The resurgence of wolves in the United States may present new challenges for some livestock producers. LPD's are most commonly used to protect sheep from coyotes in the United States. In Europe and Africa, however, they are used for protection from species as diverse as wolves and cheetahs. Wolves in North America tend to be larger, and although dogs may have some potential, they are also frequently attacked and killed by wolves too. As wolves continue to increase in numbers and expand in range, more research is necessary in order to better identify the potential effectiveness and limitations of LPD's for use as a deterrent to wolf depredations in the United States.
Also, disease transmission from wildlife to livestock is of growing concern. LPD's can be trained to remain near livestock and to keep other animals such as deer, that are potentially infected with bovine tuberculosis, away from the livestock. The mere presence of LPD's with livestock serves to deter deer and likely other species of wildlife from entering pastures and mingling with livestock.