WS receives funding through both a Federal appropriation and reimbursable cooperative funds.
The Federal appropriation is the result of a lengthy budget process that requires extensive planning, formulation, and justification, and it includes three key phases: Budget Formulation (creation of the President's budget), Budget Justification and Presentation (justifying and presenting the President's budget to Congress), and Budget Execution. It is an act of Congress that provides the authority to make payments out of the Federal Treasury for specified purposes within the appropriation bill, and the Budget Execution phase for a fiscal year begins when the appropriation bill is signed by the President. Each year, WS receives a Federal appropriation which supports the Program's basic program delivery and research functions.
WS also conducts research and delivers program services that assist individuals, agencies, organizations, and others in resolving specific wildlife damage challenges and questions. These activities are conducted pursuant to cooperative service agreements that are partially or entirely funded by the program recipient. Those requesting assistance reimburse WS for the associated costs of the services provided. WS is unique within the Federal Government in that, by statute, WS can credit these reimbursements directly to the Program, rather than to the Federal Treasury (absent such a statute, the reimbursable funds would have to be credited directly to the Federal Treasury).
The total amount of appropriations, cooperator-provided funds, and total funding fluctuates from year to year. Each year, information related to the Federal appropriated and Cooperative funding is presented in the WS Program Data Reports. Funds are summarized for each State, and for the four resource categories protected by WS wildlife damage management activities: agriculture, natural resources, property, and human health and safety.