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Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
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General Information about ToBRFV


ToBRFV can cause severe fruit loss in tomatoes and peppers. On pepper, it causes bubbling and mosaic patterns on leaves, while on tomato foliage it causes mosaic patterns and a “fern leaf” symptom. Infected fruits of both hosts are smaller, discolored, and may have rough, dead patches on the surface (see photos). Infected tomato fruits can be unmarketable or reduced in quality. Necrosis can occur on susceptible pepper fruit.

(Figures 1 and 2: Luria, et al., 2017; Figure 3: Alkowni, et al., 2019

China, the Dominican Republic, France, Germany (eradicated), Greece, Italy, Jordan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Palestine, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom

ToBRFV is transmitted through infected propagative plant parts (seeds, plants for planting, grafts, and cuttings), and spreads locally by contact (direct plant to plant contact, contaminated tools, hands, or clothing). ToBRFV can remain viable in seeds, plants debris and contaminated soil for months.

No, ToBRFV does not pose a health risk to people or animals.

ToBRFV-infected fruit is safe to eat. However, if you discard the fruit, throw it in the garbage. Do not put suspicious fruit in your backyard compost pile as seeds in the fruit could sprout into an infected plant.

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