Vertebrate Control Products

Vertebrate Control Products

TechNotes are available here in PDF format. When applying pesticides, follow all directions found on the current label of the EPA-registered pesticide product in use.


Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH): GonaCon Immunocontraceptive vaccine is for fertility control in white-tailed deer, and wild or feral horses and burros.

  • GonaCon - EPA Reg. No 56228-40
  • GonaCon - Equine EPA Reg. No 56228-41


Brodifacoum: Two formulations of brodifacoum are available for eradicating and controlling island rodents for conservation purposes. Brodifacoum 25D Conservation is formulated for dry ‘Mediterranean' environments. In wetter environments, Brodifacoum 25D may rapidly decompose. Brodifacoum 25W Conservation is formulated to slow degradation and is better suited for wetter environments.

  • Brodifacoum 25W Conservation - EPA Reg. No 56228-36
  • Brodifacoum 25D Conservation - EPA Reg. No. 56228-37

Diphacinone: Diphacinone 50 Conservation is available for eradicating and controlling rodents on islands for conservation purposes. It is formulated to withstand both wet and dry climates.

  • Diphacinone 50 Conservation - EPA Reg. No. 56228-35

Strychnine: Strychnine is a naturally occurring alkaloid obtained from the seed of Strychnos nux vomica, a small tree native to the Asia-Pacific region. In the past, strychnine was registered to control rodents, depredating birds, and mammals such as skunks and coyotes. Above-ground uses were canceled in 1988. It remains registered for below-ground use to control damage caused by pocket gophers.

  • 0.5% Strychnine Milo Pocket Gopher Bait for Use in Burrow Builders - EPA Reg. No. 56228-11
  • 0.5% Strychnine S.R.O. Pocket Gopher Bait for Use in Burrow Builders - EPA Reg. No. 56228-12
  • 0.5% Strychnine Milo for Hand Baiting Pocket Gophers - EPA Reg. No. 56228-19
  • 0.5% Strychnine on Oats for Hand Baiting Pocket Gophers - EPA Reg. No.56228-20

Zinc Phosphide: Zinc phosphide is used in rodenticide baits to control a variety of rodent species including rats, mice, voles, ground squirrels and prairie dogs. Zinc phosphide products registered by APHIS cannot be used to control rodents in and around the home.

  • Zinc Phosphide On Wheat for Mouse Control - EPA Reg 56228-3
  • Zinc Phosphide Concentrate for Rodent and Lagomorph Control - EPA Reg. No. 56228-6
  • Zinc Phosphide on Oats - EPA Reg. No. 56228-14

Gas Cartridge: Gas cartridges are incendiary devices designed to give off carbon monoxide when ignited. They are used to fumigate burrows of certain rodents and other mammals.

  • Gas Cartridge - EPA Reg. No. 56228-2
  • Large Gas Cartridge - EPA Reg. No. 56228-21


Compound DRC-1339: Compound DRC-1339 is a slow-acting avicide registered for controlling blackbirds, starlings, pigeons, gulls, magpies and ravens that damage agricultural crops, personal property or prey upon federally-designated threatened or endangered species.

  • Starlicide
  • DRC-1339 Concentrate-Feedlots - EPA Reg. No. 56228-10
  • Compound DRC-1339 Concentrate-Gulls - EPA Reg. No. 56228-17
  • Compound DRC-1339 98% Concentrate-Pigeons - EPA Reg. No. 56228-28
  • Compound DRC-1339 Concentrate-Staging Areas - EPA Reg. No. 56228-30
  • Compound DRC-1339 Concentrate-Livestock, Nest & Fodder Depredations - EPA Reg. No. 56228-29

Methiocarb: Methiocarb is one of the most effective avian repellents known. APHIS recently registered methiocarb as a deterrent for ravens that destroy eggs of federally designated threatened or endangered species. Eggs similar in appearance to those of the species to be protected are treated with methiocarb. Upon ingestion, the raven becomes sick and develops an aversion to consuming similar-looking eggs.

  • Mesurol 75% Wettable Powder Aversive Conditioning Egg Treatment - EPA Reg. No. 56228-33

Egg Oil (Corn Oil): Oil is applied to eggs during the nesting season to prevent hatching. Because nests are not destroyed and eggs are not removed, nesting birds are encouraged to continue incubation, often well beyond the normal time for hatching. USDA/APHIS recommends using corn oil as an egg-oiling agent. This substance is exempt from EPA registration requirements. Tech Note

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: Sodium Lauryl Sulfate can be used as a wetting agent to control blackbirds and starlings in roosts. This substance is exempt from EPA registration requirements. Tech Note


M-44 Cyanide: The M-44, which contains sodium cyanide, is registered for control of coyotes, foxes, and feral dogs which prey on livestock, poultry or federally designated threatened or endangered species.
*Use Restrictions

  • M-44 Cyanide Capsules - EPA Reg. No. 56228-15, Tech Note
  • M-44 Cyanide Capsules Arctic Fox - EPA Reg. No. 56228-32
  • M-44 Cyanide Capsules Coyotes, Fox, Wild Dogs - EPA Reg. No. 56228-15

Sodium Fluoroacetate - Compound 1080: Sodium monofluoroacetate (Compound 1080) is a naturally-occurring organic fluorine compound extracted from the West African plant "ratbane" (Dichapetalum toxicarium). In the past, Compound 1080 was registered for controlling canids, commensal rodents, and field rodents. Currently its single registration is for use in the livestock protection collar (LPC) for controlling coyotes preying on sheep and goats. The LPC is a small rubber collar, worn by sheep or goats, which contains two small reservoirs of the toxin. It is selective for individual problem animals, since it is only administered when the coyote punctures the bladder during the act of biting the throat of the collared animal.

Sodium fluoroacetate (Compound 1080) Livestock Protection Collar EPA Reg. No. 56228-22


Acetaminophen: For use in baits to control Brown treesnakes.

  • Acetaminophen - EPA Reg. No. 56228-34

Snake Repellents: Three compounds have proven to be effective irritants to snakes when sprayed directly on the animal, cinnamon oil, clove oil and eugenol. This substance is exempt from EPA registration requirements. This Tech Note describes techniques to use these materials as snake repellents. Tech Note



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