The National Wildlife Research Center and various cooperators have conducted immunocontraceptive research with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) for several years. Species tested in this research include the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) and the coyote ( Canis latrans).
The PZP vaccine is a highly effective contraceptive, but unfortunately it causes multiple estrous cycles in female deer. These multiple cycles and the recurrent sexual activity (and deer movements) associated with them may increase deer-vehicle collisions and other deer-human conflicts. The PZP vaccine does not seem to cause multiple estrous cycles in other species on which it has been tested, and it may prove to be a highly useful infertility agent for other wildlife.
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