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Carcass Management Dashboard

A.  The first step in Carcass Management is to assess the situation; identify the types and quantities of animals involved, their average weight and reason for illness/death. Open the Options, Time & Cost Calculator below, and enter the appropriate information into the blue boxes at the top of the spreadsheet. 

Options, Time & Cost Calculator

B. For distances to landfill, rendering and incineration, use the Routing Map to find the premises location, then use the Measurement Tool (ruler icon in upper right) to find distances to the nearest disposal facilities, and enter those distances into the Options, Time & Cost Calculator.
A. The second step is to draft a Carcass Management Plan; using the results from Step 1 and the checklists below, identify all feasible carcass management options for the premises.  Enter the resulting information in the Site Specific Carcass Management Plan TemplateNote: although the calculator includes the Above Ground Burial Option, there is no additional checklist or planning information because the technology is still experimental and not yet validated.

Emergency Carcass Management Desk Reference Guide (DRG)


B
.For those options that are feasible, estimate needed materials, supplies and equipment based on the Options, Time & Cost Calculator and the Planning Guides, below.

The third step is to coordinate with local and state environmental officials; once you have completed steps 1 and 2 and have a draft plan, discuss the plan with your state agriculture and environmental officials, making any necessary changes to gain their written approval.  Blank approval signature lines are provided at the end of the Site Specific Carcass Management Plan Template for use if desired.

State Departments of Agriculture Environmental Agencies Contact Info

Effectiveness of Spray-Based Decontamination Methods for Spores and Viruses on Heavily Soiled Surfaces
M.Worth Calfee, Ph.D.
2016
EPA/600/R-16/162
Field Study on Cleaning a Rendering Plant Following a Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) Outbreak
Paul Lemieux, PhD
2013
EPA 600/R-13/145
Inactivation of Avian Influenza Virus Using Common Detergents and Chemicals
M. E. Lombardi,A B. S. Ladman,B R. L. Alphin,C and E. R. Benson
2008
Avian Diseases
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Persistence Testing and Evaluation of Liquid Decontamination Technologies
Joe Wood/EPA
2009
Final Report In Clearance 2009
Post Outbreak Disinfection of Mobile Equipment
R.L. Alphin and E.R. Benson/University of Delaware
2008
Avian Diseases 52(1): 118–123

Relationship Between Clinical Signs and Transmission of an Infectious Disease and the Implications for Control

Bryan Charleston

2011

American Association for Advancement of Science

Cost of Remediation of Nitrogen-Contaminated Soils Under CAFO Impoundments

C. Volland, J. Zupancic, J. Chappelle

2003

Journal of Hazardous Substance Research

The Economics of Avian Influenza Control

David Halvorson, Ilaria Capua, Carol Cardona, David Frame, Daniel Karunakaran, Stefano Marangon, Giovanni Ortali, Don Roepke, Brian Woo-Ming

2003


Influence of Prion Strain on Prion Protein Adsorption to Soil in a Competitive Matrix

Samuel E, Saunders, Jason C. Bartz, Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt

2009

American Chemical Society

Prion Protein Adsorption to Soil in a Competitive Matrix Is Slow and Reduced

Samuel E, Saunders, Jason C. Bartz, Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt

2009

American Chemical Society

Persistence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Animals, their Products and the Environment

G.E. Cottral

1996


Distribution of Artificial Radionuclides in Abandoned Cattle in the Evacuation Zone of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Tomokazu Fukuda, Yasushi Kino, Yasuyuki Abe, Hideaki Yamashiro, Yoshinkazu Kuwahara, Hidekazu Nihel, Yosuke Sano, Ayumi Irisawa, Tsutomu, Motoi Fukmoto, Hisashi Shinoda, Yuichi Obata, Shin Saigusa, Tsutomu Sekine, Emiko Isogai, Manabu Fukumoto

2013

PLOS One

Avian Influenza Virus RNA in Groundwater Wells Supplying Poultry Farms Affected by the 2015 Influenza Outbreak

Mark A. Borchardt, Susan K. Spencer, Laura E. Hubbard, Aaron D. Firnstahl, Joel P. Stokdyk and Dana W. Kolpin

2015

ACS Publications

Pathogenic prion protein is degraded by a manganese oxide mineral found in soils

"Fabio Russo,Christopher J. Johnson, Chad J. Johnson, Debbie McKenzie, Judd M. Aiken and Joel A. Pedersen"

2008

Journal of General Virology

Natural Resources Conservation Service Conservation Practice Standard Pathogen Management


2002

USDA

Fate of Prions in Soil: A Review

Christen B. Smith, Clarissa J. Booth, and Joel A. Pedersen

2011

American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America

Respiratory Disorders Among Workers in Slaughterhouses

"Abbasali Kasaeinasab , Mehdi Jahangiri , Ali Karimi , Hamid Reza Tabatabaei , Sonia Safari"

2016

Elsevier

Assessment of Fukushima-Derived Radiation Doses and Effects on Wildlife in Japan

"P. Strand, T. Aono J. E. Brown J. Garnier-Laplace A. Hosseini, T. Sazykina, F. Steenhuisen, and J. Vives i Batlle"

2014

ACS Publications

Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the breath of infected cattle using a hand-held device to collect aerosols

Laurids Siig Christensena,∗, Katharina E. Brehmb, Julia Julia Christensena, Bernd HaasbSkovc, Kenneth W. Harlowc,

2011

Journal of Virological Methods

Adsorption of Pathogenic Prion Protein to Quartz Sand

Cissy Ma, Craig Benson, Debbie McKenzie, Judd M Aiken, Joel A Peders

2007

Environmental Science & Technology

Differential Decomposition in Terrestrial, Freshwater and Saltwater Environments: A Plot Study

Laura E. Ayers, B.A.

2010


Texas State University-San Marcos
Mesophilic Static Pile Composting of Animal Carcasses
Gary Flory and Robert Peer
2017
BioCycle.net
Above Ground Burial Managing Catastrophic Loss of Livestock
Gary Alan Flory, Robert W. Peer, Robert A. Clark, Mohamed Naceur Baccar, Thanh-Thao Le, Aziz Ben Mbarek and Sami Farsi
2017
International Journal of One Health

The danger of lime use in agricultural anthrax disinfection procedures: the potential role of calcium in the preservation of anthrax spores.

Chelsea G. Himsworth

2008 Canadian Veterinary Medical Association

Water Quality Impacts of Burying Livestock Mortalities

Rachel Freedman, Ron Fleming

2003 Ridgetown College - University of Guelph

Leachate characteristics and management requirements arising from the foot & mouth operations in Scotland

A.J MacArthur, J.C. Milne, P.J. Young

2001 Journal of Swine Health and Production

Livestock Mortalities Burial Leachate Chemistry after Two Years of Decomposition

Dyan L. Pratt, Terrance A. Fonstad

2009 BioCycle

Potential water quality impacts originating from land burial of cattle carcasses

Qi Yuan, Daniel D. Snow, Shannon L. Bartely-Hunt

2013


University of Nebraska


Viability of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus thuringiensis spores as a model for predicting the fate of bacillus anthracis spores during composting of dead livestock

Tim Reuter, Trevor W. Alexander , Tim A McAllister

2010


Applied and Environmental Microbiology


Biodegradation of Bacillus anthracis endospores during Composting

Tim Reuter


Alberta


Effect of turning frequency on co-composting pig manure and fungus residue

Zhou Jiang-ming

2017


Journal of the Air and Waste Management


Efficacy and efficiency of poultry carcass composting using different mechanical mixing equipment for avian influenza outbreaks

Jennifer Elizabeth Keaten1 and Mark Hutchinson

2017


International Journal of One Health


Natural Rendering: Composting Poultry Mortality

Jean Bonhotal, Mary Schwarz, Nellie Brown

2008


Cornell Cooperative Extension


Emission of Volatile Organic Compounds during Composting of Poultry Litter

N.G. Turan, A. Akdemir, O.N. Ergun

2007


Springer Science


Degradation of foot-and-mouth disease virus during composting of infected pig carcasses

J. Guan, M. Chan, C. Grenier, B.W. Brooks, J.L. Spencer, C. Kranendonk, J. Copps, A. Clavijo

2010


Canadian Journal Veterinary Research


Environmental Impacts of Emergency Livestock Mortality Composting—Leachate Release and Soil Contamination

Thomas D. Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas L. Richard, Hay D. Harmon, Donald L. Reynolds

2006


Iowa State University


Verification of Poultry Carcass Composting Research through Application during Actual Avian Influenza Outbreaks

Gary A. Flory and Robert W. Peer

2010


ILAR Journal


Guidelines for In-House Composting Poultry Mortality as a Rapid Response to Avian Influenza

Gary A. Flory, Robert W. Peer, George W. Malone

2009


Virginia Department of Environmental Quality


Conservation Practice Standard Animal Mortality Facility Code 316

NRCS, NHCP

2015


USDA


Inactivation of Avian Influenza and Model Virus Animal By-Product Composts

Elving J., Emmoth E., Albihn A., Vinnerås B, Ottoson J.


2010
       

 National Veterinary Institute, Sweden

Potential of composting to inactivate prions

T. A. McAllister and Team


2007
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada


Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores during Laboratory-Scale Composting of Feedlot Cattle Manure

Shanwei Xu, Amanda Harvey, Ruth Barbieri, Tim Reuter, Kim Stanford, Kingsley K. Amoako, Leonard B. Selinger, Tim A. McAllister

2016


Frontiers In Microbiology


Scientific opinion on composting on-farm of dead poultry

EFSA Panel on Biological Hazrards

2011


European Food and Safety Authority Journal


Miscellaneous Operating Procedure for the Transportable Gasifier for Animal Carcasses

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Homeland Security Research Center

2017


EPA


Progress Report: Transportable Gasifier for On-Farm Disposal of Animal Mortalities

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Homeland Security Research Center

2016


EPA


Gasification of Meat and Bone Meal

Fonstad, T.A., Soni, C.G, Kulkarni , M., Dalai, A.K., Pugsley, T. Zang

2009


U.C. Davis


Animal Disease Outbreak Emergency Response Logistical Infrastructure Consolidated Report

Ms. Lori P. Miller, PE, Dr. Jimmy Tickel, DVM, Mr. Mike Mayes, Dr. Robert E. DeOtte, Jr. P.E., P.G., Ms. Emilie Hill, Ms. Stacey Tyler

2016


DHS / APHIS


Design, construction, and testing of a low maintenance, low-cost, vehicle tire and undercarriage cleaning and disinfection facility to enhance biosecurity at concentrated animal feeding operations

Dr. Gerald Parker / Dr. Robert DeOtte

2016


EPA


Feasibility of Selected Infectious Carcass Pretreatment Technologies

Office of Research and Development, National Homeland Security Research Center

2016


EPA


Exposure Assessment of Livestock Carcass Management Options During a Chemical Emergency

Office of Research and Development, National Homeland Security Research Center

2015


EPA


Exposure Assessment of Livestock Carcass Management Options During a Foreign Animal Disease Outbreak

Office of Research and Development, National Homeland Security Research Center

2014


EPA


Exposure Assessment of Livestock Carcass Management Options During a Radiological Emergency

Office of Research and Development, National Homeland Security Research Center

2017


EPA


Effectiveness of Spray-Based Decontamination Methods for Spores and Viruses on Heavily Soiled Surfaces

Office of Research and Development, National Homeland Security Research Center

2017


EPA


Exposure Assessment of Livestock Carcass Management Options During Natural Disasters

Office of Research and Development, National Homeland Security Research Center

2017


EPA


Evaluation of Poultry Carcass Disposal Methods Used During an Avian Influenza Outbreak in Virginia in 2002

Gary A. Flory, Robert W. Peer, Eric S. Bendfeldt

2006


Virginia Department of Environmental Quality


The environmental and biosecurity characteristics of livestock carcass disposal methods: A review

Ceri L. Gwyther, A. Prysor Williams, Peter N. Golynshin , Gareth Edwards-Jones, David L. Jones

2011


Elsevier


Research on Management of Specified Risk Materials

Tim A. McAllister and Team


Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada


Disposal of Dead Production Animals 1988-2006

Jean Larson

2006


USDA


CONSERVATION PRACTICE STANDARD Emergency Animal Mortality Management Code 368


2016


USDA


Disposal of Domestic or Exotic Livestock Carcasses


2005


Texas Commission of Environmental Quality


The Disposal of Carcases During the 2001 Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreak in the UK

G.M. Trevelyan, M.V. Tas, E.M. Varley and G.A.W. Hickman

2001


DEFRA, FMD Joint Co-ordination


Scientific opinion on on-site treatment of pig carcasses

EFSA Panel on Biological Hazrards

2011


European Food and Safety Authority Journal


Scientific opinion on isolation in proofed pit on-farm of dead poultry

EFSA Panel on Biological Hazrards

2011


European Food and Safety Authority Journal


Landfill Settlement and the Impact on Site Capacity and Refuse Hydraulic Conductivity

David E. Bleiker, Grahame Farquhar, Edward McBean

1995


Waste Management and Research        

Environmental Protection at the Managed Solid Waste Landfill

Geosyntec Consultant

2010



Development of numerical model for predicting heat generation and temperatures in MSW landfills

James L. Hanson , Nazli Yesiller , Michael T. Onnen , Wei-Lien Liu , Nicolas K. Oettle ,Janelle A. Marinos

       


Spatial Variability of Waste Temperatures in MSW Landfills

James L. Hanson, Nazli Yesiller, and Nicolas K. Oettle

2008



Heat Generation in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

Nazli Yeșiller, James L. Hanson, Wei-Lien Liu

2005


Journal of Geotechnical And Geoenviornmental Engineering ASCE


Spatial and Temporal Temperature Distributions in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

James L. Hanson, Nazli Yesiller, and Nicolas K. Oettle



An Analysis of Risks Associated with the Disposal of Deer from Wisconsin in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

Darrell Bazzell, Phyllis Dube

2002



Guidelines for Landfilling Poultry Mortality in Response to an Outbreak of Avian Influenza

Gary A. Flory, Eric S. Bendfeldt, Robert W. Peer

2006


Virginia Department of Environmental Quality


Valuing Potential Environmental Liabilities for Managerial Decision - Making

Susan McLaughlin, Holly Elwood, Martin A. Spitzer

1996 EPA Environmental Accounting Project

Recommended Interim Practices for Disposal of Potentially Contaminated Chronic Wasting Disease Carcasses and Wastes

Robert Springer

2004

Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Disposition: Proceedings of a Workshop

Jennifer Heimberg

2001 National Academy of Sciences

Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy: Investigation into Carcass Decomposition in the Saanich Inlet, British Columbia Using a Baited Camera

Gail S. Anderson , Lynne S. Bell

2014 PLOS One

Persistence of Pathogenic Prion Protein during Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes

Glen T. Hinckley, Christopher J. Johnson, Kurt H. Jacobson, Christian Bartholomay, Katherine D. McMahon, Debbie McKenzie, Judd M. Aiken, and Joel A. Pedersen

2008 American Chemical Society

Bioreduction of Sheep Carcasses Effectively Contains and Reduces Pathogen Levels under Operational and Simulated Breakdown Conditions

Ceri L. Gwyther, David L. Jones, Peter N. Golyshin, Gareth Edwards-Jones, John McKillen, Irene McNair, James E. McDonald, and A. Prysor Williams"

2013 ACS Publications
USDA After Action Report: Rendering Workshop, July 2017: Riverdale, Maryland
APHIS, Veterinary Services
2017
USDA-APHIS

Field Study on Cleaning a Rendering Plant Following a Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) Outbreak

Office of Research and Development National Homeland Security Research Center

2013

EPA

Validation of Thermal Destruction of Pathogenic Bacteria in Rendered Animal Products

A. Leaphart, T.R. Scott, S.D. Chambers, W.C Bridges Jr. , A.K Greene

2006

Clemson University





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