Rabies in Free-Ranging Wildlife Project Publications

Rabies in Free-Ranging Wildlife Project Publications


Investigating the Ecology, Control, and Prevention of Terrestrial Rabies in Free-Ranging Wildlife



Pepin, K.M., S.L. Kay, B.D. Golas, S.S. Shriner, A.T. Gilbert, R.S. Miller, A.L. Graham, S. Riley, P.C. Cross, M.D. Samuel, M.B. Hooten, J.A. Hoeting, J.O. Lloyd-Smith, C.T. Webb, and M.G. Buhnerkempe. 2017.Inferring infection hazard in wildlife populations by linking data across individual and population scales. Ecology Letters.  doi: 10.1111/ele.12732


Bai, Y., A. Gilbert, K. Fox, L. Osikowicz, and M. Kosoy. 2016. Bartonella rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in wild carnivores from Colorado, USA.Journal of Wildlife  Diseases 52(4):844-849.  doi: 10.7589/2016-01-015  

Berentsen, A.R., S. Bender, P. Bender, D. Bergman, A.T. Gilbert, H.M. Rowland, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2016. Bait flavor preference and immunogenicity of ONRAB® baits in domestic dogs on the Navajo Nation, Arizona. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research 15:20-24.  doi:10.1016/j.jveb.2016.08.007              

Johnson, S.R., A.R. Berentsen, C. Ellis, A. Davis, and K.C. Vercauteren. 2016. Estimates of small Indian mongoose densities: Implications for rabies management. The Journal of Wildlife Management 80(1):37-47.  doi: 10.1002/jwmg.998  

Johnson, S.R., N.J. Crider, G.A. Weyer, R.D. Tosh, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2016. Bait development for oral delivery of pharmaceuticals to raccoons (Procyon lotor) and skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 52(4):893-901.  doi: 10.7589/2015-12-322  

Plowright, R.K., A.J. Peel, D.G. Streicker, A.T. Gilbert, H. McCallum, J. Wood, M.L. Baker, and O. Restif. 2016. Transmission or within-host dynamics driving pulses of zoonotic viruses in reservoir-host populations.  PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10(8): e0004796. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004796               


Luis, A.D., T.J. O'Shea, D.T.S. Hayman, J.L.N. Wood, A.A. Cunningham, A.T Gilbert, J.N. Mills, and C.T. Webb. 2015. Network analysis of host-virus communities in bats and rodents reveals determinants of cross-species transmission. Ecology Letters 18:1153-1162.  doi: 10.1111/ele.12491

Beasley J.C., T.C. Atwood, M.E. Byrne, K.C. VerCauteren, S.R. Johnson, and O.E. Rhodes Jr. 2015. A behaviorally-explicit approach for delivering vaccine baits to mesopredators to control epizootics in fragmented landscapes. PLoS One 10(1):e0113206.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113206

Berentsen, A.R., S. Vogt, A.N. Guzman, D.S. Vice, W.C. Pitt, A.B. Shiels, and  T.R. Spraker. 2015. Capillaria hepatica infection in black rats (Rattus rattus) on Diego Garcia, British Indian Ocean Territory. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 27(2):241-244.  doi: 10.1177/1040638715573298

Berentsen, A. R., R.G. Garcia-Cancel, E.M. Diaz-Negron, O.A. Diaz-Marrero, R.N. Reed, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2015. Boa constrictor : Geographic distribution: USA, Puerto Rico, Municipality of Cabo Rojo. Herpetological Review 46:572.

Gilbert, A.T., G.F. McCracken, L.L. Sheeler, L.I. Muller, D. O'Rourke, W.J. Kelch, and J.C. New, Jr. 2015. Rabies surveillance among bats in Tennessee, USA, 1996-2010. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 51(4):821-832.  doi: 10.7589/2014-12-277

Berentsen, A.R., S.R. Johnson, A.T. Gilbert, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2015. Exposure to rabies in small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus) from two regions in Puerto Rico. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 51(4):896-900.  doi:10.7589/2015-01-016

Pott, M., A.S. Wegmann, R. Griffiths, A. Samaniego-Herrera, R.J. Cuthbert, M. de L. Brooke, W.C. Pitt, A.R. Berentsen, N.D. Holmes, G.R. Howald, K.Ramos-Rendon, J.C. Russell. 2015. Improving the odds: Assessing bait availability before rodent eradications to aid in selecting bait application rates. Biological Conservation. 185:27-35. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2014.09.049

Pitt, W.C.,  A.R. Berentsen, A.B. Shiels, S.F. Volker, J.D. Eisemann, A. Wegmann,  and G. Howald. 2015. Non-target species mortality and the measurement of brodifacoum rodenticide residues after a rat (Rattus rattus) eradication on Palmyra Atoll, tropical Pacific. Biological Conservation 185:36-46.  doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2015.01.008

Pitt, W.C., R.T. Sugihara, and A.R. Berentsen. 2015. Effect of travel distance, home range, and bait on the management of small Indian mongooses, Herpestes auropunctatus. Biological Invasions 17:1743-1759.  doi 10.1007/s10530-014-0831-x

Mortlock, M., I.V. Kuzmin, J. Weyer, A.T. Gilbert, B. Agwanda, C.E. Rupprecht, L.H. Nel, T. Kearney, J.M. Malekani, and W. Markotter. 2015. Novel Paramyxoviruses in bats from Sub-Saharan Africa, 2007-2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases 21(10):1840-1843.  doi: 10.3201/eid2110.140368

Smyser, T.J., S.R. Johnson, M.D. Stallard, A.K. McGrew, L.K. Page, N. Crider, L.R. Ballweber, R.K. Swihart, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2015. Evaluation of anthelmintic fishmeal polymer baits for the control of Baylisascaris procyonis in free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 51(3):640-650. doi: 10.7589/2014-09-236

Anderson, A. and S.A. Shwiff. 2015. The cost of canine rabies on four continents. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 62:446-452.   doi: 10.1111/tbed.12168

Moran, D., P. Juliao, D. Alvarez, K.A. Lindblade, J.A. Ellison, A.T. Gilbert, B. Petersen, C.Rupprecht, and S. Recuenco. 2015. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies and exposure to bats in two rural communities in Guatemala. BMC Research Notes 8:955.  doi: 10.1186/s13104-014-0955-1

Gilbert, A., L. Greenberg, D. Moran, D. Alvarez, M. Alvarado, D.L. Garcia, and L. Peruski. 2015. Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercial modified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala.  Preventive Veterinary Medicine 118:36-44.  doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.10.011.


Slate, D., R. Chipman, T. Algeo, S.  Mills, K. Nelson, C. Croson, E. Dubovi, K. VerCauteren, R.W. Renshaw, T. Atwood, S. Johnson, and C. Rupprecht. 2014.  Safety and immunogenicity of Ontario rabies vaccine bait (ONRAB) in the first US field trial in raccoons (Procyon lotor).  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 50(3):582-595.  doi: 10.7589/2013-08-207.

Berentsen, A.R., S.R. Johnson, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2014. Bait matrix flavor preference by mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) in Puerto Rico: Implications for oral rabies vaccination. Caribbean Journal of Science 48(1):52-58.

Wallace, R.M., A. Gilbert, D. Slate, R. Chipman, A. Singh, C. Wedd, and J.D. Blanton. 2014. Right place, wrong species: A 20-year review of rabies virus cross species transmission among terrestrial mammals in the United States. PLoS One 9(10):e107539.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107539.

Berentsen, A.R., S. Bender, P. Bender, D. Bergman, K. Hausig, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2014. Preference among 7 bait flavors delivered to domestic dogs in Arizona: Implications for oral rabies vaccination on the Navajo Nation. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research 9:169-171. doi: 10.1016/jveb.2014.03.001.

Berentsen, A.R., S.P. Brummer, J.K. Young, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2014. Evaluation of six ONRAB® Ultralite bait flavor matrices delivered to coyotes (Canis latrans): Implications for oral rabies vaccination.  Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research 9:258-261. doi: 10.1016/j.jveb.2014.05.004.

Anderson, A., S.A. Shwiff, R.B. Chipman, T. Atwood, T. Cozzens, F. Fillo, R. Hale, B. Hatch, J. Maki, O.E. Rhodes, E.E. Rees, C.E. Rupprecht, R. Tinline, K.C. VerCauteren, and D. Slate. Forecasting the spread of raccoon rabies using a purpose-specific group decision-making process.  2014. Human-Wildlife Interactions 8(1):130-138.

Ellison, J.A., A.T. Gilbert, S.Recuenco, D. Moran, D.A. Alvarez, N.Kuzmina, D.L. Garcia, L.F. Peruski, M.T. Mendonca, K.A. Lindblade, and C.E. Rupprecht. 2014. Bat Rabies in Guatemala. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 8(7):e3070. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003070.

Vogt, S., D.S. Vice, W.C. Pitt, A.N. Guzman, E.J. Necessario, and A.R. Berentsen. 2014. Rat density on Diego Garcia: Implications for eradication feasibility. Proceedings of the 26th Vertebrate Pest Conference 26:172-175.  

Van Vuren, D.H., M.A. Ordenana, M.C. McGrann, and A.R. Berentsen. 2014. Managing California ground squirrels on levees using habitat modification. Proceedings of the 26th Vertebrate Pest Conference 26:180-183

Gilbert, A., D. Kohler, T. Rigg, J. Fischer, T. Spraker, K. Fox, and K. VerCauteren. 2014. A recent epizootic of skunk rabies and associated spillover in northern Colorado, USA. Proceedings of the 26th Vertebrate Pest Conference 26:323-327.  


Kim, B.I., J.D. Blanton, A. Gilbert, L. Castrodale, K. Hueffer, D. Slate, and C.E. Rupprecht. 2013. A conceptual model for the impact of climate change on fox rabies in Alaska, 1980-2010. Zoonoses and Public Health doi: 10.1111/zph.12044

Ellison, J.A., S.R. Johnson, N. Kuzmina, A. Gilbert, W.C. Carson, K.C. VerCauteren, and C.E. Rupprecht. 2013. Multidisciplinary approach to epizootiology and pathogenesis of bat rabies viruses in the United States. Zoonoses and Public Health 60:46-57.  doi: 10.1111/zph.12019.

Berentsen, A.R., M.R. Dunbar, C.E. Fitzpatrick, and W.D. Walter. 2013. Spatial ecology of urban raccoons in Northeastern Ohio: Implications for oral rabies vaccination. The Prairie Naturalist 45:39-45.

Fry, T.L., K.K. VanDalen, S.A. Shriner, S.M. Moore, C.A. Hanlon, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2013. Humoral immune response to oral rabies vaccination in raccoon kits: Problems and implications. Vaccine 31: 2811-2815. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.04.016.

Fry, T.L., K.K. VanDalen, C. Duncan, and K. Vercauteren. 2013. The safety of ONRAB® in select non-target wildlife. Vaccine 31: 3839-3842. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.06.069.

Vargas-Pino, F., V. Gutiérrez-Cedillo, E.J. Canales-Vargas, L.R. Gress-Ortega, L.A. Miller, C.E. Rupprecht, S.C. Bender, P. Garcia–Reyna, J. Ocampo-López, and D. Slate. 2013. Concomitant administration of Gonacon and rabies vaccine in female dogs (Canis familiaris) in Mexico. Vaccine 31:4442-4447.

Gilbert, A.T., A.R. Fooks, D.T.S. Hayman, D.L. Horton, T. Muller, R. Plowright, A.J. Peel, R. Bowen, J.L.N. Wood, J. Mills, A.A. Cunningham, and C.E. Rupprecht. 2013. Deciphering serology to understand the ecology of infectious diseases in wildlife. EcoHealth 10(3):298-313. doi: 10.1007/s10393-013-0856-0.

Tong, S., X. Zhu, Y. Li, M. Shi, J. Zhang, M. Bourgeois, H. Yang, X. Chen, S. Recuenco, J. Gomez, L. Chen, A. Johnson, Y. Tao, C. Dreyfus, W.Yu, R. McBride, P.J. Carney, A.T. Gilbert, J. Chang, Z. Guo, C.T. Davis, J.C. Paulson, J. Stevens, C.E. Rupprecht, E.C. Holmes, I.A. Wilson, and R.O. Donis. 2013. New world bats harbor diverse influenza A viruses. PLoS Pathogens 9(10): e1003657.  doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003657.

Kading, R.C., A.T. Gilbert, E.C. Mossel, M.B. Crabtree, I.V. Kuzmin, M. Niezgoda, B. Agwanda, W. Markotter, M.R. Weil, J.M. Montgomery, C.E. Rupprecht, and B.R. Miller. 2013. Isolation and molecular characterization of Fikirini rhabdovirus, a novel virus from a Kenyan bat. Journal of General Virology 94:2393-2398. doi 10.1099/vir.0.053983-0.

Berentsen, A.R., M.R. Dunbar, M.S. Becker, J.M'soka, E.Droge, N.M. Sakuya, W. Matandiko, R. McRobb, and C.A. Hanlon. 2013. Rabies, Canine Distemper, and Canine Parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two Zambian ecosystems. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 13(9):643-649. doi 10.1089/vbz.2012.1233.

Dirsmith, K., K. VanDalen, T. Fry, B. Charles, K. VerCauteren, and C. Duncan. 2013. Leptospirosis in Fox Squirrels (Sciurus niger) of Larimer County, Colorado, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 49(3):641-645. doi: 10.7589/2012-10-265.

Hayman, D.T.S., R.A. Bowen, P.M. Cryan, G.F. McCracken, T.J. O’Shea, A.J. Peel, A .Gilbert, C.T. Webb, and J.L.N. Wood. 2013. Ecology of zoonotic infectious diseases in bats: Current knowledge and future directions. Zoonoses and Public Health 60(1):2-21. doi: 10.1111/zph.12000.

Luis, A.D., D.T.S. Hayman, T.J O’Shea, P.M. Cryan, A.T. Gilbert, J.R.C. Pulliam, J.N. Mills, M.E.Timonin, C.K.R. Willis, A.A. Cunningham, A.R. Fooks, C.E. Rupprecht, J.L.N. Wood, and C.T. Webb. 2013. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: Are bats special? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B. Biological Sciences 280: 20122753. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.2753

Tao, Y., M. Shi, C. Conrardy, I.V. Kuzmin, S. Recuenco, B. Agwanda, D. A. Alvarez, J.A. Ellison, A.T. Gilbert, D. Moran, M. Niezgoda, K.A. Lindblade, E. C. Holmes, R.F. Breiman, C.E. Rupprecht, and S. Tong. 2013. Discovery of diverse polyomaviruses in bats and the evolutionary history of the Polyomaviridae. Journal of General Virology 94(4):738-748.  doi: 10.1099/vir.0.047928-0            

Quan, P., C. Firth, J.M. Conte, S.H. Williams, C.M. Zambrana-Torrelio, S.J. Anthony, J.A. Ellison, A.T. Gilbert, I.V. Kuzmin, M. Niezgoda, M.O.V. Osinubi, S. Recuenco, W. Markotter, R.F. Breiman, L. Kalemba, J. Malekani, K.A. Lindblade, M.K. Rostal, R. Ojeda-Flores, G. Suzan, L.B. Davis, D.M. Blau, A.B. Ogunkoya, D.A. Alvarez Castillo, D. Moran, S. Ngam, D. Akaibe, B. Agwanda, T. Briese, J.H. Epstein, P. Daszak, C.E. Rupprecht, E.C. Holmes, and W.I. Lipkin. 2013. Bats are a major natural reservoir for hepaciviruses and pegiviruses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(20):8194-8199.  doi: 10.1073/pnas.1303037110


Beasley, J.C., Beatty W.S., Atwood T.C., Johnson S.R., Rhodes Jr O.E. 2012. A comparison of methods for estimating raccoon abundance: Implications for disease vaccination programs. Journal of Wildlife Management 76:1290-1297.

Ellis, C.K., D.S. Carroll, R.R. Lash, A.T. Peterson, I.K. Damon, J. Malekani, and P. Formenty. 2012. Ecology and geography of human monkeypox case occurrences across Africa. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 48(2), 335-347.            

Fry, T., Van Dalen K., Hurley J., Nash P. 2012. Mucosal adjuvants to improve wildlife rabies vaccination. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 48:1042-6. DOI: 10.7589/2011-11-331.

Ramey, C.A., Mills K.H., Fischer J.W., McLean R.G. 2012. Didactic Lessons Derived from the Shoshone River Skunk Rabies Epizootic, in: S. N. Frey (Ed.), Proceedings of the 14th Wildlife Damage Mangement Conference: 64-73

VerCauteren, K.C., C.K. Ellis, R.Chipman, T.J. Deliberto, S. Shwiff, and D. Slate. 2012. Rabies in North America: a model of the one health approach. Pages 56-63 in S. N. Frey, editor. Proceedings of the 14th Wildlife Damage Management Conference, Nebraska City, NE. The Wildlife Damage Management Working Group of The Wildlife Society.


Follmann E., D. Ritter, R. Swor, M. Dunbar, and K. Hueffer. 2011. Preliminary Evaluation of Raboral V-RG (R) Oral Rabies Vaccine in Arctic Foxes (Vulpes lagopus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 47:1032-1035.

Shwiff S.A., C.P. Nunan, K.N. Kirkpatrick, and S.S. Shwiff. 2011. A retrospective economic analysis of the Ontario red fox oral rabies vaccination programme. Zoonoses Public Health 58:169-77.


10-FRY, T. L., T. C. ATWOOD, AND M. R. DUNBAR. 2010. Evaluation of rhodamine B as a biomarker for raccoons. Human-Wildlife Interactions 4:275-282 302K

10-PUSKAS, R. B., J. W. FISCHER, C. B. SWOPE, M. R. DUNBAR, R. G. MCLEAN, AND J. J. ROOT. 2010. Raccoon ( Procyon lotor) movements and dispersal associated with ridges and valleys of Pennsylvania: implications for rabies management. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 10: 1043-1048. 262K

10-SCHMIT, B. S., T. M. PRIMUS, J. C. HURLEY, D. J. KOHLER, AND S. F. GRAVES. 2010. Response of captive skunks to microencapsulated tetracycline. Journal of Wildlife Management 46:1024-1028. 164K


09-FRY, T. L., T. E. BARANOWSKI, B. D. HUGHEY, AND M. R. DUNBAR. 2009. A field-test of rhodamine B as a biomarker in raccoons. Proceedings of the Wildlife Damage Management Conference 13:115-120. 131K

09-JOHNSON, S. R., A. J. PIAGGIO, M. A. NEUBAUM, AND M. R. DUNBAR. 2009. Using genetics to assess differentiation among raccoons in an area with variable rabies status in Alabama. Proceedings of the Wildlife Damage Management Conference 13:40-48. 155K

09-ROOT, J. J., R. B. PUSKAS, J. W. FISCHER, C. B. SWOPE, M. A. NEUBAUM, S. A. REEDER, AND A. J. PIAGGIO. 2009. Landscape genetics of raccoons (Procyon lotor) associated with ridges and valleys of Pennsylvania: implications for oral rabies vaccination programs. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases 9:583-588.


08-BERENTSEN, A. R., M. R. DUNBAR, C. E. FITZPATRICK, AND R. G. MCLEAN. 2008. Barriers, corridors, and raccoon variant rabies in northeastern Ohio: research in progress. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 23:275-276. 1,400K

08-ROOT, J. J., R. G. MCLEAN, D. SLATE, K. A. MACCARTHY, AND J. E. OSORIO. 2008. Potential effect of prior raccoonpox virus infection in raccoons on vaccinia-based rabies immunization. BMC Immunology http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2172/9/57. 293K


07-FRY, T. L., AND M. R. DUNBAR. 2007. A review of biomarkers used for wildlife damage and disease management. Proceedings of the Wildlife Damage Management Conference 12:217-222.41K

07-JOJOLA, S. M., S. J. ROBINSON, AND K. C. VERCAUTEREN. 2007. Oral rabies vaccine (ORV) bait uptake by captive striped skunks. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43:97-106.


06-DUNBAR, M., AND K. A. MACCARTHY. 2006. Use of infrared thermography to detect signs of rabies infection in raccoons (Procyon lotor). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 37:518-523. 337K


05-79 SLATE, D., C. RUPRECHT, M. DUNBAR, AND R. MCLEAN. 2005. Oral rabies vaccination--a progress report. Proceedings of the Wildlife Damage Management Conference 11:12-13. 16K


04-12 BLACKWELL, B. F., T. W. SEAMANS, R. J. WHITE, Z. J. PATTON, R. M. BUSH, AND J. D. CEPEK. 2004. Exposure time of oral rabies vaccine baits relative to baiting density and raccoon population density. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40:222-229. 1,706K

04-48 JOJOLA, S. M., S. J. ROBINSON, AND K. C. VERCAUTEREN. 2004. Oral rabies vaccine (ORV) bait uptake by striped skunks: preliminary results. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 21:190-193. 269K

04-77 ROBINSON, S. J., S. M. JOJOLA, AND K. C. VERCAUTEREN. 2004. The role of bait manipulation in the delivery of oral rabies vaccine to skunks. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 21:194-197. 296K

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