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Predator Project Publications



Click here for 2019 Predator research publications


Alexander, P.D., and E.M. Gese. 2018. Identifying individual cougars (Puma concolor) in remote camera images - implications for population estimates. Wildlife Research 45(3):274-281. doi: 10.1071/WR17044

Amirkhiz, R.G., J.K. Frey, J.W. Cain III, S.W. Breck, and D.L. Bergman. 2018. Predicting spatial factors associated with cattle depredations by the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) with recommendations for depredation risk modeling. Biological Conservation 224:327-335. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2018.06.013

Byerly, P.A., R.C. Lonsinger, E.M. Gese. A.J. Kozlowski, and L.P. Waits. 2018. Resource partitioning between kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) and coyotes (Canis latrans): a comparison of historical and contemporary dietary overlap. Canadian Journal of Zoology 96:497-504. doi: 10.1139/cjz-2017-0246

DeMatteo, K.E., L.W. Blake, J.K. Young, and B. Davenport. 2018. How behavior of nontarget species affects perceived accuracy of scat detection dog surveys. Scientific Reports 8:13830. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-32244-1

Gese, E.M., P.A. Terletzky, S.M.C. Cavalcanti, and C.M.U. Neale. 2018. Influence of behavioral state, sex, and season on resource selection by jaguars (Panthera onca): Always on the prowl? Ecosphere 9(7):e02341. doi: 10.1002/ecs2.2341

Gese, E.M., W.T. Waddell, P.A. Terletzky, C.F. Lucash, S.R. McLellan, and S.K. Behrns. 2018. Cross-fostering as a conservation tool to augment endangered carnivore populations. Journal of Mammalogy 99(5):1033-1041. doi: 10.1093/jmammal/gyy087

Johnson, H.E., D.L. Lewis, S.A. Lischka, and S.W. Breck. 2018. Assessing ecological and social outcomes of a bear-proofing experiment. Journal of Wildlife Management 82(6):1102-1114. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.21472

Kinka, D. and J.K. Young. 2018. A livestock guardian dog by any other name: similar response to wolves across livestock guardian dog breeds. Rangeland Ecology & Management 71(4):509-517. doi: 10.1016/j.rama.2018.03.004

Lackey, C.W., S.W. Breck, B.F. Wakeling, and B. White. 2018. Human–Black Bear Conflicts: A review of common management practices. Human–Wildlife Interactions Monograph 2:1-68.

Laufenberg, J.S., H.E. Johnson, P.F. Doherty Jr., and S.W. Breck. 2018. Compounding effects of human development and a natural food shortage on a black bear population along a human development-wildland interface. Biological Conservation 224:188-198. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2018.05.004

Lillie, K.M., E.M. Gese, T.C. Atwood, and S.A. Sonsthagen. 2018. Development of on-shore behavior among polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea: inherited or learned? Ecology and Evolution 8(16):7790-7799. doi: 10.1002/ece3.4233

Lischka, S.A., T.L. Teel, H.E. Johnson, S.E. Reed, S. Breck, A. Don Carlos, and K.R. Crooks. 2018. A conceptual model for the integration of social and ecological information to understand human-wildlife interactions. Biological Conservation 225:80-87. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2018.06.020

Mahoney, P.J., J.K. Young, K.R. Hersey, R.T. Larsen, B.R. McMillan, and D.C. Stoner. 2018. Spatial processes decouple management from objectives in a heterogeneous landscape: predator control as a case study. Ecological Applications 28(3):786-797. doi: 10.1002/eap.1686

Much, R.M., S.W. Breck, N.J. Lance, and P. Callahan. 2018. An ounce of prevention: Quantifying the effects of non-lethal tools on wolf behavior. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 203:73-80. doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2018.02.012

Myers, P.J. and J.K. Young. 2018. Consistent individual behavior: evidence of personality in black bears. Journal of Ethology 36(2):117-124. doi: 10.1007/s10164-018-0541-4

Schell, C.J., J.K. Young, E.V. Lonsdorf, J.M. Mateo, and R.M. Santymire. 2018. It takes two: Evidence for reduced sexual conflict over parental care in a biparental canid. Journal of Mammalogy 99(1):75-88 doi: 10.1093/jmammal/gyx150 

Schultz, J.T., and J.K. Young. 2018. Behavioral and spatial responses of captive coyotes to human activity. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 205:83-88. doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2018.05.021 

Young, J.K., D.L. Bergman, and M. Ono. 2018. Bad dog: feral and free-roaming dogs as agents of conflict. Animal Conservation 21(4):285-286. doi: 10.1111/acv.12438

Young, J.K., M.J. MacGregor, E.N. Gese, and D.C. Eckery. 2018. Experimental tests of nonsurgical reproductive inhibitors to prevent coyote reproduction. Human-Wildlife Interactions 12(2):171-185.


Bohling, J.H., L.L. Mastro, J.R. Adams, E.M. Gese, S.F. Owen, and L.P. Waits. 2017. Panmixia and limited interspecific introgression in coyotes (Canis lantrans) from West Virginia and Virginia, USA. Journal of Heredity 108(6):608-617. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esx068

Bonnell, M.A. and S.W. Breck. 2017. Using resident-based hazing programs to reduce human-coyote conflicts in urban environments. Human-Wildlife Interactions 11(2):146-155. doi:

Breck, S.W., S.A. Poessel, and M.A. Bonnell. 2017. Evaluating lethal and nonlethal management options for urban coyotes. Human-Wildlife Interactions 11(2):133-145. doi:

Dietsch, A.M., K.M. Slagle, S. Baruch-Mordo, S.W. Breck, and L.M. Ciarniello. 2017. Education is not a panacea for reducing human-black bear conflicts. Ecological Modeling 367:10-12. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2017.11.005

Gifford, S.J., E.M. Gese, and R.R. Parmenter. 2017. Space use and social ecology of coyotes (Canis latrans) in a high-elevation ecosystem: Relative stability in a changing environment. Journal of Ethology 35(1):37-49. doi: 10.1007/s10164-016-0488-2

Johnson, H.E., D.L. Lewis, T.L. Verzuh, C.F. Wallace, R.M. Much, L.K. Willmarth, and S.W. Breck. 2017. Human development and climate affect hibernation in a large carnivore with implications for human-carnivore conflicts. Journal of Applied Ecology doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13021

Kluever, B.M. and E.M. Gese. 2017. Evaluating the influence of water developments on the demography and spatial ecology of a rare, desert-adapted carnivore: The kit fox (Vulpes macrotis). Journal of Mammalogy 98(3):815-826. doi: 10.1093/jmammal/gyx038

Kluever, B.M., E.M. Gese, and S.J. Dempsey. 2017. Influence of free water availability on a desert carnivore and herbivore. Current Zoology 63(2):121-129. doi: 10.1093/cz/zow071

Lonsinger, R.C., E.M. Gese, L.L. Bailey, and L. P. Waits. 2017. The roles of habitat and intraguild predation by coyotes on the spatial dynamics of kit foxes. Ecosphere 8(3): e01749. doi: 10.1002/ecs2.1749

Mahoney, P.J. and J.K. Young. 2017. Uncovering behavioural states from animal activity and site fidelity patterns. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 8:174-183.  doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.12658

Mech, L.D., C.S. Asa, M. Callahan, B.W. Christensen, F. Smith, and J.K. Young. 2017. Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination. PLoS ONE 12(9):e0184342. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184342

Neuman-Lee, L.A., P.A. Terletzky, T.C. Atwood, E.M. Gese, G.D. Smith, S. Greenfield, J. Pettit, and S.S. French. 2017. Demographic and temporal variations in immunity and condition of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the southern Beaufort Sea. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological and Integrative Physiology, 327(5): 333-346. doi: 10.1002/jez.2112

Orning, E., and J. Young. 2017. Coyote removal: Can the short-term application of a controversial management tool improve female greater sage-grouse survival or nest success? Wildlife Biology:wlb.00345. doi: 10.2981/wlb.00.45

Poessel, S.A., E.C. Mock, and S.W. Breck. (2017). Coyote (Canis latrans) diet in an urban environment: variation relative to pet conflicts, housing density, and season. Canadian Journal of Zoology 95(4):287-297. doi: 10.1139/cjz-2016-0029

Poessel, S.A., E.M. Gese, and J.K. Young. 2017. Environmental factors influencing the occurrence of coyotes and conflicts in urban areas. Landscape and Urban Planning 157:259-269. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.05.022

Ribeiro, S., J. Dornig, A. Guerra, J. Jeremic, J. Landry, D. Mettler, V. Palacios, U. Pfister, S. Ricci, R. Rigg, V. Salvatori, S. Sedefchev, E. Tsingarska, L. van Bommel, L. Vielmi, J. Young, and M. Zingaro. 2017. Livestock guarding dogs today: Possible solutions to perceived limitations. Carnivore Damage Prevention News Summer(15)36-53.

Schell, C., J.K. Young, E.V. Lonsdorf, J.M. Mateo, R.M. Santymire. 2017. Investigation of techniques to measure cortisol and testosterone concentrations in coyote hair. Zoo Biology 36:220-225. doi: 10.1002/zoo.21359

Smith, T.N., E.M. Gese, and B.M. Kleuver. 2017. Evaluating the impact of an exotic plant invasion on rodent community richness and abundance. Western North American Naturalist 77(4):515-525. doi: 10.3398/064.077.0411   

Stone, S.A., S.W. Breck. J. Timberlake, P.M. Haswell, F. Najera, B.S. Bean, and D.J. Thornhill. 2017. Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing wolf-sheep conflict in Idaho. Journal of Mammalolgy 98(1):33-44.  doi: 10.1093/jmammal/gyw188

Taylor, J.D., R.D. Holt, E.K. Orning, and J.K. Young. 2017. Greater sage-grouse nest survival in Northwestern Wyoming. The Journal of Wildlife Management. Online. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.21296


Blake, L.W. and E.M. Gese. 2016. Cougar predation rates and prey composition in the Pryor Mountains of Wyoming and Montana. Northwest Science 90(4):394-410.  doi: 10.3955/046.090.0402

Blake, L.W. and E.M. Gese. 2016. Resource selection by cougars: Influence of behavioral state and season. Journal of Wildlife Management 80(7):1205-1217. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.21123

Bonnell, M.A., and S. Breck. 2016. Using coyote hazing at the community level to change coyote behavior and reduce human-coyote conflict in urban environments. Proceedings of the 27th Vertebrate Pest Conference 27:97-102.

Breck, S.W., S. Poessel, and M.A. Bonnell. 2016. Evaluating lethal and non-lethal management options for urban coyotes. Proceedings of the 27th Vertebrate Pest Conference 27:103-111.

Gese, E.M., B.M. Roberts, and F.F. Knowlton. 2016. Nutritional effects on reproductive performance of captive adult female coyotes (Canis latrans). Animal Reproduction Science 165:69-75. doi: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2015.12.009

Kluever, B.M. and E.M. Gese. 2016. Spatial response of coyotes to removal of water availability at anthropogenic water sites. Journal of Arid Environments 130:68-75. doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2016.03.009

Lonsinger, R.C., E.M. Gese, R.N. Knight, T.R. Johnson, and L.P. Waits. 2016. Quantifying and correcting for scat removal in noninvasive carnivore scat surveys. Wildlife Biology 22:45-54. doi: 10.2981/wlb.00179

Piaggio, A.J., C.A. Cariappa, D.J. Straughan, M.A. Neubaum, M. Dwire, P.R. Krausman, W.B. Ballard, D.L. Bergman, and S.W. Breck. 2016. A noninvasive method to detect Mexican wolves and estimate abundance. Wildlife Society Bulletin 40(2):321-330. doi: 10.1002/wsb.659

Poessel, S.A., E.M. Gese, and J.K. Young. 2017. Environmental factors influencing the occurrence of coyotes and conflicts in urban areas. Landscape and Urban Planning 157:259-269. doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.05.022

Poessel, S.A., S.W. Breck, and E.M. Gese. 2016. Spatial ecology of coyotes in the Denver metropolitan area: influence of the urban matrix.Journal of Mammaolgy 97(5):1414-1427.  doi: 10.1093/jmammal/gyw090  

Schell, C.J., J.K. Young, E.V. Lonsdorf, J.M. Mateo, and R.M. Santymire. 2016. Olfactory attractants and parity affect prenatal androgens and territoriality of coyote breeding pairs. Physiology & Behavior 165:43-54. doi: 10.1016/jphysbeh.2016.06.038

Wolfe, M.L., E.M. Gese, P. Terletzky, D.C. Stoner, and L.M. Aubry. 2016. Evaluation of harvest indices for monitoring cougar survival and abundance. Journal of Wildlife Management 80(1):27-36. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.985

Young, J.K. 2016. Modifying M-44s to reduce risk of activation by swift fox. Wildlife Society Bulletin 40(4):800-805.  doi: 10.1002/wsb.719


Gese, E.M., F.F. Knowlton, J.R. Adams, K. Beck, T.K. Fuller, D.L. Murray, T.D. Steury, M.K. Stoskopf, W.T. Waddell, L.P. Waits. 2015. Managing hybridization of a recovering endangered species: The red wolf Canis rufus as a case study. Current Zoology 61(1):191-205.  

Lonsinger, R.C., E.M. Gese, and L.P. Waits. 2015. Evaluating the reliability of field identification and morphometric classifications for carnivore scats confirmed with genetic analysis. Wildlife Society Bulletin 39(3):593-602.  doi: 10.1002/wsb.549  

Young, J.K., M. Mahe, and S. Breck. 2015. Evaluating behavioral syndromes in coyotes (Canis latrans). Journal of Ethology 33(2):137-144.  doi: 10.1007/s10164-015-0422-z  

Dempsey, S.J., E.M. Gese, B.M. Kluever, R.C. Lonsinger, and L.P. Waits. Evaluation of scat deposition transects versus radio telemetry for developing a species distribution model for a rare desert carnivore, the kit fox. PloS One 10(10): e0138995.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138995

Lewis, D.L., S. Baruch-Mordo, K.R. Wilson, S.W. Breck, J.S. Mao, and J. Broderick. 2015. Foraging ecology of black bears in urban environments: Guidance for human-bear conflict mitigation. Ecosphere 6:art141.

Young, J.K., E. Miller, and A. Essex. 2015. Evaluating fladry designs to improve utility as a nonlethal management tool to reduce livestock depredation. Wildlife Society Bulletin 39(2):429-433.  doi: 10.1002/wsb.531

Gese, E.M. and P.A. Terletzky. 2015. Using the "placeholder" concept to reduce genetic introgression of an endangered carnivore. Biological Conservation 192:11-19.  doi: 10.1016/jbiocon.2015.09.003

Lonsinger, R.C., E.M. Gese, S.J. Dempsey, B.M. Kluever, T.R. Johnson, and L.P. Waits. 2015. Balancing sample accumulation and DNA degradation rates to optimize noninvasive genetic sampling of sympatric carnivores. Molecular Ecology Resources 18:831-842. doi:10.1111/1756/0998.12356

Kluever, B.M., E.M. Gese,  and S.J. Dempsey. 2015. The influence of road characteristics and species on detection probabilities of carnivore faeces. Wildlife Research 42:75-82.  doi: 10.1071/WR14244

Johnson, H.E., S.W. Breck, S. Baruch-Mordo, D.L. Lewis, C.W. Lackey, K.R. Wilson, J. Broderick, J.S. Mao, and J.P. Beckmann. 2015. Shifting perceptions of risk and reward: Dynamic selection for human development by black bears in the western United States. Biological Conservation 187:164-172.  doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2015.04.014

Wolfe, M.I., D.N. Koons, D.C. Stoner, P. Terletzky, E.M. Gese, D.M. Choate, L.M. Aubry. 2015. Is anthropogenic cougar mortality compensated by changes in natural mortality in Utah? Insight from long-term studies. Biological Conservation 182:187-196. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2014.12.008.


Miller, E.A., J.K. Young, S. Stelting, and B.A. Kimball. 2014. Efficacy of Ropel® as a coyote (Canis latrans) repellent. Human-Wildlife Interactions 8(2):271-278.

Mahamane, S., K. Grunig, J. Baker, J.K. Young, K. Jordan. 2014.  Memory-based quantity discrimination in coyotes (Canis latrans). Animal Behavior and Cognition 1(3):341-351.  doi: 10.12966/abc.08.09.2014

Allen, B.L., L.R. Allen, R.M. Engeman, and L.K-P. Leung. 2014. Sympatric prey responses to lethal top-predator control: predator manipulation experiments. Frontiers in Zoology 11:56.  doi: 10.1186/s12983-014-0056-y.

Allen, B.L., G. Lundie-Jenkins, N.D. Burrows, R.M. Engeman, P.J.S. Fleming, and L.K.-P. Leung. 2014. Does lethal control of top-predators release mesopredators?  A re-evaluation of three Australian case studies. Ecological Management & Restoration 15(3):191-195.  doi: 10.1111/emr.12118.

Curtis, J.A., L.E. Flint, A.L. Flint, J.D. Lundquist, B. Hudgens, E.E. Boydston, and J.K. Young. 2014. Incorporating cold-air pooling into downscaled climate models increases potential refugia for snow-dependent species within the Sierra Nevada ecoregion, CA. PLoS One 9(9):e106984. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0106984.

Poessel, S.A., E.M. Gese, and J.K. Young. 2014. Influence of habitat structure and food on patch choice of captive coyotes . Applied Animal Behaviour Science 157:127-136. doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2014.05.001.

Seidler, R.G., E.M. Gese, and M.M. Conner. 2014. Using sterilization to change predation rates of wild coyotes: A test case involving pronghorn fawns. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 154:83-92. doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2014.02.006.

Gese, E.M., C.M. Thompson. 2014. Does habitat heterogeneity in a multi-use landscape influence survival rates and density of a native mesocarnivore? Plos ONE 9(6): e100500. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100500.

Baruch-Mordo, S., K.R. Wilson, D.L. Lewis, J. Broderick, J.S. Mao, S.W. Breck. 2014. Stochasticity in natural forage production affects use of urban areas by black bears: implications to management of human-bear conflicts. PLoS ONE 9(1): e85122. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085122.

Dowd, J.L.B., E.M.Gese, and L.M. Aubry. 2014. Winter space use of coyotes in high-elevation environments: behavioral adaptations to deep-snow landscapes. Japan Ethological Society 32: 29-41. doi: 10.1007/s10164-013-0390-0.


Buuveibaatar, B., J. K. Young, J. Berger, A. E. Fine, B. Lkhagvasuren, P. Zahler, and T. K. Fuller. 2013. Factors affecting survival and cause-specific mortality of saiga calves in Mongolia. Journal of Mammalogy 94:127-136.

Poessel, S.A., S.W. Breck, T.L. Teel, S. Shwiff, K.R. Crooks, and L. Angeloni. 2013. Patterns of human-coyote conflicts in the Denver metropolitan area. Journal of Wildlife Management 77:297-305. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.454

Thompson C.M., Gese E.M. 2013. Influence of vegetation structure on the small mammal community in a shortgrass prairie ecosystem. Acta Theriologica 58:55-61. doi: 10.1007/s13364-012-0098-5


Atwood T.C. and S.W. Breck. 2012. Carnivores, Conflict, and Conservation: Defining the Landscape of Conflict. In eds Álvares FI, Guilherme EM. Carnivores: Species, Conservation, and Management. Nova Science Publishers. pp. 99-118.

Berg N.D., E.M. Gese, J.R. Squires., and L.M. Aubry. 2012. Influence of forest structure on the abundance of snowshoe hares in western Wyoming. Journal of Wildlife Management 76:1480-1488.

Dowd J.L.B. and Gese E.M. 2012. Seasonal variation of coyote diet in northwestern Wyoming: Implications for dietary overlap with Canada Lynx? Northwest Science 86:289-299.

Flatz, R., M. González-Suárez, J. K. Young, C. J. Hernández-Camacho, A.J. Immel, and L.R. Gerber. 2012. Weak polygyny in California sea lions and the potential for alternative mating tactics. PLoS ONE, 7(3).

Gese, E. M., H. S. Cooley, and F. F. Knowlton. 2012. Designing a monitoring plan. Pages 353-361 in L. Boitani and R. Powell, editors. Carnivore ecology and management: a handbook of techniques. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Gese E., P. Morey, and S. Gehrt. 2012. Influence of the urban matrix on space use of coyotes in the Chicago metropolitan area. Journal of Ethology 30:413-425

Kozlowski, A. J., E. M. Gese, and W. M. Arjo. 2012. Effects of intraguild predation: evaluating resource competition between two canid species with apparent niche separation. International Journal of Ecology, doi:10.1155/2012/629246.

Riley, S.P., Young, J.K. and S. Gehrt. 2012. Assessment of human-coyote conflicts: City and County of Broomfield, Colorado final report. Broomfield, CO.

Seidler R. and E. Gese. 2012. Territory fidelity, space use, and survival rates of wild coyotes following surgical sterilization. Journal of Ethology 30:345-354.

Thompson, C. M. and E. M. Gese. 2012. Swift Foxes and Ideal Free Distribution: Relative Influence of Vegetation and Rodent Prey Base on Swift Fox Survival, Density, and Home Range Size. ISRN Zoology 2012: 8.

Vercauteren, K.C., Dolbeer R.A., and E.M. Gese. 2012. Identification and management of wildlife damage in: N. J. Silvy (Ed.), The wildlife techniques manual, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD: 232-269.

Wilson R.R., Gilbert-Norton L., Gese E.M. 2012. Beyond use versus availability: behaviour-explicit resource selection. Wildlife Biology 18:424-430. DOI:

Young, J.K., Hudgens, B. and D.K. Garcelon. 2012. Estimates of energy and prey requirements of wolverines. Northwest Science 86(3): 221-229.


11-ATWOOD, T. C., J. K. YOUNG, J. P. BECKMANN, S. W. BRECK, J. FIKE, O. E. RHODES JR., AND K. D. BRISTOW. 2011. Modeling connectivity of black bears in a desert sky island archipelago. Biological Conservation 144:2851-2862.

11-AUSBAND, D. E., J. YOUNG, B. FANNIN, M. S. MITCHELL, J. L. STENGLEIN, L. P. WAITS, AND J. A. SHIVIK. 2011. Hair of the dog: obtaining samples from coyotes and wolves noninvasively. Wildlife Society Bulletin 35:105-111.

11-BARUCH-MORDO, S., S. W. BRECK, K. R. WILSON, AND J. BRODERICK. 2011. The carrot or the stick? Evaluation of education and enforcement as management tools for human-wildlife conflicts. PloS One (Online: www. plosone. org) 6:e15681, doi:10.1371/journal.pone0015681. 471K

11-BIGGINS, D. E., T. M. LIVIERI, AND S. W. BRECK. 2011. Interface between black-footed ferret research and operational conservation. Journal of Mammalogy 92:699-704

11-BRECK, S. W., B. M. KLUEVER, M. PANASCI, J. OAKLEAF, T. JOHNSON, W. BALLARD, L. HOWERY, AND D. L. BERGMAN. 2011. Domestic calf mortality and producer detection rates in the Mexican wolf recovery area: implications for livestock management and carnivore compensation schemes. Biological Conservation 144:930-936. 515K

11-CARIAPPA, C. A., J. K. OAKLEAF, W. B. BALLARD, AND S. W. BRECK. 2011. A reappraisal of the evidence for regulation of wolf populations. Journal of Wildlife Management 75:726-730. 166K

11-MASTRO, L. L. 2011. Life history and ecology of coyotes in the mid-Atlantic states: a summary of the scientific literature. Southeastern Naturalist 10:721-730.

11-PANASCI, M., W. B. BALLARD, S. BRECK, D. RODRIGUEZ, L. D. DENSMORE III, D. B. WEBSTER, AND R. J. BAKER. 2011. Evaluation of fecal DNA preservation techniques and effects of sample age and diet on genotyping success. Journal of Wildlife Management 75:1616-1624.

11-POESSEL, S. A., S. W. BRECK, D. E. BIGGINS, T. M. LIVIERI, K. R. CROOKS, AND L. ANGELONI. 2011. Landscape features influence postrelease predation on endangered black-footed ferrets. Journal of Mammalogy 92:732-741

11-WILSON, R. R., J. K. YOUNG, AND J. A. SHIVIK. 2011. Coyote capture vulnerability relative to space use and trap density. Journal of Wildlife Management 75:721-725. 81K

11-YOUNG, J. K., K. A. OLSON, R. P. READING, S. AMGALANBAATAR, AND J. BERGER. 2011. Is wildlife going to the dogs? Impacts of feral and free-roaming dogs on wildlife populations. BioScience 61:125-132.



10-ATWOOD, T. C., AND E. M. GESE. 2010. Importance of resource selection and social behavior to partitioning of hostile space by sympatric canids. Journal of Mammalogy 91:490-499 208K

10-BERGMAN, D. L., W. SPARKLIN, C. D. CARRILLO, J. A. SCHMIDT III, SCOTT BENDER, AND STEWART W. BRECK. 2010. Depredation investigation: using canine spread to identify the predator species. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 24:304-307. 816K

10-BRUMMER, S. P., E. M. GESE, AND J. A. SHIVIK. 2010. The effect of enclosure type on the behavior and heart rate of captive coyotes. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 125:171-180. 369K

10- CARLSON, D. A., AND E. M. GESE. 2010. Integrity of mating behaviors and seasonal reproduction in coyotes ( Canis latrans) following treatment with estradiol benzoate. Animal Reproduction Science 117:322-330.

10-CAVALCANTI, S. M., AND E. M. GESE. 2010. Kill rates and predation patterns of jaguars ( Panthera onca) in the southern Panatal, Brazil. Journal of Mammalogy 91:722-736. 271K

10-CAVALCANTI, S. M. C., S. MARCHINI, A. ZIMMERMAN, E. M. GESE, AND D. W. MACDONALD. 2010. Jaguars, livestock, and people in Brazil: realities and perceptions behind the conflict. Pages 383-402 in D. Macdonald and A. Loveridge, editors. The biology and conservation of wild felids. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom. 1,763K

10-LANCE, N. J., S. W. BRECK, C. SIME, P. CALLAHAN, AND J. A. SHIVIK. 2010. Biological, technical, and social aspects of applying electrified fladry for livestock protection from wolves ( Canis lupus). Wildlife Research 37:708-714. 345K

10-MUNOZ-IGUALADA, J., J. A. SHIVIK, F. G. DOMINGUEZ, L. M. GONZALEZ, A. A. MORENO, AND M. F. OLALLA. 2010. Traditional and new cable restraint systems to capture fox in central Spain. Journal of Wildlife Management 74:181-187. 1,327

10-WILSON, R. R., T. L. BLANKENSHIP, M. B. HOOTEN, AND J. A. SHIVIK. 2010. Prey-mediated avoidance of an intraguild predator by its intraguild prey. Oecologia 164:921-929. 410K

10-WILSON, R. R., M. B. HOOTEN, B. N. STROBEL, AND J. A. SHIVIK. 2010. Accounting for individuals, uncertainty, and multiscale clustering in core area estimation. Journal of Wildlife Management 74:1343-1352. 1,258K


09-ATWOOD, T. C., E. M. GESE, AND K. E. KUNKEL. 2009. Spatial partitioning of predation risk in a multiple predator-multiple prey system. Journal of Wildlife Management 73:876-884. 583K

09-BARUCH-MORDO, S., S. W. BRECK, K. R. WILSON, AND J. BRODERICK. 2009. A tool box half full: how social science can help solve human-wildlife conflict. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 14:219-223. 41K

09-BERGMAN, D. L., S. W. BRECK, AND S. C. BENDER. 2009. Dogs gone wild: feral dog damage in the United States. Proceedings of the Wildlife Damage Management Conference 13:177-183. 98K

09-BRECK, S. W., N. LANCE, AND V. SEHER. 2009. Selective foraging for anthropogenic resources by black bears: minivans in Yosemite National Park. Journal of Mammalogy 90:1041-1044. 159K

09-CARLSON, D. A., AND E. M. GESE. 2009. Influence of exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone on seasonal reproductive behavior of the coyote ( Canis latrans). Theriogenology 72:773-783. 356K

09-CAVALCANTI, S. M., AND E. M. GESE. 2009. Spatial ecology and social interactions of jaguars ( Panthera onca) in the southern Panatal, Brazil. Journal of Mammalogy 90:935-945. 634K

09-DARROW, P. A., R. T. SKIRPSTUNAS, S. W. CARLSON, AND J. A. SHIVIK. 2009. Comparison of injuries to coyote from 3 types of cable foot restraints. Journal of Wildlife Management 73:1441-1444. 319K

09-KLUEVER, B. M., L. D. HOWERY, S. W. BRECK, AND D. L. BERGMAN. 2009. Predator and heterospecific stimuli alter behaviour in cattle. Behavioural Processes 81:85-91. 258K

09-RANGLACK, D. H., K. D. SIGNOR, K. BUNNELL, AND J. SHIVIK. 2009. Black bear activity and visitation patterns at human food resources in Utah. Proceedings of the Wildlife Damage Management Conference 13:172-176. 64K

09-SHIVIK, J. A., G. L. PALMER, E. M. GESE, AND B. OSTHAUS. 2009. Captive coyotes compared to their counterparts in the wild: does environmental enrichment help? Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 12:223-225.


08-ATWOOD, T. C., AND E. M. GESE. 2008. Coyotes and recolonizing wolves: social rank mediates risk-conditional behaviour at ungulate carcasses. Animal Behaviour 75:753-762. 325K

08-BARTEL, R. A., F. F. KNOWLTON, AND L. C. STODDART. 2008. Long-term patterns in mammalian abundance in northern portions of the Great Basin. Journal of Mammalogy 89:1170-1183. 892K

08-BARUCH-MORDO, S., S. W. BRECK, K. R. WILSON, AND D. M. THEOBALD. 2008. Spatiotemporal distribution of black bear-human conflicts in Colorado, USA. Journal of Wildlife Management 72:1853-1862. 461K

08-BERGER, K. M., E. M. GESE, AND J. BERGER. 2008. Indirect effects and traditional trophic cascades: a test involving wolves, coyotes, and pronghorn. Ecology 89:818-828. 356K

08-BRECK, S. W., C. L. WILLIAMS, J. P. BECKMANN, S. M. MATTHEWS, C. W. LACKEY, AND J. J. BEECHAM. 2008. Using genetic relatedness to investigate the development of conflict behavior in black bears. Journal of Mammalogy 89:428-434. 221K

08-CARLSON, D. A., AND E. M. GESE. 2008. Reproductive biology of the coyote ( Canis latrans): integration of mating behavior, reproductive hormones and vaginal cytology. Journal of Mammalogy 89:654-664. 1,248K

08-DARROW, P. A., AND J. A. SHIVIK. 2008. A pilot evaluation of trap monitors by the USDA Wildlife Services Operational Program. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 23:213-217. 310K

08-MUNOZ-IGUALADA, J., J. A. SHIVIK, F. G. DOMINGUEZ, J. LARA, AND L. M. GONZALEZ. 2008. Evaluation of cage-traps and cable restraint devices to capture red foxes in Spain. Journal of Wildlife Management 72:830-836. 1,482K

USDA APHIS NWRC. 2008. Evaluation of Remote Trap Monitors. APHIS Tech Note 11-55-010

08-YOUNG, J. K., GLASSCOCK, S. N., AND SHIVIK, J. A. 2008. Does spatial structure persist despite resource and population changes? Effects of experimental manipulations on coyotes. Journal of Mammalogy 89:1094-1104. 600K


07-ARJO, W. M., E. M. GESE, T. J. BENNETT, AND A. J. KOZLOWSKI. 2007. Changes in kit fox-coyote-prey relationships in the Great Basin Desert, Utah. Western North American Naturalist 67:389-401. 1, 028K

07-ATWOOD, T. C., E. M. GESE, AND K. E. KUNKEL. 2007. Comparative patterns of predation by cougarsand recolonizing wolves in Montana's Madison Range. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:1098-1106. 152K

07-BERGER, K. M., AND E. M. GESE. 2007. Does interference competition with wolves limit the distribution and abundance of coyotes? Journal of Animal Ecology 76:1075-1085. 254K

07-CARLSON, D. A., AND E. M. GESE. 2007. Relaxin as a diagnostic tool for pregnancy in the coyote (Canis latrans). Animal Reproduction Science 101:304-312. 201K

07- HEFFERNAN, D. J., W. F. ANDELT, AND J. A. SHIVIK. 2007. Coyote investigative behavior following removal of novel stimuli. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:587-593. 105K

07-JAEGER, M. M., E. HAQUE, P. SULTANA, AND R. L. BRUGGERS. 2007. Daytime cover, diet and space-use of golden jackals ( Canis aureus) in agro-ecosystems of Bangladesh. Mammalia 2007:1-10. 324K

07-KARKI, S. M., E. M. GESE, AND M. L. KLAVETTER. 2007. Effects of coyote population reduction on swift fox demographics in southeastern Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:2707-2718. 237K

07-LARRUCEA, E. S., P. F. BRUSSARD, M. M. JAEGER, AND R. H. BARRETT. 2007. Cameras, coyotes, and the assumption of equal detectability. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:1682-1689. 299K

07-LARRUCEA, E. S., G. SERRA, M. M. JAEGER, AND R. H. BARRETT. 2007. Censusing bobcats using remote cameras. Western North American Naturalist 67:538-548. 2,987K

07-METTLER, A. E., AND J. A. SHIVIK. 2007. Dominance and neophobia in coyote ( Canis latrans) breeding pairs. Applied Animal Behaviour 102:85-94. 263K

07-MOREY, P. S., E. M. GESE, AND S. GEHRT. 2007. Spatial and temporal variation in the diet of coyotes in the Chicago metropolitan area. American Midland Naturalist 158:147-161. 209K

07-SHIVIK, J. A., AND K. A. FAGERSTONE. 2007. A broad perspective on current and future research on urban coyotes. Proceedings of the Wildlife Damage Management Conference 12:418-420. 23K

07-THOMPSON, C. M., AND E. M. GESE. 2007. Food webs and intraguild predation: community interadtions of a native mesocarnivore. Ecology 88:334-346.


06-GESE, E. M. 2006. The mesocarnivores of Yellowstone National Park: observed and potential responses to wolf reintroduction. Pages 256-262 in D. R. McCullough, K. Kaji, and M. Yamanaka, editors. Wildlife in Shiretoko and Yellowstone National Parks: lessons in wildlife conservation from two World Heritage Sites (English version). Shiretoko Nature Foundation, Hokkaido, Japan. 468K

06-116 KITCHEN, A. M., E. M. GESE, AND S. G. LUPIS. 2006. Multiple scale den site selection by swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in southeastern Colorado. Canadian Field Naturalist 120:31-38. (PDF; 670KB)]

06-KITCHEN, A. M., E. M. GESE, L. P. WAITS, S. M. KARKI, AND E. R. SCHAUSTER. 2006. Multiple breeding strategies in the swift fox, Vulpes velox. Animal Behaviour 71:1029-1038. 297K

06-YOUNG, J. K., AND J. A. SHIVIK. 2006. What carnivore biologists can learn from bugs, birds, and beavers: a review of spatial theories. Canadian Journal of Zoology 84:1703-1711. 75K


05-BARTEL, R. A., AND F. F. KNOWLTON. 2005. Functional feeding responses of coyotes, Canis latrans, to fluctuating prey abundance in the Curlew Valley, Utah, 1977-1993. Canadian Journal of Zoology 83:569-578. 167K

05-CHAVEZ, A. S., AND E. M. GESE. 2005. Food habits of wolves in relation to livestock depredations in northwestern Minnesota. American Midland Naturalist 154-253. 205K

05-CHAVEZ, A. S., E. M. GESE, AND R. S. KRANNICH. 2005. Attitudes of rural landowners toward wolves in northwestern Minnesota. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:517-527. 265K

05-KITCHEN, A. M., E. M. GESE, L. P. WAITS, S. M. KARKI, AND E. R. SCHAUSTER. 2005. Genetic and spatial structure within a swift fox population. Journal of Animal Ecology 74:1173-1181. 123K


04-4 ARJO, W. M., AND D. H. PLETSCHER. 2004. Coyote and wolf habitat use in northwestern Montana. Northwest Science 78(1):24-32. 477K

04-14 BRECK, S. W., AND T. MEIER. 2004. Managing wolf depredation in the United States: past, present, and future. Sheep & Goat Research Journal 19:41-46. 413K

04-32 GESE, E. M. 2004. Coyote ( Canis latrans). Pages 81-87 in C. Sillero-Zubiri, M. Hoffman, and D.W. Macdonald, editors. Canids: foxes, wolves, jackals, and dogs. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, United Kingdom. 502K

04-33 GESE, E. M. 2004. Coyotes in Yellowstone National Park: the influence of dominance on foraging, territoriality, and fitness. Pages 271-283 in C. Sillero-Zubiri, M. Hoffman, and D.W. Macdonald, editors. Canids: foxes, wolves, jackals, and dogs. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom. 1,165K

04-34 GESE, E. M. 2004. Survey and census techniques for canids. Pages 273-279 in C. Sillero-Zubiri, M. Hoffman, and D.W. Macdonald, editors. Canids: foxes, wolves, jackals, and dogs. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, United Kingdom. 219K

04-35 GESE, E. M. 2004. Serologic survey for canine infectious diseases among sympatric swift foxes ( Vulpes velox) and coyotes ( Canis latrans) in southeastern Colorado. 607K

04-45 HOUBEN, J. M. AND J. R. MASON. 2004. Weight and age of coyotes captured in Virginia, USA. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 21:75-76. 143K

04-47 JAEGER, M. M. 2004. Selective targeting of alpha coyotes to stop sheep depredation. Sheep & Goat Research Journal 19:80-84. 395K

04-49 KAMLER, J. F., W. B. BALLARD, E. M. GESE, R. L. HARRISON, AND S. M. KARKI. 2004. Dispersal characteristics of swift foxes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82:1837-1842. 107K

04-50 KAMLER, J. F., W. B. BALLARD, E. M. GESE, R. L. HARRISON, S. KARKI, AND K. MOTE. 2004. Adult male emigration and a female-based social organization in swift foxes, Vulpes velox. Animal Behaviour 67:699-702. 280K

04-67 MITCHELL, B. R., M. M. JAEGER, AND R. H. BARRETT. 2004. Coyote depredation management: current methods and research needs. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32: 1209-1218. 1,088K

04-87 SHIVIK, J. A. 2004. Non-lethal alternatives for predation management. Sheep & Goat Research Journal 19:64-71. 579K

04-104 WILLIAMS, C. L., AND J. J. JOHNSTON. 2004. Using genetic analyses to identify predators. Sheep & Goat Research Journal 19:85-88. 261K


03-2 ANDERSEN, D. E., T. R. LAURION, J. R. CARY, R. S. SIKES, M. A. MCLEOD, AND E. M. GESE. 2003. Aspects of swift fox ecology in southeastern Colorado. Pages 139-147 in M.A. Sovada and L. Carbyn, editors. Ecology and conservation of swift foxes in a changing world. Part IV - Population ecology. Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. 569K

03-13 BEKOFF, M., AND E. M. GESE. 2003. Coyote ( Canis latrans). Pages 467-481 in G. A. Feldhamer, B. C. Thompson and A. J. Chapman editors. Wild mammals of North America: biology, management and conservation. Second edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 1,418K

03-43 GESE, E. M. 2003. Management of carnivore predation as a means to reduce livestock losses: the study of coyotes ( Canis latrans) in North America. Pages 85-102 in Workshop sobre Pesquisa e Conservacao de Carnivoros Neotropicais. Atibaia, Sao Paulo, Brasil. 699K

03-53 KOZLOWSKI, A. J., T. J. BENNETT, E. M. GESE, AND W. M. ARJO. 2003. Live capture of denning mammals using an improved box-trap enclosure: kit foxes as a test case. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31:630-633. 249K

03-78 PITT, W. C., P. W. BOX, AND F. F. KNOWLTON. 2003. An individual-based model of canid populations: modelling territoriality and social structure. Ecological Modelling 166:109-121. 680K

03-83 SEQUIN, E. S., M. M. JAEGER, P. F. BRUSSARD, AND R. H. BARRETT. 2003. Wariness of coyotes to camera traps relative to social status and territory boundaries. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:2015-2025. 904K

03- 84 SHIVIK, J. A., A. TREVES, AND P. CALLAHAN. 2003. Nonlethal techniques for managing predation: primary and secondary repellents. Conservation Biology 17(6):1531-1537. 450K

03-108 WILLIAMS, C. L., K. BLEJWAS, J. J. JOHNSTON, AND M. M. JAEGER. 2003. A coyote in sheep's clothing: predator identification from saliva. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31(4):926-932. 505K

03-109 WILLIAMS, C. L., K. BLEJWAS, J. J. JOHNSTON, AND M. M. JAEGER. Temporal genetic variation in a coyote ( Canis latrans) population experiencing high turnover. Journal of Mammalogy 84(1):177-184. 406K


02-2 ARJO, W. M., D. H. PLETSCHER, AND R. R. REAM. 2002. Dietary overlap between wolves and coyotes in northwestern Montana. Journal of Mammalogy 83(3):754-766. 567K

02-14 BLEJWAS, K. M., B. N. SACKS, M. M. JAEGER, AND D. R. MCCULLOUGH. 2002. The effectiveness of selective removal of breeding coyotes in reducing sheep predation. Journal of Wildlife Management 66(2):451-462.

02-15 BODENCHUK, M. J., J. R. MASON, AND W. C. PITT. 2002. Economics of predation management in relation to agriculture, wildlife,and human health and safety. Pages 80-90 in Larry Clark, Jim Hone, John A Shivik, Richard A. Watkins, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Jonathan K. Yoder, editors. Human conflicts with wildlife: economic considerations. Proceedings of the Third NWRC Special Symposium. National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. 211K

02-16 BRECK, S. W., R. WILLIAMSON, C. NIEMEYER, AND J. A. SHIVIK. 2002. Non-lethal radio activated guard for deterring wolf depredation in Idaho: summary and call for research. Proceedings: Vertebrate Pest Conference 20:223-226. 277K

02-20 CLARK, AND J. SHIVIK. 2002. Aerosolized essential oils and individual natural product comounds in brown treesnake repellents. Pest Management Science 58:775-783. 560K

02-25 DELIBERTO, T. J., A. SEGLUND, W. JOCHLE, AND B. A. KIMBALL. 2002. Assessment of cabergoline as a reproductive inhibitor in coyotes ( Canis latrans). Reproduction (Supplement) 60:53-64. 691K

02-71 MASON, J. R., W. C. PITT, AND M. J. BODENCHUK. 2002. Factors influencing the efficiency of fixed wing aerial hunting for coyotes in the western United States. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 49:189-197. 441K

02-89 SCHAUSTER, E. R., E. M. GESE, AND A. M. KITCHEN. 2002. An evaluation of survey methods for monitoring swift fox abundance. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(2):464-477. 967K

02-90 SCHAUSTER, E. R., E. M. GESE, AND A. M. KITCHEN. 2002. Population ecology of swift foxes ( Vulpes velox) in southeastern Colorado. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80:307-319. 975K

02-93 SHIVIK, J. A. 2002. Odor-adsorptive clothing, environmental factors, and search- dog ability. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:721-727. 467K

02-94 SHIVIK, J. A., V. ASHER, L. BRADLEY, K. KUNKEL, M. PHILLIPS, S. BRECK, AND E. BANGS. 2002. Electronic aversive conditioning for managing wolf predation. Proceedings: Vertebrate Pest Conference 20:227-231. 332K

02-95 SHIVIK, J. A., AND K. S. GRUVER. 2002. Animal attendance at coyote trap sites in Texas. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(2):502-507. 173K

02-102 SMITH, G. W., L. C. STODDART, AND F. F. KNOWLTON. 2002. Long-distance movements of black-tailed jackrabbits. Journal of Wildlife Management 66(2):463-469. 411K


01-2 BANGS, E., J. FONTAINE, M. JIMINEZ, T. MEIER, C. NIEMEYER, D. SMITH, K. MURPHY, D. GUERNSEY, L. HANDEGARD, M. COLLINGE, R. KRISCHKE, J. SHIVIK, C. MACK, I. BABCOCK, V. ASHER, and D. DOMENICI. 2001. Gray wolf restoration in the northwestern United States. Endangered Species UPDATE 8(4):147-152. 290K

01-95 BANGS, ED, AND JOHN SHIVIK. 2001. Managing wolf conflict with livestock in the northwestern United States. Carnivore Damage Prevention News no. 3:2-5 256K

01-6 BROMLEY, C., AND E. M. GESE. 2001. Effects of sterilization on territory fidelity and maintenance, pair bonds, and survival rates of free-ranging coyotes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79:386-392. 528K

01-7 BROMLEY, C., AND E. M. GESE. 2001. Surgical sterilization as a method of reducing coyote predation on domestic sheep. Journal of Wildlife Management 65(3):510-519. 419K

01-19 GESE, E. M. 2001. Monitoring of terrestrial carnivore populations. Pages 372-396 in J. L. Gittleman, S. M. Funk, D. W. Macdonald, and R. K. Wayne, editors. Carnivore Conservation. Cambridge University Press, London, United Kingdom. 780K

01-20 GESE, E. M. 2001. Territorial defense by coyotes (Canis latrans) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: who, how, where, when, and why. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79:980-987. 455K

01-21 GESE, E. M., AND F. F. KNOWLTON. 2001. The role of predation in wildlife population dynamics. Pages 7-25 in T. F. Ginnett, and S. E. Henke, editors, The role of predator control as a tool in game management. Texas Agricultural Research and Extension Service, San Angelo, Texas, USA. 785K

01-25 HARRIS, C. E., AND F. F. KNOWLTON. 2001. Differential responses of coyotes to novel stimuli in familiar and unfamiliar settings. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79(11):2005-2013 655K

01-29 JAEGER, M. M., K. M. BLEJWAS, B. N. SACKS, J. C. C. NEALE, M. M. CONNER, AND D. R. MCCULLOUGH. 2001. Targeting alphas can make coyote control more effective and socially acceptable. California Agriculture 55(6):32-36. 1,686K

01-35 JOJOLA-ELVERUM, S. M., J. A. SHIVIK AND L. CLARK. 2001. Importanceof bacterial decomposition and carrion substrate to foraging brown treesnakes. Journal of Chemical Ecology 27:1315-1331. 608K

01-40 KNOWLTON, F. F., AND S. R. OLMSTEAD. 2001. Using iophenoxic acid injections of prey to identify mammals that feed on them. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(2):495-500. 369K

01-41 KNOWLTON, F. F., M. ROETTO, AND D. BRIGGS. 2001. Serological responses of coyotes to two commercial rabies vaccines. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 37(4):798-802. 224K

01-42 KNOWLTON, F. F., AND S. L. WHITTEMORE. 2001. Pulp cavity-tooth width ratios from known-age and wild-caught coyotes determined by radiography. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(1):239-244. 275K

01-49 MASON, J. R., J. A. SHIVIK, and M. W. FALL. 2001. Chemical repellents and other aversive strategies in predation management. Endangered Species UPDATE 18(4):175-181. 483K

01-74 SHIVIK, J. 2001. The other tools for wolf management. Wolf! 19(2):3-7 487K

01-75 SHIVIK, J. A. and D. J. MARTIN. 2001. Aversive and disruptive stimulus applications for managing predation. Pages 111-119 in M C. Brittingham, J. Kays and R. McPeake editors, Proceedings of the Ninth Wildlife Damage Management Conference. State College, PA). Pennsylvania State University, University Park, USA. 335K

01-62 PITT, W., F. F. KNOWLTON, AND P. W. BOX. 2001. A new approach to understanding canid populations using an individual-based computer model: preliminary results. Endangered Species UPDATE 18(4):103-116. 260K

01-63 PITT, W. C., A. OGAWA, F. F. KNOWLTON, AND P. W. BOX. 2001. Evaluating the effects of management on territorial animals using Swarm. Pages 36-40 in Pitt, W. C. editor, Swarmfest 2000, proceedings of the 4th Annual Swarm Users Group Conference . Natural Resources and Environmental Issues VIII: S. J. and Jessie E. Quinney Natural Resources Research Library, Logan, Utah, USA. 290K

01-78 STODDART, C., R. E.GRIFFITHS, AND F. F.KNOWLTON. 2001. Coyote responses to changing jackrabbit abundance affect sheep predation. Journal of Range Management 54: 15-20. 1,109K

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