National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC)

National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC)


Managing Vertebrate Invasive Species: Proceedings of an International Symposium
Fort Collins , Colorado 
August 7-9, 2007

Gary W. Witmer, William C. Pitt, and Kathleen A.Fagerstone, Editors

On August 7-9, 2007, the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) hosted an international symposium on managing invasive birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians. About 160 people attended. The goal of the symposium was to highlight research, management, and public education campaigns associated with invasive wildlife. Speakers at the plenary sessions provided national and international perspectives and summaries of invasive species problems. More than 50 additional speakers, from the United States and eight foreign countries, presented information on economic and other impacts of invasive species; the regulatory environment; the need for coordination of efforts among agencies and nations; pathways and means-of-entry for invasives; and detection, prevention, eradication and monitoring of individual species.


Title Page/Acknowledgements/How to Order


1 Opening Comments — Richard L. Bruggers 15K

2 Environmental and Economic Costs of Vertebrate Species Invasions into the United States — David Pimentel 61K

9 Invasive Species: A National Perspective and the Need for a Coordinated Response — Lori Williams 28K

12 International Perspective on Programmes of Invasive Vertebrate Species — Greg Sherley 120K

29 A “Community” Approach to Invasive Species Management: Some Pacific Case Studies — Alan Saunders, Henri Blaffart, Craig Morley. Joape Kuruyawa, Vilikesa Masibalavu, and Elenoa Seniloli 41K


34 Global Harmonisation in the Field of Invasive Species Management Product Development — Steven Lapidge, Simon Humphrys, and David Dall 66K

43 Managing Non-native Wildlife in Florida: State Perspective, Policy and Practice — Scott Hardin 79K

53 Custom Trucks, Radio Snake Jingles, and Temporary Tattoos: An Overview of a Successful Public Awareness Campaign Related to Brown Treesnakes in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands — Nathaniel B. Hawley 34K

57 Promoting Awareness, Knowledge and Good Intentions — Christy Martin 54K

63 Habitattitude TM: Getting a Backbone About the Pet Release Pathway — Jamie K. Reaser and N. Marshall Meyers 302K

72 Considering Control of Invasive Barred Owls to Benefit California Spotted Owls: Possible Justification and Draft Methods — Kent B. Livezey, Richard M. Engeman, Dennis F. Rock, and Donald A. Yasuda 317K


82 Prioritization of action on non-native species - Progress in Great Britain — Niall Moore 27K

85 The Failed Regulatory System for Animal Imports into the United States--and How to Fix It — Peter T. Jenkins 34K

90 Monitoring the Sale and Trafficking of Invasive Vertebrate Species Using Automated Internet Search and Surveillance Tools — Karl Suiter and Sandra Sferrazza 128K

94 Using Pathway Analysis to Inform Prevention Strategies for Alien Reptiles and Amphibians — Fred Kraus 184K

104 Island Biosecurity as a Pest Management Tactic in New Zealand — Keith Broome 130K

108 Invasive Species Management and Research Using GIS — Tracy Holcombe, Thomas J. Stohlgren, and Catherine Jarnevich 741K

115 Pest Eradication Technology - The Critical Partner to Pest Exclusion Technology: The Maungatautari Experience — Cam Speedy, Tim Day, and John Innes 152K

127 Management of Invasive Vertebrates in the United States: An Overview — Gary W. Witmer, Patrick W. Burke, William C. Pitt, and Michael L. Avery 81K


138 Climate Matching as a Tool for Predicting Potential North American Spread of Brown Treesnakes — Gordon H. Rodda, Robert N. Reed, and Catherine S. Jarnevich 152K

146 The Role of Early Detection and Rapid Response in Thwarting Amphibian and Reptile Introductions in Florida — Todd S. Campbell 81K

157 Coqui Frog Research and Management Efforts in Hawai‘i — Hans Sin and Adam Radford 332K

168 Impacts of Introduced Species on an Island Ecosystem: Non-native Reptiles and Amphibians in the U.S. Virgin Islands — Renata J. Platenberg 57K

175 The Brown Treesnake Rapid Response Team — James W. Stanford and Gordon H. Rodda 376K

218 Flotation Materials for Aerial Delivery of Acetaminophen Toxic Baits to Brown Treesnakes — Peter J. Savarie, Tom C. Mathies, and Kathleen A. Fagerstone 47K

224 An Evaluation of Passive Thermal Fumigation for Brown Treesnake Control in Surface Transportation from Guam — Gad Perry and Daniel S. Vice 228K

234 Spotting Cryptic Animals in the Dark: What Light Properties Should a Good Headlamp Have? — Bjorn Lardner, Julie A. Savidge, and Gordon H. Rodda 96K

246 Can Temperature be Used as a Tool for Limiting Brown Treesnake Invasion via Transportation Pathways? — Michelle T. Christy, Julie A. Savidge, Richard Bischof, and Gordon H. Rodda 99K

257 Size-based Trends and Management Implications of Microhabitat Utilization by Brown Treesnakes, with an Emphasis on Juvenile Snakes — Gordon H. Rodda and Robert N. Reed 230K


268 Early Detection and Eradication of Invading Rats — James C. Russell, Mick N. Clout, and David R. Towns 281K

273 Tree Squirrels as Invasive Species: Conservation and Management Implications — Geoffrey H. Palmer, John L. Koprowski, and Tony Pernas 75K

283 Invasive Rats and Bubonic Plague in Northwest Uganda — Jeff N. Borchert, Jeff J. Mach, Timothy J. Linder, Asaph Ogen-Odoi, and Santos Angualia 112K

294 Eradicating House Mice from Islands: Successes, Failures and the Way Forward — Jamie W. B. MacKay, James C. Russell, and Elaine C. Murphy 86K

305 The Path to Eradication of the Gambian Giant Pouched Rat in Florida — Richard M. Engeman, Gary W. Witmer, Jean B. Bourassa, John W. Woolard, Bernice Constantin, Parker T. Hall, Scott Hardin, and Neil D. Perry 58K

312 Research and Development of a New Rodenticide for Nutria — Jeff J. Mach and Richard M. Poché 46K

318 Genetic Options for the Control of Invasive Vertebrate Pests: Prospects and Constraints — Ronald E. Thresher 140K

332 Alaska's Rat Spill Response Program — Steven M. Ebbert, Arthur L. Sowls, and G. Vernon Byrd 43K


338 Population Ecology and Some Potential Impacts of Emerging Populations of Exotic Parrots — Douglas E. Runde, William C. Pitt, and J. T. Foster 273K

361 Managing Starlings in Australis - Can DRC-1339 Be the Answer? — Tina Bentz, Steven Lapidge, David Dall, and Ronald G. Sinclair 53K

365 Florida's Non-native Avifauna — Michael L. Avery and Michael P. Moulton 142K

378 European Starlings: A Review of an Invasive Species with Far-reaching Impacts — George M. Linz, H. Jeffrey Homan, Shannon M. Gaukler, Linda B. Penry, and William J. Bleier 65K

387 Control and Eradication of the North American Ruddy Duck in Europe — Iain Henderson and Pete Robertson 49K

393 Probabilistic Bioenergetic/Toxicity Modeling Approach for Estimating Toxicant Induced Mortality to Target Invasive Species and Non-target Wildlife — John J. Johnston, Randal S. Stahl, H. Jefferey Homan, George M. Linz, and William C. Pitt 79K

398 Reducing Risk and Enhancing Efficiency in Non-native Vertebrate Removal Efforts on Islands: a 25-Year Multi-taxa Retrospective from Santa Cruz Island, California — Scott A. Morrison 2,543K

410 Developing Strategy and Tools for the Local Elimination of Multiple Pest Species — Graham Nugent, David R. Morgan, Peter Sweetapple, and Bruce Warburton 285K

418 Multiple-Species Exclusion Fencing and Technology for Mainland Sites — Tim Day and Roger MacGibbon 122K

434 Wildlife Contraception: Targeting the Oocyte — Richard E. Mauldin and Lowell A. Miller 113K


445 Methods and Strategies for Managing Feral Hog Damage in Grain Production Areas in Central Texas — T. J. Muir and Gary McEwen 48K

451 Landscape Genetics of Feral Swine and Implications for Management — Johanna Delgado-Acevedo, Randy W. DeYoung, and Tyler A. Campbell 26K

454 DNA Detection of Foxes to Prevent Establishment in Tasmania — Stephen D. Sarre, Rachel Walsh, Niccy Aitken, Alison Foster, and Nick Mooney 102K

460 Ecology of an Invasive Predator in Hawai`i — Steven C. Hess, Heidi Hansen, and Paul C. Banko 1,877K

469 Developing a New Toxin for Potential Control of Feral Cats, Stoats, and Wild Dogs in New Zealand — Elaine C. Murphy, Charles T. Eason, Steve Hix, and Duncan B. MacMorran 36K

474 Developing a Decision Support System for Improving Possum Control Planning — Bruce Warburton, Jim D. Coleman, Mark Fuglestad, and Jens Dietrich 23K

476 The Political, Economic and Management History of a Successful Exotic Eradication: the Case of Black-tailed Jackrabbits in One Part of Florida — Richard M. Engeman, Bernice Constantin, and Jeffrey Bunting 30K

479 Vertebrate Invasions in Chile: An Invitation to Collaboration — Fabian M. Jaksic 198K


WITMER, G. W., W. C. PITT, AND K. A. FAGERSTONE, editors. 2007. Managing vertebrate invasive species: proceedings of an international symposium. USDA/APHIS Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.






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