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Vertebrate Control Products

TechNotes are available here in PDF format. When applying pesticides, follow all directions found on the current label of the EPA-registered pesticide product in use.


Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH): Immunocontraceptive vaccines (GonaCon) containing GnRH are for fertility control in white-tailed deer, and wild or feral horses and burros.

  • GonaCon - Deer; EPA Reg. No 56228-40
  • GonaCon - Equine; EPA Reg. No 56228-41


Brodifacoum: Two formulations of brodifacoum are available for eradicating and controlling island rodents for conservation purposes. Brodifacoum-25D Conservation is formulated for dry ‘Mediterranean' environments. In wetter environments, Brodifacoum-25D Conservation may rapidly decompose. Brodifacoum-25W Conservation is formulated to slow degradation and is better suited for wetter environments.

  • Brodifacoum-25W Conservation; EPA Reg. No 56228-36
  • Brodifacoum-25D Conservation;  EPA Reg. No. 56228-37

Diphacinone: Diphacinone 50 Conservation is available for eradicating and controlling rodents on islands for conservation purposes. It is formulated to withstand both wet and dry climates.

  • Diphacinone-50: Pelleted Rodenticide Bait for Conservation Purposes; EPA Reg. No. 56228-35

Strychnine: Strychnine is a naturally occurring alkaloid obtained from the seed of Strychnos nux vomica, a small tree native to the Asia-Pacific region. In the past, strychnine was registered to control rodents, depredating birds, and mammals such as skunks and coyotes. Above-ground uses were canceled in 1988. It remains registered for below-ground use to control damage caused by pocket gophers.

  • Strychnine Milo Burrow Builders; EPA Reg. No. 56228-11
  • Strychnine Oats  Burrow Builders; EPA Reg. No. 56228-12
  • Strychnine Milo  Hand Baiting; EPA Reg. No. 56228-19
  • Strychnine Oats  Hand Baiting; EPA Reg. No.56228-20

Zinc Phosphide: Zinc phosphide is used in rodenticide baits to control a variety of rodent species including rats, mice, voles, ground squirrels and prairie dogs. Zinc phosphide products registered by APHIS cannot be used to control rodents in and around the home.

  • Zinc Phosphide on Wheat; EPA Reg. No. 56228-3
  • Zinc Phosphide Concentrate; EPA Reg. No. 56228-6
  • Zinc Phosphide on Oats; EPA Reg. No. 56228-14

Carbon and Sodium Nitrate (Gas Cartridge): Gas cartridges are incendiary devices designed to give off carbon monoxide when ignited. They are used to fumigate burrows of certain rodents and other mammals.

  • APHIS-Only Gas Cartridge; EPA Reg. No. 56228-2
  • APHIS-Only Large Gas Cartridge; EPA Reg. No. 56228-21
  • Gas Cartridge; EPA Reg. No. 56228-61
  • Large Gas Cartridge; EPA Reg. No. 56228-62


DRC-1339: DRC-1339 is a slow-acting avicide registered for controlling blackbirds, starlings, pigeons, gulls, magpies and ravens that damage agricultural crops, personal property or prey upon federally-designated threatened or endangered species.

  • Compound DRC-1339 Concentrate - Livestock, Nest & Fodder Depredations; EPA Reg. No. 56228-29
  • DRC-1339 Technical (Manufacturing Use Product); EPA Reg. No. 56228-59
  • Compound DRC-1339 Concentrate – Bird Control; EPA Reg. No. 56228-63

Methiocarb: Methiocarb is one of the most effective avian repellents known. APHIS recently registered methiocarb as a deterrent for ravens that destroy eggs of federally designated threatened or endangered species. Eggs similar in appearance to those of the species to be protected are treated with methiocarb. Upon ingestion, the raven becomes sick and develops an aversion to consuming similar-looking eggs.

  • Mesurol 75% Wettable Powder Aversive Conditioning Egg Treatment; EPA Reg. No. 56228-33

Corn Oil: Oil is applied to eggs during the nesting season to prevent hatching. Because nests are not destroyed and eggs are not removed, nesting birds are encouraged to continue incubation, often well beyond the normal time for hatching. APHIS recommends using corn oil as an egg-oiling agent. This substance is a minimum risk pesticide exempt from EPA registration requirements. Tech Note

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: Sodium Lauryl Sulfate can be used as a wetting agent to control blackbirds and starlings in roosts. This substance is a minimum risk pesticide and exempt from EPA registration requirements. Tech Note


Sodium Cyanide: The M-44 device containing sodium cyanide is registered for control of coyotes, foxes, and feral dogs that prey on livestock, poultry or federally designated threatened or endangered species.

  • M-44 Cyanide Capsules; EPA Reg. No. 56228-15           
  • M-44 Cyanide Capsules Arctic Fox; EPA Reg. No. 56228-32

Compound 1080 (Sodium Fluoroacetate): Compound 1080 is a naturally-occurring organic fluorine compound extracted from the West African plant "ratbane" (Dichapetalum toxicarium). In the past, Compound 1080 was registered for controlling canids, commensal rodents, and field rodents. Currently its single registration is for use in the livestock protection collar (LPC) for controlling coyotes preying on sheep and goats. The LPC is a small rubber collar, worn by sheep or goats, which contains two small reservoirs of the toxin. It is selective for individual problem animals, since it is only administered when the coyote punctures the bladder during the act of biting the throat of the collared animal.

  • Sodium Fluoroacetate (Compound 1080) Livestock Protection Collar; EPA Reg. No. 56228-22
  • Compound 1080 (LPC) Manufacturing-Use Product; EPA Reg. No. 56228-26


Acetaminophen: For use in mouse baits to control brown treesnakes on Guam or the Northern Mariana Islands.
  • Acetaminophen For Brown Treesnake Control; EPA Reg. No. 56228-34

Cinnamon oil, Clove Oil, and Eugenol: Three compounds have proven to be effective snake repellents and irritants to snakes when sprayed directly on the animal: cinnamon oil, clove oil, and eugenol. These substances are minimum risk pesticides and exempt from EPA registration requirements. This Tech Note describes techniques to use these materials as snake repellents. Tech Note

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