The term “blackbird” refers to a diverse group of about 10 species of North American birds that belong to the subfamily Icterinae. The most common species associated with damage are: Red-winged Blackbird, Common Grackle, Great-tailed Grackle, Brown Headed Cowbird, Yellow Headed Blackbird, and the Brewer's Blackbird. The families of blackbirds are the most abundant bird types in North America.
European Starlings are an invasive exotic species with similar characteristics and behaviors of blackbirds and are often found in flocks with blackbirds. Starlings negatively impact property, agriculture, and natural resources. For these reasons, many conservationists consider starlings to be an undesirable component of North American ecosystems.