Chemical and Metabolic Approaches for Minimizing Human-Wildlife Conflicts



Unger, S.D., E.F. Abernethy, S.L. Lance, R.R. Beasley, B.A. Kimball., T.W. McAuliffe, K.L. Jones, and O.E. Rhodes, Jr.  2015. Development and characterization of 33 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for the brown tree snake Boiga irregularis. BMC Research Notes 8:658.  doi: 10.1186/s13104-015-1620-z

Rattner, B.A., K.E. Horak, R.S. Lazarus, S.L. Schultz, S. Knowles, B.G. Abbo, and S.F. Volker. 2015.Toxicity reference values for chlorophacinone and their application for assessing anticoagulant rodenticide risk to raptors. Ecotoxicology 24:720-734.  doi: 10.1007/s10646-015-1418-8.

Stahl R.S., C.K. Ellis, P. Nol, W.R. Waters, M. Palmer, and K.C. VerCauteren. 2015. Fecal volatile organic compound profiles from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as indicators of Mycobacterium bovis exposure or Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination. PLoS ONE online 10.1371/journal.pone.0129740.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129740


Horak, K., R. Chipman, L. Murphy, and J. Johnston. 2014. Environmental contaminant concentrations in Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) muscle: Probabilistic risk assessment for human consumers. Journal of Food Protection 77(9):1634-1641. doi: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-13-364.

Rattner, B.A., K.E. Horak, R.S. Lazarus, D.A. Goldade, and J.J. Johnston. 2014. Toxicokinetics and coagulopathy threshold of the rodenticide diphacinone in Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33(1): 74-81. doi: 10.1002/etc.2390.


Goldade, D.A., J.M. Kemp, J.R. O'Hare, and L.A. Miller. 2013. Determination of an immunocontraceptive peptide in a wildlife vaccine formulation. Pages 149-158 in G. Cobb, editor. Evaluating Veterinary Pharmaceutical Behavior in the Environment. American Chemical Society. doi 10.1021/bk-2013-1126.ch006.

Homan H.J., Stahl R.S., and G.M. Linz. 2013. Comparison of two models for estimating mortality from baitings with Compound DRC-1339 Concentrate avicide. Crop Protection 45:71-75.

Horn, C. C., B. A. Kimball, H. Wang, J. Kaus, S. Dienel, A. Nagy, G. R. Gathright, B. J. Yates, and P. L. Andrews. 2013. Why Can't Rodents Vomit? A Comparative Behavioral, Anatomical, and Physiological Study. PloS one 8:e60537

Kimball, B.A,, K. Yamazaki, D. Kohler, R.A. Bowen, J.P. Muth, M. Opiekun, and G.K. Beauchamp. 2013. Avian influenza infection alters fecal odor in mallards. PLoS ONE 8(10): e75411. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075411

Rattner, B. A., K. E. Horak, R. S. Lazarus, D. A. Goldade, and J. J. Johnston. 2013. Toxicokinetics and Coagulopathy Threshold of the Rodenticide Diphacinone in Eastern Screech-Owls (Megascops Asio). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.



Kimball, B. A., J. H. Russell, and P. K. Ott. 2012. Phytochemical variation within a single plant species influences foraging behavior of deer. Oikos 121:743-751.

Peled, N., R. Ionescu, P. Nol, O. Barash, M. McCollum, K. Vercauteren, M. Koslow, R. Stahl, J. Rhyan, and H. Haick. 2012. Detection of volatile organic compounds in cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical 171-172: 588-594.

Rattner, B.A., K.E. Horak, R.S. Lazarus, K.M. Eisenreich, C.U. Meteyer, S.F. Volker, C.M. Campton, J.D. Eisemann, and J.J. Johnston. 2012. Assessment of toxicity and potential risk of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone using Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio). Ecotoxicology 21:832-846.


11-HUSSEY, A. M., B. A. KIMBALL, AND J. M. FRIEDMAN. 2011. Assessment of tannin variation in tamarisk folliage across a latitudinal gradient. Open Environmental & Biological Monitoring Journal 4:32-35. (Online: open/toebmj/articles/V004/32TOEMBJ.pdf)

11-KIMBALL, B. A., F. PFUND, M. GOURLEY, D. L. GRIFFIN, AND J. H. RUSSELL. 2011. Silvicultural attempts to induce browse resistance in conifer seedlings. International Journal of Forestry Research. (Online:


10-FIELD, K. L., G. K. BEAUCHAMP, B. A. KIMBALL, J. A. MENNELLA, AND A. A. BACHMANOV. 2010. Bitter avoidance in guinea pigs ( Cavia porcellus) and mice ( Mus musculus and Peromyscus leucopus). Journal of Comparative Psychology 124:455-459. 308K

10-HORAK, K. E., C. R. WERMAGER, AND T. M. PRIMUS. 2010. The use of liver microsome in-vitro methods to study toxicant metabolism and predict species efficacy. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 24:195-198. 324K

10-KIMBALL, B. A., AND J. D. TAYLOR II. 2010. Mammalian herbivore repellents: tools for altering plant palatability. Outlooks on Pest Management 21:181-187. 428K

1 0-RATTNER, B. A., K. E. HORAK, S. E. WARNER, D. D. DAY, AND J. J. JOHNSTON. 2010. Comparative toxicity of diphacinone to northern bobwhite ( Colinus virginianus) and American kestrels ( Falco sparverius). Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 24:146-152. 985K


09-FIELD, K. L., A. A. BACHMANOV, J. A. MENNELLA, G. K. BEAUCHAMP, AND B. A. KIMBALL. 2009. Protein hydrolysates are avoided by herbivores but not by omnivores in tow-choice preference tests. PLoS ONE Jan 2009. 420K

09-KIMBALL, B. A., J. TAYLOR, K. R. PERRY, AND C. CAPELLI. 2009. Deer responses to repellent stimuli. Journal of Chemical Ecology 35:1461-1470.

09-KIMBALL, B. A., AND K. R. PERRY. 2009. Evaluating new protein sources for development of a deer repellent product. Crop Protection 28:364-366. 126K


08-FIELD, K. L., B. A. KIMBALL, J. A. MENNELLA, G. K. BEAUCHAMP, AND A. A. BACHMANOV. 2008. Avoidance of hydrolyzed casein by mice. Physiology & Behavior 93:189-199. 201K

08-FIGUEROA, J. A., B. A. KIMBALL, AND K. R. PERRY. 2008. Lagomorph and rodent responses to two protein hydrolysates. Crop Protection 27:851-854. 360K

08-KIMBALL, B. A., J. H. RUSSELL, J. P. DEGRAAN, AND K. R. PERRY. 2008. Screening hydrolyzed casein as a deer repellent for reforestation applications. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 23:172-176. 283K

08-STAHL, R. S., J. J. JOHNSTON, AND G. M. LINZ. 2008. Estimating the efficacy of DRC-1339-treated rice bait in blackbird staging areas in North Dakota ujsing a bioenergetics simulation. 30th National Sunflower Association Sunflower Research Forum online 200K

08-STAHL, R. S., S. J. WERNER, J. L. CUMMINGS, AND J. J. JOHNSTON. 2008. Computer simulations of baiting efficacy for raven management using DRC-1339 egg baits. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 23:94-97. 165K

08-THIEMANN, G. W., R. S. STAHL, S. BARUCH-MORDO, AND S. W. BRECK. 2008. Trans fatty acids provide evidence of anthropogenic feeding by black bears. Human-Wildlife Conflicts 2:183-193. 562K


07-HURLEY, J. C., P. A. PIPAS, S. K. TUPPER, J. L. CUMMINGS, AND R. S. STAHL. 2007. Field method for analyzing birds for avicide 3-chloro-p-toluidine hydrochloride. Proceedings of the Wildlife Damage Management Conference 12:94-102. 166K

07-JOHNSTON, J. J. 2007. Assessing rodenticide hazards: improving the art and science of risk assessment. Proceedings of the Wildlife Damage Management Conference 12:170-174.191K

07-JOHNSTON, J. J., AND J. L. SNOW. 2007. Population-based fish consumption survey and probabalistic methylmercury risk assessment. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 3:1214-1227. 72K

07-JOHNSTON, J. J., R. S. STAHL, H. J. HOMAN, G. M. LINZ, AND W. C. PITT. 2007. Probabilistic bioenergetic/toxicity modeling approach for estimating toxicant induced mortality to target invasive species and non-target wildlife. Pages 393-397 in G. W. Witmer, W. C. Pitt, and K. A. Fagerstone, editors. Managing invasive vertebrate species: proceedings of an international symposium. USDA/APHIS/National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. 79K

07-KIMBALL, B. A., AND V. BILLINGS. 2007. Do herbivores associate flavours with specific consequences in flavour aversion learning? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 107:252-261. 267K

07-NASH, P., C. A. FURCOLOW, K. S. BYNUM, C. A. YODER, L. A. MILLER, AND J. J. JOHNSTON. 2007. 20,25-Diazacholesterol as an oral contraceptive for black-tailed prairie dog population management. Human-Wildlife Conflicts 1:60-67. (PDF; 670KB)

07-PRIMUS, T. M., S. M. JOJOLA, S. J. ROBINSON, AND J. J. JOHNSTON. 2007. Determination of sulfadimethoxine residues in skunk serum by HPLC. Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies 30:2095-2102. 154K

07-WERNER, S. J., J. L. CUMMINGS, S. K. TUPPER, J. C. HURLEY, R. S. STAHL, AND T. M. PRIMUS. 2007. Caffeine formulation for avian repellency. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:1676-1681. 94K


06-KIMBALL, B. A., AND D. L. NOLTE. 2006. Animal tissue-based herbivore repellents: scary odours or altered palatability? Pages 59-72 in C. J. Feare and D. P. Cowan, editors. Advances in vertebrate pest management Vol IV. Filander Verlag, Furth, Federal Republic of Germany. (PDF; 203KB)

06-KIMBALL, B. A., AND D. L. NOLTE. 2006. Development of a new deer repellent for the protection of forest resources. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 21:108-111. (PDF; 209KB)

06-MAULDIN, R. E., T. M. PRIMUS, T. A. BUETTGENBACH, AND J. J. JOHNSTON. 2006. A simple HPLC method for the determination of chlorpyrifos in black oil sunflower seeds. Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies 29: 339-348. (PDF; 107KB)

06-PRIMUS, T. M., D. J. KOHLER, J. J. JOHNSTON, R. T. SUGIHARA, AND W. C. PITT. 2006. Determination of diphacinone residues in Hawaiian invertebrates. Journal of Chromatographic Science 44:1-5. (PDF; 96KB ) (*Authors listed in PDF are incomplete)


05-6 AVERY, M. L., S. J. WERNER, J. L. CUMMINGS, J. S. HUMPHREY, M. P. MILLESON, J. C. CARLSON, T. M. PRIMUS, AND M. J. GOODALL. 2005. Caffeine for reducing bird damage to newly seeded rice. Crop Protection 24:651-657. (PDF; 312KB)

05-14 BYNUM, K. S., C. A. YODER, J. D. EISEMANN, J. J. JOHNSTON, AND L. A. MILLER. 2005. Development of nicarbazin as a reproductive inhibitor for resident Canada geese. Proceedings of the Wildlife Damage Management Conference 11:179-189. (PDF; 87KB)

05-40 HOMAN, H. J., R. S. STAHL, J. J. JOHNSTON, AND G. M. LINZ. 2005. Estimating DRC-1339 mortality using bioenergetics: a case study of the European starling. Proceedings of the Wildlife Damage Management Conference 11:202-208. (PDF; 36KB)

05-JOHNSTON, J. J. 2005. Evaluation of cocoa- and coffee-derived methylxanthines as toxicants for the control of pest coyotes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53:4069-4075. (PDF; 370KB)

05-JOHNSTON, J. J., M. J. HOLMES, A. HART, D. J. KOHLER, AND R. S. STAHL. 2005. Probabilistic model for estimating field mortality of target and non-target bird populations when simultaneously exposed to avicide bait. Pest Management Science 61:649-659. (PDF; 338KB)

05-JOHNSTON, J. J., D. L. NOLTE, B. A. KIMBALL, K. R. PERRY, AND J. C. HURLEY. 2005. Increasing acceptance and efficacy of zinc phosphide rodenticide baits via modification of the carbohydrate profile. Crop Protection 24:385. (PDF; 203KB)  

05-JOHNSTON, J. J., W. C. PITT, R. T. SUGIHARA, J. D. EISEMANN, T. M. PRIMUS, M. J. HOLMES, J. CROCKER, AND A. HART. 2005. Probabilistic risk assessment for snails, slugs, and endangered honeycreepers in diphacinone rodenticide baited areas on Hawaii, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24:1557-1567. (PDF; 957KB)

05-JOHNSTON, J. J., T. M. PRIMUS, T. BUETTGENBACH, C. A. FURCOLOW, M. J. GOODALL, D. SLATE, R. B. CHIPMAN, J. L. SNOW, AND T. J. DELIBERTO. 2005. Evaluation and significance of tetracycline stability in rabies vaccine baits. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41:549-558. (PDF; 132KB)

05-66 PRIMUS, T. M., B. A. KIMBALL, J. HURLEY, J. J. JOHNSTON, S. BLOM, AND P. J. SAVARIE. 2005. Stability of the tranquilizer drug propionylpromazine hydrochloride in formulated products. Pest Management Science 61:605-611. (PDF; 149KB)

05-STAHL, R. S., C. FURCOLOW, J. C. HURLEY, AND J. J. JOHNSTON. 2005. Characterizing 3-chloro-p-toluidine hydrochloride on rough-hulled rice and ethyl-cellulose-coated rice baits using high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatographic Sciene 43:367-371. (PDF; 96KB)

05-94 WERNER, S. J., H. J. HOMAN, M. L. AVERY, G. M. LINZ, E. A. TILLMAN, A. A. SLOWIK, R. W. BYRD, T. M. PRIMUS, AND M. J. GOODALL. 2005. Evaluation of Bird Shield as a blackbird repellent in ripening rice and sunflower fields. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:251-257. (PDF; 197KB)


04-29 FAGERSTONE, K. A., J. J. JOHNSTON, AND P. J. SAVARIE. 2004. Predacides for canid predation management. Sheep & Goat Research Journal 19:76-79. (PDF; 317KB)

04- 94 STAHL, R. S., W. M. ARJO, K. K. WAGNER, C. FURCOLOW, D. L. NOLTE, AND J. J. JOHNSTON. 2004. Development of a high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy method for the determination of strychnine concentrations in insects used to assess potential risks to insectivores. Journal of Chromatography B 811(2004):257-262. (PDF; 93KB)

04-95 STAHL, R. S., H. J. HOMAN, G. M. LINZ, AND J. J. JOHNSTON. 2004. Using fatty acid profiles to assess dietary intake of sunflower in red-winged blackbirds. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 21:87-91. (PDF; 335KB)


03-90 STAHL, R. S., K. VERCAUTEREN, T. L. BUETTENBACH, AND J. J. JOHNSTON. 2003. Determination of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), a component of nicarbazin, in Canada goose ( Branta canadensis) eggshells using high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51(5):1130-1135. (PDF; 380KB)

03-91 STAHL, R. S., K. C. VERCAUTEREN, D. KOHLER, AND J. J. JOHNSTON. 2003. 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) concentrations in egg shells as a predictor of nicarbazin comsumption and DNC dose in goose eggs. Pest Management Science 59:1052-1056. (PDF; 291KB)


02-55 JOHNSTON, J. J. Development of chemistry-based tools for wildlife damage management. Pesticide Outlook 13(6):250-253. (PDF; 229KB)

02-56 JOHNSTON, J. J., D. A. GOLDADE, AND R. B. CHIPMAN. 2002. Capsaicin migration through maple sap collection tubing. Crop Protection 21 (2002):1109-1112. (PDF; 194KB)

02-57 JOHNSTON, J. J., M. J. GOODALL, C. A. YODER, C. A. FURCOLOW, D. A. GOLDADE, B. A. KIMBALL, AND L. A. MILLER. 2002. Desmesterol: a biomarker for the efficient development of 20,25-diazacholesterol as a contraceptive for pest wildlife. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51(1):140-145. (PDF; 363KB)

02-58 JOHNSTON, J. J., P. J. SAVARIE, T. M. PRIMUS, J. D. EISEMANN, J. C. HURLEY, AND D. J. KOHLER. 2002. Risk assessment of an acetaminophen baiting program for chemical control of brown tree snakes on Guam: evaluation of baits, snake residues, and potential primary and secondary hazards. Environmental Science & Technology 36:3827-3833. (PDF; 549KB)

02-103 STAHL, R. S., T. W. CUSTER, P. A. POCHOP, AND J. J. JOHNSTON. 2002. Improved method for quantifying the avicide 3-chloro-p-toluidine hydrochloride in bird tissues using a deuterated surrogate/GC/MS method. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50(4):732-738. (PDF; 540KB)

02-104 STAHL, AND J. J. JOHNSTON. 2002. High-performance liquid chromatography-based determination of nicarbazin excretion in waterfowl. Journal of Chromatography B 775(2002):103-108. (PDF; 234KB)

02-121 VOLZ, S. A., AND J. JOHNSTON. 2002. Solid phase extraction/gas chromatography/electron capture detector method for determination of organochlorine pesticides in wildlife and wildlife food sources. Journal of Separation Science 25:119-124. (PDF; 372KB)

*See also "Publications" under "Exploratory Chemistry," "Formulation Chemistry," "Wildlife Genetics," and "Radioisotope Laboratory

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Project Goal and Objectives
Exploratory Chemistry
Formulation Chemistry
Methods Development Chemistry
Radioisotope Laboratory




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