NAPPRA FAQ's

NAPPRA FAQ's

What does NAPPRA mean?

NAPPRA means “Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis”.  When a plant is NAPPRA it means that the plant cannot be imported until a pest risk analysis is requested and completed for that plant. 

How does a plant become NAPPRA?

When we have evidence that a plant is a host of a quarantine pest and is from a country with little or no recent import history, then we propose to add that country/plant combination as NAPPRA.

When we have evidence that a plant is a quarantine pest and the plant is not known to occur in the U.S. or is under official control, then we propose to add that species as NAPPRA from all countries.

We propose a plant to become NAPPRA by publishing a notice in the Federal Register to announce our determination that the plant is a quarantine pests or a host of a quarantine pest and citing the scientific evidence we used to make this determination.  We then give the opportunity to the public to comment on our determination.  If we receive no comments that change our determination, the plant becomes NAPPRA.   

What happens when a plant becomes NAPPRA?

When a plant becomes NAPPRA the import status changes and the plant can no longer be imported under the general restrictions of our regulations, e.g. a PPQ 587 import permit, phytosanitary certificate and port of entry inspection.  Our general restrictions do not limit the quantity of plants that may be imported and usually do not have any requirements for plants after they enter the U.S.   

Why is a plant NAPPRA from some countries and not others?

When we have evidence that a plant is a host of a quarantine pest and is from a country with little or no recent import history, then we propose to add that country/plant combination as NAPPRA.

We exempt imports of plants that are hosts of quarantine pests from the NAPPRA requirements when there is significant trade of that plant between the exporting country and the United States. We continue to allow such importation based on our experience with importing these plants for planting and our findings, through inspection, that they are generally pest free.  When we need to address a known pest risk for a plant from a country with significant recent import history, we use Federal Orders to place immediate restrictions which can include additional declarations on the phytosanitary certificate and establishment of pest free areas.;

What about countries with significant recent import history of a plant that is NAPPRA?

When we need to address a known pest risk for a plant from a country with significant recent import history, we use Federal Import Orders to place immediate restrictions which can include additional declarations on the phytosanitary certificate and establishment of pest free areas. 

NAPPRA does not place restrictions – it only changes a plant’s entry status.  A pest risk analysis would determine how to allow safe trade of a plant from a country. 

What is a Federal Import Order?

A Federal Import Order is a legal document issued in response to an emergency when APHIS considers it necessary to take regulatory action to protect agriculture or prevent the entry and establishment into the United States of a pest or disease. Federal Import Orders remain in effect until they are revised by another Federal Import Order or until an interim rule or Federal Register Notice on the subject is published.  A list of all Federal Import Orders is found here.  

What if I would like to import a NAPPRA plant for research (not for commercial distribution)?

NAPPRA plants can only be imported for certain purposes, namely experimental (research), developmental (breeding or development of new varieties), or therapeutic (treatment to provide pest-free stock) under a PPQ 588 controlled import permit (CIP).  If granted, a CIP only allows import of limited quantities under specified conditions that will include testing, containment, or other specified conditions both before and after import.

What if I want to import a NAPPRA plant for commercial distribution?

In order to import a plant that is NAPPRA, a pest risk analysis must be requested and completed for that plant.  See “How Do I Request a PRA?” further down on this page for more information.

Does “pending pest risk analysis” mean a PRA is currently in progress for a plant that is NAPPRA?

We do not begin a pest risk analysis until one is requested from the national plant protection organization (NPPO) of the country who would like to export the plant or from a U.S. stakeholder who would like to import the plant.  View the pest risk analyses currently in progress.

What is a Pest Risk Analysis?

A pest risk analysis is a process that examines the plant pests and diseases that are known to be associated with a plant, identifies those pests that are likely to remain on the plant upon importation into the United States, and evaluates the mitigations that may be required to avoid, reduce, or eliminate the risk of pest introduction into the United States.

How do I request a PRA?

To request a PRA for a plant for planting that is currently not authorized entry, the requestor must submit the information listed in 7 CFR 319.5(d) (see below for excerpt):

(d) Information. The following information must be provided to APHIS in order for APHIS to consider a request to change the regulations in part 319:

(1) Information about the party submitting the request. The address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail addresses of the national plant protection organization of the country from which commodities would be exported; or, for requests that address a multi-country region, the address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail addresses of the exporting countries' national and regional plant protection plant protection organizations.

(2) Information about the commodity proposed for importation into the United States. (i) A description and/or map of the specific location(s) of the areas in the exporting country where the plants, plant parts, or plant products are produced;

(ii) The scientific name (including genus, species, and author names), synonyms, and taxonomic classification of the commodity;

(iii) Identification of the particular plant or plant part (i.e., fruit, leaf, root, entire plant, etc.) and any associated plant part proposed for importation into the United States;

(iv) The proposed end use of the imported commodity (e.g., propagation, consumption, milling, decorative, processing, etc.); and

(v) The months of the year when the commodity would be produced, harvested, and exported.

(3) Shipping information: (i) Detailed information as to the projected quantity and weight/Volume of the proposed importation, broken down according to varieties, where applicable, and;

(ii) Method of shipping in international commerce and under what conditions, including type of conveyance, and type, size, and capacity of packing boxes and/or shipping containers.

(4) Description of pests and diseases associated with the commodity1 (i) Scientific name (including genus, species, and author names) and taxonomic classification of arthropods, fungi, bacteria, nematodes, virus, viroids, mollusks, phytoplasmas, spiroplasmas, etc., attacking the crop;

 (ii) Plant part attacked by each pest, pest life stages associated with each plant part attacked, and location of pest (in, on, or with commodity); and

1When a change is being sought to the conditions governing the importation of a commodity that is already authorized for importation into the United States, an update to or confirmation of previously submitted pest and disease information, rather than a new, complete submission of that information, may be appropriate. Persons seeking such a change may contact APHIS for a determination as to whether an update will be appropriate in a particular case.

(iii) References.

(5) Current strategies for risk mitigation or management. (i) Overview of agronomic or horticultural management practices used in production of the commodity, including methods of pest risk mitigation or control programs; and

(ii) Identification of parties responsible for pest management and control.

 What plants are NAPPRA?

All of the plants for planting that are NAPPRA are listed in the Plants for Planting Manual.  On our NAPPRA website we also provide information on past rulemaking and Federal Register Notices related to NAPPRA.

When are you going to make more plants NAPPRA?

We will publish notices in the Federal Register every time we propose to make a plant NAPPRA.  We do not have plans to publish notices to add plants to NAPPRA on a periodic schedule but will propose plants for NAPPRA as scientific evidence becomes available.   If you wish to be notified when we publish the next notice in the Federal Register announcing new proposed plants to become NAPPRA, please register for the APHIS-PPQ Stakeholders Registry and select “Plants for Planting” under “Importation into the United States” as a topic of interest.

Further Information
If you have questions about NAPPRA and the import of plants for planting, please call our Customer Support office at 301.851.2046 or 877.770.5990

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