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Project Publications

Project Publications

Wildlife-Associated Pathogens Affecting Agricultural Health, Food Security, and Food Safety



Bevins, S.N., M. Lutman, K. Pedersen, N. Barrett, T. Gidlewski, T.J. DeLiberto, and A.B. Franklin. 2018. Spillover of swine coronaviruses, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases 24(7):1390-1392. doi: 10.3201/eid2407.172077

Brown, V.R. and S.N. Bevins. 2018. A review of classical swine fever virus and routes of introduction into the United States and the potential for virus establishment. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 5:31. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00031

Brown, V.R. and S.N. Bevins. 2018. A review of African swine fever and the potential for introduction into the United States and the possibility of subsequent establishment in feral swine and native ticks. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 5:11. doi: 10.3389/fvets/2018.00011

Cadieux, B., A. Colavecchio, J. Jeukens, L. Freschi, J-G Emond-Rheault, I. Kukavica-Ibrulj, R.C. Levesque, S. Bekal, J.C. Chandler, S.M. Coleman, B. Bisha, and L.D. Goodridge. 2018. Prophage induction reduces Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella enterica on tomatoes and spinach: A model study. Food Control 89:250-259. doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.02.001

Chandler, J.C., L.A. Baeten, D.L. Griffin, T. Gidlewski, T.J. DeLiberto, J.M. Petersen, R. Pappert, J.W. Young, and S.N. Bevins. 2018. A bead-based flow cytometric assay for monitoring Yersinia pestis exposure in wildlife. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 56(7):e00273-18. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00273-18

Franklin, A.B., P.C. Carlson, A. Rex, J.T. Rockweit, D.Garza, E. Culhane, S.F. Volker, R.J. Dusek, V.I. Shearn-Bochsler, M.W. Gabriel, and K.E. Horak. 2018. Grass is not always greener: rodenticide exposure of a threatened species near marijuana growing operations. BMC Research Notes 11:94. doi: 10.1186/s13104-018-3206-z

Horak, K.E., N.M. Hofmann, and B.A. Kimball. 2018. Assessments of zinc phosphide bait shyness and tools for reducing flavor aversions. Crop Protection 112:214-219. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2018.06.002

Kopanke, J.H., K.E. Horak, E. Musselman, C.A. Miller, K. Bennett, C.S. Olver, S.F. Volker, S. VandeWoude, and S.N. Bevins. 2018. Effects of low-level brodifacoum exposure on the feline immune response. Scientific Reports 8(1):8168. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-26558-3

Miller, M.P., S.M. Haig, E.D. Forsman, R.G. Anthony, L. Diller, K.M. Dugger, A.B. Franklin, T.L. Fleming, S. Gremel, D.B. Lesmeister, M. Higley, D.R. Herter, and S.G. Sovern. 2018. Variation in inbreeding rates across the range of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): Insights from over 30 years of monitoring data. The Auk 135(4):821-833. doi: 10.1642/AUK-18-1.1

Schaeffer, J.W., J.C. Chandler, M. Davidson, S.L. Magzamen, A. Perez-Mendez, S.J. Reynolds, L.D. Goodridge, J. Volckens, A.B. Franklin, S.A. Shriner, and B. Bisha. 2018. Detection of viruses from bioaerosols using anion exchange resin. Journal of Visualized Experiments 138:e58111. doi: 10.3791/58111


Brown, V.R., and S.N. Bevins. 2017. A review of virulent Newcastle disease viruses in the United States and the role of wild birds in viral persistence and spread. Veterinary Research 48(1):68. doi: 10.1186/s13567-017-0475-9

Chandler, J.C., A. Perez-Mendez, J. Paar 3rd, M.M. Doolittle, B. Bisha, and L.D. Goodridge. 2017. Field-based evaluation of a male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage concentration method. Journal of Virological Methods 239:9-16.  doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2016.10.007 

Chandler, J.C., J.W. Schaeffer, M. Davidson, S.L. Magzamen, A. Perez-Mendez, S.J. Reynolds, L.D. Goodridge, J. Volckens, A.B. Franklin, S.A. Shriner, and B. Bisha. 2017. A method for the improved detection of aerosolized influenza viruses and the male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage MS2.Journal of Virological Methods 246:38-41.  doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2017.04.004

Dannemiller, N.G., C.T. Webb, K.R. Wilson, K.T. Bentler, N.L. Mooers, J.W. Ellis, J.J. Root, A.B. Franklin, and S.A. Shriner. 2017. Impact of body condition on influenza A virus infection dynamics in mallards following a secondary exposure.  Plos ONE 12(4): e0175757.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175757 

Ellis, J.W., S.A. Shriner, H.E. McLean, L. Petersen, and J.J. Root. 2017. Inventory of wildlife use of mortality pits as feeding sites: implications of pathogen exposure. Human-Wildlife Interactions 11(1):8-18. doi:

Lewis, J.S., K.A. Logan, M.W. Alldredge, S. Carver, S.N. Bevins, M. Lappin, S. VandeWoude, and K.R. Crooks. 2017. The effects of demographic, social, and environmental characteristics on pathogen prevalence in wild felids across a gradient of urbanization. PLoS ONE 12(11):e0187035. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187035

Pepin, K.M., S.L. Kay, B.D. Golas, S.A. Shriner, A.T. Gilbert, R.S. Miller, A.L. Graham, S. Riley, P.C. Cross, M.D. Samuel, M.B. Hooten, J.A. Hoeting, J.O. Lloyd-Smith, C.T. Webb, and M.G. Buhnerkempe. 2017.Inferring infection hazard in wildlife populations by linking data across individual and population scales. Ecology Letters.  doi: 10.1111/ele.12732

Rockweit, J.T., A.B. Franklin, and P.C. Carlson. 2017. Differential impacts of wildfire on the population dynamics of an old-forest speciesEcology 98(6):1574-1582.  doi: 10.1002/ecy.1805

Root, J.J., S.A. Shriner, J.W. Ellis, K.K. VanDalen, and A.B. Franklin. 2017. Transmission of H6N2 wild bird-origin influenza A virus among multiple bird species in a stacked-cage setting. Archives of Virology 162(9):2617-2624. doi: 10.1007/s00705-017-3397-y 

Root, J.J., S.A. Shriner, J.W. Ellis, K.K. VanDalen, and H.J. Sullivan. 2017. Low viral doses are sufficient to infect cottontail rabbits with avian influenza A virus.  Archives of Virology 162(11):3381-3388.  doi: 10.1007/s00705-017-3493-z


Bevins, S. N., R. J. Dusek, C. L. White, T. Gidlewski, B. Bodenstein, K. G. Mansfield, P. DeBruyn, D. Kraege, E. Rowan, C. Gillin, B. Thomas, S. Chandler, J. Baroch, B. Schmit, M. J. Grady, R. S. Miller, M. L. Drew, S. Stopak, B. Zscheile, J. Bennett, J. Sengl, C. Brady, H. S. Ip, E. Spackman, M. L. Killian, M. K. Torchetti, J. M. Sleeman, and T. J. Deliberto. 2016. Widespread detection of highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses in wild birds from the Pacific Flyway of the United States. Scientific Reports 6:28980. doi: 10.1038/srep288980

Bevins, S. 2016. Pathogen emergence in the age of pandemics. BioScience 66(5): 421-423. doi: 10.1093/biosci/biw039

Bevins, S., R. Pappert, J. Young, B. Schmit, D. Kohler, and L. Baeten. 2016. Effect of storage time and storage conditions on antibody detection in blood samples collected on filter paper. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 52(3):478-483. doi: 10.7589/2015-09-242

Bosco-Lauth, A.M., A.E. Calvert, J.J. Root, T. Gidlewski, B.H. Bird, R.A. Bowen, A. Muehlenbachs, S.R. Zaki, and A.C. Brault. 2016. Vertebrate host susceptibility to heartland virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 22(12):2070-2077. doi: 10.3201/eid2212.160472

Bosco-Lauth, A.M., R.A. Bowen, and J.J. Root. 2016. Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat? Virology 495:161-165. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2016/04.032

Carver, S., S.N. Bevins, M.R. Lappin, E.E. Boydston, L.M. Lyren, M.Alldredge, K.A. Logan, L.L. Sweanor, S.P.D. Riley, L.E.K. Serieys, R.N. Fisher, T. Winston Vickers, W.Boyce, R. McBride, M.C. Cunningham, M. Jennings, J.Lewis, T.Lunn, K.R. Crooks, and S.VandeWoude. 2016. Pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the United States. Ecological Applications 26(2):367-381.

Duggar, K.M., E.D. Forsman, A.B. Franklin, R.J. Davis, G.C. White, et al. 2016. The effects of habitat, climate, and Barred Owls on long-term demography of Northern Spotted Owls. The Condor. 118:57-116. doi: 10.1650/CONDOR-15-24.1

Franklin, A.B. and K.C. VerCauteren. 2016. Keeping wildlife out of your food: Mitigation and control strategies to reduce the transmission risk of food-borne pathogens. In M. Jay-Russell and M. P. Doyle, editors. Food Safety Risks from Wildlife. Springer International Publishing. Pgs.183-199. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-24442-6_8

Harris, L.J., V. Lieberman, R.P. Marshiana, E. Atwill, M. Yang, J.C. Chandler, B. Bisha, and T. Jones. 2016. Prevalence and amounts of Salmonella found on raw California inshell pistachios. Journal of Food Protection 79(8):1304-1315. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-16-054

Shriner, S.A., J.J. Root, M.W. Lutman, J.M. Kloft, K.K. VanDalen, H.J. Sullivan, T.S. White, M.P. Milleson, J.L. Hairston, S.C. Chandler, P.C. Wolf, C.T. Turnage, B.J. McCluskey, A.L. Vincent, M.K. Torchetti, T. Gidlewski, and T.J.DeLiberto. 2016. Surveillance for highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza virus in synanthropic wildlife associated with poultry farms during an acute outbreak. Scientific reports 6:36237. doi: 10.1038/srep36237

Shriner, S.A., J.J. Root, N.L. Mooers, J.W. Ellis, S.R. Stopak, H.J. Sullivan, K.K. VanDalen, and A.B. Franklin. 2016. Susceptibility of rock doves to low-pathogenic avian influenza A viruses. Archives of Virology 161:715-720. doi: 10.1007/s00705-015-2685-7

Shriner, S.A., K.K. VanDalen, J.J.Root, and H.J. Sullivan. 2016. Evaluation and optimization of a commercial blocking ELISA for detecting antibodies to influenza A virus for research and surveillance of mallards. Journal of Virological Methods 226:130-134. doi: 10.1016/jviromet.2015.11.021


Bevins, S. N., and A. B. Franklin. One health in action: Reducing feral swine damage and disease. One Health Newsletter 7:4-6.

Bosco-Lauth, A.M., N.A. Panella, J.J. Root, T. Gidlewski, R.R. Lash, J.R. Harmon, K.L. Burkhalter, M.S. Godsey, H.M. Savage, W.L. Nicholson, N. Komar, and A.C. Brault. 2015. Serological investigation of Heartland virus (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) exposure in wild and domestic animals adjacent to human case sites in Missouri 2012-2013. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92(6):1163-1167.  doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0702

Carlson, J.C., D.R. Hyatt, K. Bentler, A.M. Mangan, M. Russell, A.J. Piaggio, and G.M. Linz. 2015. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates associated with starling-livestock interactions. Veterinary Microbiology 179:109-118.  doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.03.015

Carlson, J.C., D.R. Hyatt, J.W. Ellis, D.R. Pipkin, A.M. Mangan, M. Russell, D.S. Bolte, R.M. Engeman, T.J. DeLiberto, and G.M. Linz. 2015. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella enterica transmission associated with starling-livestock interactions. Veterinary Microbiology 179:60-68.  doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.04.009

Lewicki, K.E., K.P. Huyvaert, A.J. Piaggio, L.V. Diller, and  A.B. Franklin. 2015. Effects of barred owl (Strix varia) range expansion on Haemoproteus parasite assemblage dynamics and transmission in barred and northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina). Biological Invasions 17(6):1713-1727. doi: 10.1007/s10530-014-0828-5

Pedersen, K., K.L. Pabilonia, T.D. Anderson, S.N. Bevins, C.R. Hicks, J.M. Kloft, and T.J. Deliberto. 2015. Widespread detection of antibodies to Leptospira in feral swine in the United States. Epidemiology and Infection 143:2131-2136.  doi: 10.1017/S0950266814003148

Root, J.J., A.M. Bosco-Lauth, H. Bielefeldt-Ohmann, and R.A. Bowen. 2015. Experimental infection of peridomestic mammals with emergent H7N9 (A/Anhui/1/2013) influenza A virus: Implications for biosecurity and wet markets. Virology 487:242-248.  doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.10.020

Root, J.J., S.A. Shriner, J.W. Ellis, K.K. VanDalen, H.J. Sullivan, and A.B. Franklin. 2015. When fur and feather occur together: Interclass transmission of avian influenza A virus from mammals to birds through common resources. Scientific Reports 5:14354.  doi: 10.1038/srep14354

Werner, S.J., S.T. DeLiberto, A.M. Mangan, S.E. Pettit, J.W. Ellis, and J.C. Carlson.  Anthraquinone-based repellent for horned larks, great-tailed grackles, American crows and the protection of California's specialty crops. Crop Protection 72:158-162.  doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2015.03.020


Bevins, S. N., and A. B. Franklin. One health in action: Reducing feral swine damage and disease. One Health Newsletter 7(2):4-6. 

Bevins, S.N., K. Pedersen, M.W. Lutman, J.A. Baroch, B.S. Schmit, D. Kohler, T. Gidlewski, D.L. Nolte, S.R. Swafford, and T.J. DeLiberto. 2014. Large-scale Avian Influenza surveillance in wild birds throughout the United States. PLoSOne 9(8): e104360. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104360.

Bevins, S.N., K. Pedersen, M.W. Lutman, T. Gidlewski, and T.J. DeLiberto. 2014. Consequences associated with the recent range expansion of nonnative feral swine. BioScience Online 64(4):291-299.  doi:10.1093/biosci/biu015. 

Bosco-Lauth, A., Harmon, J.R., Lash, R.R., Weiss, S., Langevin, S., Savage, H.M., Godsey Jr, M.S., Burkhalter, K., Root, J.J., Gidlewski, T. and Nicholson, W.L., 2014. West Nile virus isolated from a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012Journal of wildlife diseases50(4), pp.976-978.  

DeVault, T.L., T.W. Seamans, J.A. Schmidt, J.L. Belant, B.F. Blackwell, N. Mooers, L.A. Tyson, and L. VanPelt. 2014. Bird use of solar photovoltaic installations at US airports: Implications for aviation safety. Landscape and Urban Planning 122:122-128.  doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2013.11.017.

Lee, J.S., S.N. Bevins, L.E.K. Serieys, W. Vickers, K.A. Logan, M. Aldredge, E.E. Boydston, L.M. Lyren, R.McBride, M. Roelke-Parker, J. Pecon-Slattery, J.L. Troyer, S.P. Riley, W.M. Boyce, K.R. Crooks, and S. VandeWoude. 2014. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America. Journal of Virology 88(14):7727-7737.  doi: 10.1128/JVI.00473-14.

Pedersen, K., C.R. Quance, S. Robbe-Austerman, A.J. Piaggio, S.N. Bevins, S.M. Goldstein, W.D. Gaston, and T.J. DeLiberto. 2014. Identification of Brucella suis from feral swine in selected states in the USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 50(2): 171-179. doi: 10.7589/2013-09-235.

Pedersen, K., D.R. Marks, D.M. Arsnoe, C.L. Afonso, S.N. Bevins, P.J. Miller, A.R. Randall, and T.J. DeLiberto. 2014.  Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (Newcastle disease virus), avian influenza virus, and Salmonella spp. in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes region and Atlantic coast of the United States.  Avian Diseases 58(1): 129-136.  doi: 10.1637/10638-081413-Reg.1.

Pedersen, K., D.R. Marks, D.M. Arsnoe, S.N. Bevins, E. Wang, S.C. Weaver, R. M. Mickley, and T.J. DeLiberto. 2014. Short Report: Antibody prevalence of select arboviruses in Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes region and Atlantic coast of the United States. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91(6):1247-1249.  doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0280.

Pepin, K.M., E. Spackman, J.D. Brown, K.L. Pabilonia, L.P. Garber, J.T. Weaver, D.A. Kennedy, K.A. Patyk, K.P. Huyvaert, R.S. Miller, A.B. Franklin, K. Pedersen, T.L. Bogich, P. Rohani, S.A. Shriner, C.T. Webb, and S. Riley. 2014. Using quantitative disease dynamics as a tool for guiding response to avian influenza in poultry in the United States of America. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 113(4):376-397.  doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.11.011.

Piaggio, A.J., R.M. Engeman, M.W. Hopken, J.S. Humphrey, K.L. Keacher, W.E. Bruce, and M.L. Avery. 2014. Detecting an elusive invasive species: a diagnostic PCR to detect Burmese python in Florida waters and an assessment of persistence of environmental DNA. Molecular Ecology Resources, 14:374–380. doi:10.1111/1755-0998.12180.

Root, J.J., S.A. Shriner, K.T. Bentler, T. Gidlewski, N.L. Mooers, J.W. Ellis, T.R. Spraker, K.K. VanDalen, H.J. Sullivan, and A.B. Franklin. 2014. Shedding of a low pathogenic Avian Influenza virus in a common synanthropic mammal - the cottontail rabbit. PLoSOne 9(8): e102513. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102513.

Root, J.J., K.T. Bentler, S.A. Shriner, N.L. Mooers, K.K. VanDalen, H.J. Sullivan, and A.B. Franklin. 2014. Ecological routes of Avian Influenza virus transmission to a common mesopredator: An experimental evaluation of alternatives. PLoSONE 9(8): e102964. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102964. 

Tracey, J.A., S.N. Bevins, S. VandeWoude, and K.R. Crooks. 2014. An agent-based movement model to assess the impact of landscape fragmentation on disease transmission. Ecosphere 5(9):119. doi: 10.1890-ES13-00376.1

Werner, S.J., R. Buchholz, S.K. Tupper, S.E. Pettit, and J.W. Ellis. 2014. Functional significance of ultraviolet feeding cues in wild turkeys.Physiology and Behavior 123:162-167. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.10.010.

Werner, S.J., S.K.Tupper, S.E. Pettit, J.W. Ellis, J.C. Carlson, D.A. Goldade, N.M. Hofmann, H.J. Homan, and G.M. Linz. 2014. Application strategies for an anthraquinone-based repellent to protect oilseed sunflower crops from pest blackbirds. Crop Protection 59:63-70. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2014.01.016.


Campbell, T.A., D.B. Long, and S.A. Shriner. 2013. Wildlife contact rates at artificial feeding sites in Texas. Environmental Management 51(6):1187-1193. doi: 10.1007/s00267-013-0046-4.

Dolbeer, R.A. and A.B. Franklin. 2013. Population management to reduce the risk of wildlife-aircraft collisions. In: T.L. DeVault, B.F. Blackwell, and J.L. Belant, editors. Wildlife in Airport Environments: Preventing Animal-Aircraft Collisions through Science-Based Management.  The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, in association with The Wildlife Society. 67-75.

Franklin A.B., K.C. VerCauteren, H. Maguire, M.K. Cichon, J.W. Fischer, M.J. Lavelle, A. Powell, J.J. Root, and E. Scallan. 2013. Wild ungulates as disseminators of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in urban areas. PLoS ONE 8(12):e81512. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081512.

Fry, T.L., K.K. VanDalen, S.A. Shriner, S.M. Moore, C.A. Hanlon, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2013. Humoral immune response to oral rabies vaccination in raccoon kits: Problems and implications. Vaccine 31:2811-2815. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.04.016.

Fry, T.L., K.K. VanDalen, C. Duncan, and K. Vercauteren. 2013. The safety of ONRAB® in select non-target wildlife. Vaccine 31:3839-3842. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.06.069.

Oesterle, P.T., K.P. Huyvaert, D. Orahood, N. Mooers, H. Sullivan, A.B. Franklin, and J.J. Root. 2013. Failure of transmission of low-pathogenic avian influenza virus between mallards and freshwater snails: an experimental evaluation. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 49(4):911-919. doi: 10.7589/2012-04-111.

Ofula, V.O., A.B. Franklin, J.J. Root, H.J. Sullivan, P. Gichuki, A. Makio, W. Bulimo, B.O. Abong'o, M. Muchai, and D. Schnabel. 2013. Detection of avian influenza viruses in wild waterbirds in the Rift Valley of Kenya using fecal sampling. Vector-Borne and Zoonnotic Diseases 13(6):394-400. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2011.0926.

Lagana, D.M., J.S. Lee, J.S. Lewis, S. N. Bevins, S. Carver, L.L. Sweanor, R. McBride, C. McBride, K.R. Crooks, and S. VandeWoude. 2013. Characterization of regionally associated Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in Bobcats (Lynx rufus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 49(3):718-722.  doi: 10.7589/2012-10-243. 

Pedersen, K., Marks, D.R., Arsnoe, D.M., Afonso, C.L., Bevins, S.N., Miller, P.J., Randall, A.R. and DeLiberto, T.J., 2013. Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (Newcastle disease virus), avian influenza virus, and salmonella spp. in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in the great lakes region and Atlantic coast of the United States. Avian diseases58(1), pp.129-136.  

Pedersen, K. S.N. Bevins, J.A. Baroch, J.C. Cumbee, Jr., S.C. Chandler, B.S. Woodruff, T.T. Bigelow, and T.J. DeLiberto. 2013. Pseudorabies in feral swine in the United States, 2009-2012. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 49(3):709-713.  doi: 10.7589/2012-12-314.

Piaggio, A.J., R.M. Engeman, M.W. Hopken, J.S. Humphrey, K.L. Keacher, and M.L. Avery. 2013. Detecting an elusive invasive species: A diagnostic PCR to detect Burmese python in Florida waters and an assessment of persistence of environmental DNA. Mol Ecol Resource. Abstract. doi: 10.1111/1755-0998.12180.

Piaggio, A.J. and J. Jeffers. 2013. On the edge: A genetic assessment of Aplodontia rufa from the edge of their distribution. Western North American Naturalist 73(4):485-496.

Root, J.J., M.W. Hopken, T. Gidlewski, A.J. Piaggio. 2013. Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus infection in a desert cottontail
(Sylvilagus audubonii) from Colorado, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 49(4): 1060-1062. doi: 10.7589/2013-02-033.


Bentler, K.T., D. N. Gossett, and J. J. Root. 2012. A novel isoflurane anesthesia induction system for raccoons. Wildlife Society Bulletin DOI: 10.1002/wsb.193

Carlson, J. C., C. K. Ellis, S. K. Tupper, A. B. Franklin, and G. M. Linz. 2012. The effect of European starlings and ambient air temperature on
Salmonella enterica contamination within cattle feed bunks. Human-Wildlife Interactions 6:64-71. 

Elmore, S. A., E. J. Jenkins, K. P. Huyvaert, L. Polley, J. J. Root, and C. G. Moore. 2012. Toxoplasma gondii in circumpolar people and wildlife. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 12:1-9.

Fry, T., Van Dalen K., Hurley J., Nash P. 2012. Mucosal adjuvants to improve wildlife rabies vaccination. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 48:1042-6. DOI: 10.7589/2011-11-331.

Huyvaert, K. P., J. S. Carlson, K. T. Bentler, K. R. Cobble, D. L. Nolte, and A. B. Franklin. 2012. Freshwater clams as bioconcentrators of avian influenza virus in water. Vector Borne Zoonotic Diseases 12:904-906. 

Pepin, K. M., K. K. Vandalen, N. L. Mooers, J. W. Ellis, H. J. Sullivan, J. J. Root, C. T. Webb, A. B. Franklin, and S. A. Shriner. 2012. Quantification of heterosubtypic immunity between avian influenza subtypes H3N8 and H4N6 in multiple avian host species. Journal of General Virology 2012., 93, 2575-2583.

Rockweit, J. T., A. B. Franklin, G. S. Bakken, and R. J. Gutiérrez. 2012. Potential Influences of Climate and Nest Structure on Spotted Owl
Reproductive Success: A Biophysical Approach. PLoS ONE 7:e41498.

Root J.J. 2012. West Nile virus associations in wild mammals: a synthesis. Archives of Virology:1-18. DOI: DOI 10.1007/s00705-012-1516-3.

Savidge, J. A., M. W. Hopken, G. W. Witmer, S. M. Jojola, J. J. Pierce, P. W. Burke, and A. J. Piaggio. 2012. Genetic evaluation of an attempted Rattus rattus eradication on Congo Cay, U.S. Virgin Islands, identifies importance of eradication units. Biological Invasions 14:2343-2354.

Shriner, S. A., K. K. VanDalen, N. L. Mooers, J. W. Ellis, H. J. Sullivan, J. J. Root, A. M. Pelzel, and A. B. Franklin. 2012. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild house mice. PLoS ONE 7:e39206. 

Werner, S.J., S.K. Tupper, J.C. Carlson, S.E. Pettit, J.W. Ellis, and G.M. Linz. 2012. The role of a generalized ultraviolet cue for blackbird food
selection. Physiology & Behavior 106(5): 597-601.


Bai, Y., C. H. Calisher, M. Y. Kosoy, J. J. Root, and J. B. Doty. 2011. Persistent infection or successive reinfection of deer mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77:1728-1731.

Calisher, C. H., J. N. Mills, J. J. Root, J. B. Doty, and B. J. Beaty. 2011. The relative abundance of deer mice with antibody to Sin Nombre virus corresponds to the occurrence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in nearby humans. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases 11:577-582.

Carlson, J.C., Franklin, A.B., Hyatt, D.R., Pettit, S.E. and G.M. Linz. 2011. The role of starlings in the spread of Salmonella within concentrated animal feeding operations. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48(2), pp.479-486.

Carlson, J.C., Linz, G.M., Ballweber, L.R., Elmore, S.A., Pettit, S.E. and A.B. Franklin. 2011. The role of European starlings in the spread of coccidia within concentrated animal feeding operations. Veterinary parasitology, 180(3), pp.340-343.

Doherty, P.F. and R.G. McLean. 2011. Conceptual and practical issues in monitoring disease in wild animal populations: A review of avian influenza programs. Pandemic influenza viruses: science, surveillance and public health. The Pennsylvania Academy of Science, Easton, PA, pp.130-142.

Farnsworth, M. L., W. L. Kendall, P. F. Doherty, R. S. Miller, G. C. White, J. D. Nichols, K. P. Burnham, and A. B. Franklin. 2011. Targeted surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza in migratory waterfowl across the conterminous United States. Pages 143-155 In: S. K. Majumdar, F. J. Brenner, J. E. Huffman, R. G. McLean, A. I. Panah, P. J. Pietrobon, S. P. Keeler, and S. Shive. Pandemic influenza viruses: Science, surveillance, and public health.  Pennsylvania Academy of Sciences, Camp Hill, Pennsylvania.

Forsman, E. D., R. G. Anthony, K. M. Dugger, E. M. Glenn, A. B. Franklin, G. C. White, C. J. Schwarz, K. P. Burnham, D. R. Anderson, J. D. Nichols, J. E. Hines, J. B. Lint, R. J. Davis, S. H. Ackers, L. S. Andrews, B. L. Biswell, P. C. Carlson, L. V. Diller, S. A. Gremel, D. R. Herter, J. M. Higley, R. B. Horn, J. A. Reid, J. Rockweit, J. Schaberel, T. J. Snetsinger, and S. G. Sovern. 2011. Population demography of the northern spotted owls. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Forsman, E.D., Anthony, R.G., Dugger, K.M., Glenn, E.M., Franklin, A.B., White, G.C., Schwarz, C.J., Burnham, K.P., Anderson, D.R., Nichols, J.D. and J.E. Hines. 2011. Demographic trends of northern spotted owls: a meta-analysis, 1985–2008. Studies in Avian Biology , 40, pp.214-230.

Franklin, A. B., K. K. VanDalen, and K. P. Huyvaert. 2011. Avian influenza virus in aquatic environments: An ecological perspective. Pages 59-72 in: S. K. Majumdar, F. J. Brenner, J. E. Huffman, R. G. McLean, A. I. Panah, P. J. Pietrobon, S. P. Keeler, and S. Shive. Pandemic influenza viruses: Science, surveillance, and public health.  Pennsylvania Academy of Sciences, Camp Hill, Pennsylvania.

Nemeth, N.M., Thomsen, B.V., Spraker, T.R., Benson, J.M., Bosco-Lauth, A.M., Oesterle, P.T., Bright, J.M., Muth, J.P., Campbell, T.W., Gidlewski, T.L. and R.A. Bowen. 2011. Clinical and pathologic responses of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and fish crows (C ossifragus) to experimental West Nile virus infection. Veterinary pathology, 48(6), pp.1061-1074.

Van Lanen, N. J., A. B. Franklin, K. P. Huyvaert, R. F. Reiser II, and P. C. Carlson. 2011. Who hits and hoots at whom? Potential for interference competition between barred and northern spotted owls. Biological Conservation 144:2194-2201.


Blakesley, J. A., M. E. Seamans, M. M. Conner, A. B. Franklin, G. C. White, R. J. Gutiérrez, J. E. Hines, J. D. Nichols, T. E. Munton, D. W. H. Shaw, J. J. Keane, G. N. Steger, and T. L. McDonald. 2010. Population dynamics of spotted owls in the Sierra Nevada, California. Wildlife Monographs 174:1-36.

Blitvich, B.J., Ibarra-Juarez, L.A., Cortes-Guzman, A.J., Root, J.J., Franklin, A.B., Sullivan, H.J. and I. Fernandez-Salas. 2010. Seroprevalence of equine influenza virus in northeast and southern Mexico.The Veternary Record, 166, pp.565-566.

Fischer, J.W., Joos, R.E., Neubaum, M.A., Taylor, J.D., Bergman, D.L., Nolte, D.L. and Piaggio, A.J., 2010. Lactating North American beavers (Castor canadensis) sharing dens in the southwestern United States. The Southwestern Naturalist, 55(2), pp.273-277.

Loroño-Pino, M.A., Farfan-Ale, J.A., Garcia-Rejon, J.E., Lin, M., Rosado-Paredes, E., Puerto, F.I., Bates, A., Root, J.J., Franklin, A.B., Sullivan, H.J. and B.J. Blitvich. 2010. Antibodies to influenza and West Nile viruses in horses in Mexico. The Veterinary record, 166(1), p.22.

McClintock, B.T., Nichols, J.D., Bailey, L.L., MacKenzie, D.I., Kendall, W. and A.B Franklin. 2010. Seeking a second opinion: uncertainty in disease ecology. Ecology letters, 13(6), pp.659-674.

Monasmith, T.J., Demarais, S., Root, J.J. and C.M. Britton. 2010. Short-term fire effects on small mammal populations and vegetation of the northern Chihuahuan Desert. International Journal of Ecology, 2010.

Nemeth, N. M., N. O. Thomas, D. S. Orahood, T. D. Anderson, and P.T. Oesterle. 2010. Shedding and serological responses following primary and secondary inoculation of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with low pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Avian Pathology 39:411-418.

Oesterle, P., N. Nemeth, P. Doherty, R. McLean, and L. Clark. 2010. Experimental exposure of swallow bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to West Nile virus. Journal of Medical Entomology 47:897-901

Oesterle, P. T., N. Nemeth, G. Young, N. Mooers, S. Elmore, R. Bowen, P. Doherty, J. Hall, R. McLean, and L. Clark            . 2010. Cliff swallows, swallow bugs, and West Nile virus: An unlikely transmission mechanism. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 10:507-513.

Puskas, R.B., Fischer, J.W., Swope, C.B., Dunbar, M.R., McLean, R.G. and J.J. Root. 2010. Raccoon (Procyon lotor) movements and dispersal associated with ridges and valleys of Pennsylvania: implications for rabies Management. Vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, 10(10), pp.1043-1048.

Reynolds, M.G., Carroll, D.S., Olson, V.A., Hughes, C., Galley, J., Likos, A., Montgomery, J.M., Suu-Ire, R., Kwasi, M.O., Root, J.J. and Z. Braden. 2010. A silent enzootic of an orthopoxvirus in Ghana, West Africa: evidence for multi-species involvement in the absence of widespread human disease. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 82(4), pp.746-754.

Root, J. J., K. T. Bentler, N. M. Nemeth, T. L. Gidlewski, T. R. Spraker, and A. B. Franklin. 2010. Experimental Infection of Raccoons (Procyon lotor) with West Nile Virus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83:803-807.

Root, J. J., K. T. Bentler, H. J. Sullivan, B. J. Blitvich, R. G. McLean, and A. B. Franklin. 2010. Antibody responses of raccoons naturally exposed to influenza A virus. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 10:821-823

VanDalen, K. K., A. B. Franklin, N. L. Mooers, H. J. Sullivan, S. A Shriner. 2010. Shedding light on low pathogenic avian influenza virus in waterfowl: Modes of transmission and implications for surveillance. Plos One 5:e12851.


Allan, B.F., Langerhans, R.B., Ryberg, W.A., Landesman, W.J., Griffin, N.W., Katz, R.S., Oberle, B.J., Schutzenhofer, M.R., Smyth, K.N., Maurice, A.D.S. and L. Clark. 2009. Ecological correlates of risk and incidence of West Nile virus in the United States. Oecologia, 158(4), pp.699-708.

Deliberto, T. J., S. R. Swafford, D. L. Nolte, K. Pederson, M. W.Lutman, B. B. Schmit, J. A. Baroch, D. J. Kohler and A. Franklin. 2009. Surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild birds in the USA. Integrative Zoology 4:426-439.

DeYoung, R.W., Zamorano, A., Mesenbrink, B.T., Campbell, T.A., Leland, B.R., Moore, G.M., Honeycutt, R.L. and J.J. Root. 2009. Landscape-genetic analysis of population structure in the Texas gray fox oral rabies vaccination zone. Journal of Wildlife Management, 73(8), pp.1292-1299.

Doty, J.B., Root, J.J. and C.H. Calisher. 2010. Observations of Sympatric Populations of Least Chipmunks (Tamias minimus) and Hopi Chipmunks (Tamias rufus) in Western Colorado, 1995–2006. International Journal of Ecology, 2009.

Dusek, R.J., McLean, R.G., Kramer, L.D., Ubico, S.R., Dupuis II, A.P., Ebel, G.D. and S.C. Guptill. 2009. Prevalence of West Nile virus in migratory birds during spring and fall migration. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 81(6), pp.1151-1158.

Flather, C. H, K. R. Wilson, and S. A. Shriner. 2009.  Geographic approaches to biodiversity conservation: implications of scale and error to landscape planning.  pp. 85-122 in Models for Planning Wildlife Conservation in Large Landscapes, eds. J. J. Millspaugh, and F. R. Thompson, III.  Burlington, MA: Elselvier, Inc.

Johnson, S., Piaggio, A., Neubaum, M. and M. Dunbar. 2009. Using genetics to assess differentiation among raccoons in an area with variable rabies status in Alabama. Proceedings of the 13th Wildlife Damage Management Conference, pp. 40-48.

Nemeth, N.M., Bosco-Lauth, A.M. and R.A. Bowen. 2009. Cross-protection between West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus). Avian diseases, 53(3), pp.421-425.

Nemeth, N., R. Bowen and P. Oesterle. 2009. Humoral immunity to West Nile virus is long-lasting and protective in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 80, pp. 864-869.

Nemeth, N.M., Dwyer, J.F., Morrison, J.L. and J.D. Fraser. 2009. Prevalence of antibodies to West Nile virus and other arboviruses among Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in Florida. Journal of wildlife diseases, 45(3), pp.817-822.

Nemeth, N.M., Young, G.R., Burkhalter, K.L., Brault, A.C., Reisen, W.K. and N. Komar. 2009. West Nile virus detection in nonvascular feathers from avian carcasses. Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation, 21(5), pp.616-622.

Nemeth, N., Young, G., Ndaluka, C., Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H., Komar, N. and R. Bowen. 2009. Persistent West Nile virus infection in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Archives of virology, 154(5), pp.783-789.

Oesterle, P. T., Nemeth, N. M., VanDalen, K., Sullivan, H., Bentler, K. T., Young, G. R., McLean, R. G.,  Clark, L., Smeraski, C. and J. S. Hall. 2009. Experimental infection of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) with varying doses of West Nile virus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81:1159-1164.

Pelz-Serrano, K., Munguia-Vega, A., Piaggio, A.J., Neubaum, M., Munclinger, P., Pártl, A.,Van Riper III, C. and M. Culver. 2009. Development of nine new microsatellite loci for the American beaver, Castor canadensis (Rodentia: Castoridae), and cross‐species amplification in the European beaver, Castor fiber. Molecular ecology resources, 9(2), pp.551-554.

Piaggio, A.J., Clark, L., Franklin, A.B. and Kolokotronis, S.O., 2009. Wild Bird’s-eye View of Influenza Virus A (H1N1) Phylogenetic Evolution. EcoHealth, 6(3), pp.346-350.

Piaggio, A.J., Figueroa, J.A. and S.L. Perkins. 2009. Development and characterization of 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from Rafinesque's big‐eared bat, Corynorhinus rafinesquii. Molecular ecology resources, 9(4), pp.1191-1193.

Piaggio, A.J., Miller, K.E.G., Matocq, M.D. and S.L. Perkins. 2009. Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci developed and characterized from Townsend's big‐eared bat, Corynorhinus townsendii. Molecular ecology resources, 9(1), pp.258-260.

Piaggio, A.J., Navo, K.W. and C.W. Stihler. 2009. Intraspecific comparison of population structure, genetic diversity, and dispersal among three subspecies of Townsend’s big-eared bats, Corynorhinus townsendii townsendii, C. t. pallescens, and the endangered C. t. virginianus. Conservation Genetics, 10(1), pp.143-159.

Piaggio, A.J., Neubaum, M.A., Yueh, H., Ritland, C.E., Johnston, J.J. and S.L. Perkins. 2009. Development of 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from the mountain beaver, Aplodontia rufa rufa (Rafinesque). Molecular ecology resources, 9(1), pp.323-325.

Reed, L.M., Johansson, M.A., Panella, N., McLean, R., Creekmore, T., Puelle, R. and N. Komar. 2009. Declining mortality in American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) following natural West Nile virus infection. Avian diseases, 53(3), pp.458-461.

Root, J.J., Puskas, R.B., Fischer, J.W., Swope, C.B., Neubaum, M.A., Reeder, S.A. and A.J. Piaggio. 2009. Landscape genetics of raccoons (Procyon lotor) associated with ridges and valleys of Pennsylvania: implications for oral rabies vaccination programs. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 9(6), pp.583-588.

Root, J. J. and A. J. Piaggio. 2009. Finding clues in bones and bile: How wildlife forensics helps animal conservation. Wildlife Professional 3:68-69

Sullivan, H. J., B. J. Blitvich, K. VanDalen, K. T. Bentler, A. B. Franklin, and J. J. Root. 2009. Evaluation of an epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies to Influenza A virus in domestic and wild avian and mammalian species. Journal of Virological Methods 161:141-146.

VanDalen, K. K., S. A. Shriner, H. J. Sullivan, J. J. Root, and A. B. Franklin. 2009. Monitoring wild mammal exposure to avian influenza viruses. Mammal Review 39:167-177. 87K

Wang, C., H. He, M. Lei, J. J. Root, Y. Wu, and J. Qin. 2009. Parasite species associated with wild plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) in south-eastern Qinghai Province, China. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45:288-294.


Calisher, C. H., J. N. Mills, J. J. Root, J. B. Doty, B. J. and Beaty. 2008. Environmental factors influence transmission of Sin Nombre hantavirus between rodents (and to humans?). Pages 200-217 In: Vector-borne diseases: Understanding the environmental, human health, and ecological connections. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

Hall, J. S., K. T. Bentler, G. Landolt, S. A. Elmore, R. B. Minnis, T. A. Campbell, S. C. Barras, J. J. Root, J. Pilon, K. Pabilonia, C. Driscoll, D. Slate, H. Sullivan, and R. G. McLean. 2008. Influenza infection in wild raccoons. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:1842-1848.

Hall, J.S., Minnis, R.B., Campbell, T.A., Barras, S., DeYoung, R.W., Pabilonia, K., Avery, M.L., Sullivan, H., Clark, L. and R.G. McLean. 2008. Influenza exposure in United States feral swine populations. Journal of wildlife diseases, 44(2), pp.362-368.

McLean, R. G. and S.C. Guptill. 2008. Use of bird-banding information to investigate disease, safety, and economic issues of birds and their interactions with humans. Pages 231-244 in Bird banding in North America: the first hundred years/edited by Jerome A. Jackson, William E. Davis, Jr. and John Tautin. Memoirs of the Nuttall Ornithological Club No. 15, Nuttall Ornithological Club, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Nemeth, N.M., Oesterle, P.T. and R.A. Bowen. 2008. Passive immunity to West Nile virus provides limited protection in a common passerine species. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 79(2), pp.283-290.

VanDalen, K. K., T. D. Anderson, M. L. Killian, J. C. Pedersen, A. B. Franklin, and A. J. Piaggio. 2008. Increased detection of influenza A H16 in the United States. Archives in Virology 153:1981-1983.


Bentler, K.T., Hall, J.S., Root, J.J., Klenk, K., Schmit, B., Blackwell, B.F., Ramey, P.C. and L. Clark. 2007. Serologic evidence of West Nile virus exposure in North American mesopredators. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 76(1), pp.173-179.

Griffing, S.M., Kilpatrick, A.M., Clark, L. and P.P. Marra. 2007. Mosquito landing rates on nesting American robins (Turdus migratorius). Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 7(3), pp.437-443.

McLean, R.G., 2007. 15 The Introduction and Emergence of Wildlife Diseases in North America. Wildlife Science: Linking Ecological Theory and Management Applications, pp.261.

McLean, R.G., Hall, J.S., Franklin, A.B., Sullivan, H., Vandalen, K., Shriner, S., Farnsworth, M., Oesterle, P., Young, G., Carlson, J. and K. Cobble. 2007. Avian influenza in wild birds: Environmental sampling for the rapid detection of avian influenza viruses. Proceedings for the 12th Wildlife Damage Management Conference, pp.88-93.

Pedersen, K. and L. Clark. 2007. A review of Shiga toxin Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in cattle and free-ranging birds: potential association and epidemiological links. Human-Wildlife Conflicts, 1(1), pp.68-77.

Root, J.J., Oesterle, P.T., Sullivan, H.J., Hall, J.S., Marlenee, N.L., McLean, R.G., Montenieri, J.A. and L. Clark. 2007. Short Report: Fox squirrel (Sciurus niger) associations with West Nile virus. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 76(4), pp.782-784. 


Clark, L., and J. Hall. 2006. Avian influenza in wild birds: status as reservoirs and risks to humans and agriculture. Ornithological Monographs, 60:3-29.

Clark, L., Hall, J., McLean, R., Dunbar, M., Klenk, K., Bowen, R. and C.A. Smeraski. 2006. Susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to experimental infection with West Nile virus. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 42(1), pp.14-22.

McLean, R.G., 2006. West Nile virus in North American birds. Ornithological Monographs, 60, pp. 44-64.

Sullivan, H., Linz, G., Clark, L. and M. Salman. 2006. West Nile virus antibody prevalence in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) from North Dakota, USA (2003–2004). Vector-Borne & Zoonotic Diseases, 6(3), pp.305-309.


Oesterle, P., McLean, R., Dunbar, M. and L. Clark. 2005. Husbandry of wild-caught greater sage-grouse. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 33(3), pp.1055-1061.

Root, J.J., Hall, J.S., Mclean, R.G., Marlenee, N.L., Beaty, B.J., Gansowski, J. and L. Clark. 2005. Serologic evidence of exposure of wild mammals to flaviviruses in the central and eastern United States. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 72(5), pp.622-630.

Santaella, J., McLean, R., Hall, J.S., Gill, J.S., Bowen, R.A., Hadow, H.H. and L. Clark. 2005. West Nile virus serosurveillance in Iowa white-tailed deer (1999–2003). The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 73(6), pp.1038-1042.


Marra, P.P., Griffing, S., Caffrey, C., Kilpatrick, A.M., McLean, R., Brand, C., Saito, E.M.I., Dupuis, A.P., Kramer, L. and R. Novak. 2004. West Nile virus and wildlife. BioScience, 54(5), pp.393-402.

McLean, R.G., 2004. West Nile virus: impact on crow populations in the United States. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 21:180-184.


McLean, R.G., 2003. The emergence of major avian diseases in North America: West Nile virus and more. Pages 300-305 in K.A. Fagerstone, and G. W. Witmer editors. Proceedings of the 10th Wildlife Damage Management Conference. (April 6-9, 2003, Hot Springs, Arkansas). The Wildlife Damage Management Working Group of The Wildlife Society, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

McLean, R.G., 2003. West Nile Virus: emerging threat to public health and animal health. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Education, 30, pp.143-144.

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