Linz, George

Dr. George M. Linz

photo of George Linz Dr. George M. Linz,
Research Wildlife Biologist


Dr. Linz has led multiple studies in basic and applied wildlife biology, including (1) investigations of common raven impacts on the endangered California Least Tern at Camp Pendleton in southern California, (2) prevalence of avian-borne diseases in dairies and feedlots, (3) use of aquatic herbicides for altering roost habitat favored by blackbirds in North Dakota, (4) migration patterns of blackbirds in relation to sunflower damage, and (5) use of alternative feeding sites (wildlife conservation sunflower plots) for reducing blackbird damage to crops. Additionally, Dr. Linz's expertise on the biology of blackbirds has led to collaboration with international research universities on basic studies related to evolution of blackbirds.

Additionally, Dr. Linz is an adjunct professor of zoology at North Dakota State University where he has served as Study Director and Major Advisor or Co-advisor for 30 graduate student studies.

Research Project: Methods Development and Population Biology of Blackbirds and Starlings In Conflict with Agriculture, Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, and Urban Environments

Current Research

  • Use of Christmas Bird Counts and spatial analysis for winter roost sites
  • Quantifying blackbird damage to ripening sunflower and corn
  • Use of repellents to reduce blackbird damage


  • Ph.D., North Dakota State University, Zoology
  • M.S., Edinboro University of Pennsylvania, Biology
  • B.S., Edinboro University of Pennsylvania, Biology

Contact Information

Selected Publications:

Dolbeer, R.A. and G.M. Linz. 2016. Blackbirds. Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series. USDA, APHIS, WS National Wildlife Research Center. Ft. Collins, Colorado. 16p.

Kandel, H. and G.M. Linz. 2016. Blackbird damage is an important agronomic factor influencing sunflower production. Proceedings of the 16th Wildlife Damage Management Conference 75-82.

Lindell, C.A., K.M. Steensma, P.D. Curtis, J.R. Boulanger, J.E. Carroll, C. Burrows, D.P. Lusch, N.L. Rothwell, S.L. Wieferich, H.M. Henrichs, D.K. Leigh, R.A. Eaton, and G.M. Linz. 2016. Proportions of bird damage in tree fruits are higher in low-fruit-abundance contexts. Crop Protection 90:40-48.  doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2016.08.011

Eaton, R.A., C.A. Lindell, H.J. Homan, G.M. Linz, and B.A. Maurer. 2016. American Robins (Turdus migratorius) and Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum) vary in use of cultivated cherry orchards. The Wilson Journal of Ornithology 128(1):97-107.  doi: 10.1676/wils-128-01-97-107.1   

Twedt, D.J. and G.M. Linz. 2015. Flight feather molt in yellow-headed blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) in North Dakota. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 127(4):622-629.  doi: 10.1676/14-138.1  

Strassburg, M., S.M. Crimmins, G.M. Linz, P.C. McKann, and W.E. Thogmartin. 2015. Winter habitat associations of blackbirds and starlings wintering in the south-central United States. Human-Wildlife Interactions 9(2):171-179.

Carlson, J.C., D.R. Hyatt, J.W. Ellis, D.R. Pipkin, A.M. Mangan, M. Russell, D.S. Bolte, R.M. Engeman, T.J. Deliberto, and G.M. Linz.  2015. Selected highlights from other journals: Mechanical transmission of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica by starlings to livestock feeding systems. Veterinary Record: 177(13): 341.   doi: 10.1136/vr.h5182

Carlson, J.C., D.R. Hyatt, J.W. Ellis, D.R. Pipkin, A.M. Mangan, M. Russell, D.S. Bolte, R.M. Engeman, T.J. DeLiberto, and G.M. Linz. 2015. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella enterica transmission associated with starling-livestock interactions. Veterinary Microbiology 179:60-68.  doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.04.009

Carlson, J.C., D.R. Hyatt, K. Bentler, A.M. Mangan, M. Russell, A.J. Piaggio, and G.M. Linz. 2015. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates associated with starling-livestock interactions. Veterinary Microbiology 179:109-118.  doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.03.015

Forcey, G.M., W.E. Thogmartin, G.M. Linz, P.C. McKann, and S.M. Crimmins. 2015. Spatially explicit modeling of blackbird abundance in the Prairie Pothole Region. Journal of Wildlife Management 79(6):1022-1033. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.912

Linz, G.M., E.H. Bucher, S.B. Canavelli, E. Rodriguez, and M.L. Avery. 2015.Limitations of population suppression for protecting crops from bird depredation: A review. Crop Protection 76:46-52.  doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2015.06.005

Swirski, A.L., D.L. Pearl, M.L. Williams, H.J. Homan, G.M. Linz, N. Cernicchiaro, and J.T. LeJeune. Spatial epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dairy cattle in relation to night roosts of Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) in Ohio, USA (2007-2009). Zoonoses and Public Health 61:427-435. doi: 10.1111/zph.12092.

Tupper, S.K., S.J. Werner, J.C. Carlson, S.E. Petit, J.C. Wise, C.A. Lindell, and G.M. Linz. 2014. European starling feeding activity on repellent treated crops and pellets. Crop Protection 63:76-82. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2014.05.001.

Linz, G.M., R.S. Sawin, and M.W. Lutman. 2014. The influence of breeding experience on nest success in Red-winged Blackbird. Western North American Naturalist 74(1):123-129. doi: 10.3398/064.074.0113.

Werner, S.J., S.K. Tupper, S.E. Pettit, J.W. Ellis, J.C. Carlson, D.A. Goldade, N.M. Hofmann, H.J. Homan, and G.M. Linz. 2014. Application strategies for an anthraquinone-based repellent to protect oilseed sunflower crops from pest blackbirds. Crop Protection 59: 63-70.

Niner, M., G.M. Linz, H.J. Homan, and M. Clark. 2013. Open field test with Avipel Bird Repellent: Year I. Paper presented at the 35th National Sunflower Association Sunflower Research Workshop, Fargo, North Dakota`.

Linz, G.M. and H.J. Homan. 2013. Demonstration of "Avian Control" bird repellent (a.i., methyl anthranilate) for managing blackbird damage to ripening sunflower. Paper presented at the 35th National Sunflower Association Sunflower Research Workshop, Fargo, North Dakota.

Anderson, A., C.A. Lindell, K.M. Moxcey, W.F. Siemer, G.M. Linz, P.D. Curtis, J.E. Carroll, C.L. Burrows, J.R. Boulanger, K.M.M. Steensma, and S.A. Shwiff. 2013. Bird damage to select fruit crops: The cost of damage and the benefits of control in five states. Crop Protection 52: 103-109. doi: 10.1016/jcropro.2013.05.019.

Carlson, J. C., S. K. Tupper, S. J. Werner, S. E. Pettit, M. M. Santer, and G. M. Linz. 2013. Laboratory efficacy of an anthraquinone-based repellent for reducing bird damage to ripening corn. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 145:26-31.

Homan H.J., Stahl R.S., Linz G.M. 2013. Comparison of two models for estimating mortality from baitings with Compound DRC-1339 Concentrate avicide. Crop Protection 45:71-75. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2012.11.011.

Homan, H.J., J.T. LeJeune, D.L. Pearl, T.W. Seamans, A.A. Slowik, M.R. Morasch, and G.M. Linz. 2013. Use of dairies by postreproductive flocks of European starlings. Journal of Dairy Science 96(7): 4487-4493. doi: 10.3168/jds.2013-6712.

Klosterman, M.E., G.M. Linz, A.A. Slowik, and H.J. Homan. 2013. Comparisons between blackbird damage to corn and sunflower in North Dakota. Crop Protection 53: 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2013.06.004.



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