Exploratory Chemistry

Exploratory Chemistry

photo of Dr. Bruce Kimball
photo of repellent field study plot

The Exploratory Chemical Research Team is part of the Analytical Chemistry Project at the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC). NWRC scientists develop methods to resolve problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and humans. The Exploratory Chemical Research Team participates in this goal by conducting research at the interface of ecology and chemistry. A variety of sophisticated analytical techniques are employed to investigate the role of chemicals in such animal behaviors as foraging preference, prey seeking, and flavor aversion. Through a basic understanding of chemically mediated behaviors, team research generates applications for resolving human/animal conflicts. Research conducted by the team is often in collaboration with fellow NWRC scientists, researchers from other federal agencies, and university faculty.

Bruce A. Kimball 
Philadelphia, PA
(267) 519-4930

Selected Recent Publications

Kimball, B.A., D.A. Wilson, and D.W. Wesson.  2016. Alterations of the volatile metabolome in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. Scientific Reports 6:19495.  doi: 10.1038/srep19495

09-KIMBALL, B. A., J. TAYLOR, K. R. PERRY, AND C. CAPELLI. 2009. Deer responses to repellent stimuli. Journal of Chemical Ecology 35:1461-1470.

09-FIELD, K. L., A. A. BACHMANOV, J. A. MENNELLA, G. K. BEAUCHAMP, AND B. A. KIMBALL. 2009. Protein hydrolysates are avoided by herbivores but not by omnivores in tow-choice preference tests. PLoS ONE Jan 2009. 420K

09-KIMBALL, B. A., AND K. R. PERRY. 2009. Evaluating new protein sources for development of a deer repellent product. Crop Protection 28:364-366. 126K

08-FIELD, K. L., B. A. KIMBALL, J. A. MENNELLA, G. K. BEAUCHAMP, AND A. A. BACHMANOV. 2008. Avoidance of hydrolyzed casein by mice. Physiology & Behavior 93:189-199. 201K

08-FIGUEROA, J. A., B. A. KIMBALL, AND K. R. PERRY. 2008. Lagomorph and rodent responses to two protein hydrolysates. Crop Protection 27:851-854. 360K

08-KIMBALL, B. A., AND K. R. PERRY. 2008. Manipulating beaver ( Castor canadensis) feeding responses to invasive tamarisk ( Tamarix spp.). Journal of Chemical Ecology 34:1050-1056. 170K

08-KIMBALL, B. A., J. H. RUSSELL, J. P. DEGRAAN, AND K. R. PERRY. 2008. Screening hydrolyzed casein as a deer repellent for reforestation applications. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 23:172-176. 283K

07-56 KIMBALL, B. A., AND V. BILLINGS. 2007. Do herbivores associate flavours with specific consequences in flavour aversion learning? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 107:252-261. 267K

06-50 KIMBALL, B. A., AND D. L. NOLTE. 2006. Animal tissue-based herbivore repellents: scary odours or altered palatability? Pages 59-72 in C. J. Feare and D. P. Cowan, editors. Advances in vertebrate pest management Vol IV. Filander Verlag, Furth, Federal Republic of Germany. (PDF; 203KB)

06-51 KIMBALL, B. A., AND D. L. NOLTE. 2006. Development of a new deer repellent for the protection of forest resources. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 21:108-111. (PDF; 209KB)

05-50 KIMBALL, B. A., AND D. L. NOLTE. 2005. Herbivore experience with plant defense compounds influences acquisition of new flavor aversions. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 91:17-34. (PDF; 280KB)

05-51 KIMBALL, B. A., D. L. NOLTE, AND K. B. PERRY. 2005. Hydrolyzed casein reduces browsing of trees and shrubs by white-tailed deer. HortScience 40:1810-1814. (PDF; 244KB)

05-52 KIMBALL, B. A., J. H. RUSSELL, D. L. GRIFFIN, AND J. J. JOHNSTON. 2005. Response factor considerations for the quantitative analysis of western redcedar ( Thuja plicata) foliar monoterpenes. Journal of Chromatographic Science 43:253-258. (PDF; 570KB)

04-52 KIMBALL, B. A., W. M. ARJO, AND J. J. JOHNSTON. 2004. Single-point calibration with a non-linear detector: carbohydrate analysis of conifer needles by hydrophobic interaction chromatography--evaporative light-scattering detection (HIC-ELSD). Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies 27:1835-1848. (PDF; 560KB)

04-53 KIMBALL, B. A., L. E. DZIBA, J. J. JOHNSTON, AND F. D. PROVENZA. 2004. Chromatographic analysis of sagebrush monoterpenes in blood plasma. Journal of Chromatographic Science 42:2004. (PDF; 509KB)

04-71 NOLTE, D. L., B. A. KIMBALL, K. R. PERRY, J. J. VILLALBA, AND F. D. PROVENZA. 2004. Effects of forage nutritional quality (energy and protein) on deer acceptance of foods containing secondary metabolites. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 21:338-245. (PDF; 681KB)

03-51 KIMBALL, B. A., T. P. PRIMUS, AND, J. J. JOHNSTON. 2003. Direct analysis of plasticizers in aqueous samples by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS-MS) Journal of Analytical Toxicology 27:309-312. (PDF; 22KB)

02-25 DELIBERTO, T. J., A. SEGLUND, W. JOCHLE, AND B. A. KIMBALL 2002. Assessment of cabergoline as a reproductive inhibitor in coyotes ( Canis latrans). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility (Supplement) 60:53-64. (PDF; 691KB)

02-60 KIMBALL, B.A., F. D. PROVENZA, AND E. A. BURRITT. 2002. Importance of alternative foods on the persistence of flavor aversions: implications for the application of flavor avoidance learning in wildlife damage management. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 76:249-258. (PDF; 388KB)

Project Homepage 
Project Goal and Objectives
Exploratory Chemistry
Formulation Chemistry
Methods Development Chemistry
Radioisotope Laboratory




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