based repellent for reducing bird damage to ripening corn. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 145:26-31.

Werner, S.J., S.K., Tupper, J.C. Carlson, S.E. Pettit, J.W. Ellis, and G.M. Linz. 2012. The role of a generalized ultraviolet cue for blackbird food selection. Physiology & Behavior 106:597-601.

Linz, G.M., H.J. Homan, S.J. Werner, H.M. Hagy, and W.J. Bleier. 2011. Assessment of bird-management strategies to protect sunflower. BioScience 61:960-970.

Werner, S.J., S.K., Tupper, S.E. Pettit, J.C. Carlson, and G.M. Linz. 2011. Anthraquinone repellent to reduce take of non-target birds from zinc phosphide rodenticide applications. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 135:146-153.

Eisemann, J., S.J. Werner, and J. O’Hare. 2011. Registration considerations for chemical repellents in fruit crops. Outlooks in Pest Management 22: 87-91.

Tupper, S.K., J.L. Cummings, W.F. Andelt, S.J. Werner, and R.E. Harness. 2011. Evaluation of Sonic Dissuader® to reduce damage by pileated woodpeckers. Wildlife Society Bulletin 35: 40-44.

Werner, S.J., G.M. Linz, J.C. Carlson, S.E. Pettit, S.K. Tupper, M.M. Santer. 2011. Anthraquinone-based bird repellent for sunflower crops. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 129: 162-169.

Werner, S.J. and F.D. Provenza. 2011. Reconciling sensory cues and varied consequences of avian repellents. Physiology & Behavior 102: 158-163.

Werner, S.J., G.M. Linz, S.K. Tupper, and J.C. Carlson. 2010. Laboratory efficacy of chemical repellents for reducing blackbird damage in rice and sunflower crops. Journal of Wildlife Management 74: 1400-1404.

Werner, S.J., J.C. Carlson, S.K. Tupper, M.M. Santer, and G.M. Linz. 2009. Threshold concentrations of an anthraquinone-based repellent for Canada geese, red-winged blackbirds, and ring-necked pheasants. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 121: 190-196.

Stahl, R.S., S.J. Werner, J.L. Cummings, and J.J. Johnson. 2008. Computer simulations of baiting efficacy for raven management using DRC-1339 egg-baits. Vertebrate Pest Conference 23: 94-97.

Cummings, J.L., L.W. Handley, B. MacBryde, S.K. Tupper, S.J. Werner, and Z.J. Byram. 2008. Dispersal of viable row-crop seeds of commercial agriculture by farmland birds: implication for genetically modified crops. Environmental Biosafety Research 7: 241-252.

Werner, S.J., J.L. Cummings, P.A. Pipas, S.K. Tupper, and R.W. Byrd. 2008. Registered pesticides and citrus terpenes as blackbird repellents for rice. Journal of Wildlife Management 72: 1863-1868.

Werner, S.J., J.L. Cummings, S.K. Tupper, D.A. Goldade, D. Beighley. 2008. Blackbird repellency of selected registered pesticides. Journal of Wildlife Management 72: 1007-1011.

Werner, S.J., B.A. Kimball, and F.D. Provenza. 2008. Food color, flavor, and conditioned avoidance among red-winged blackbirds. Physiology & Behavior 93: 110-117.

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