Q: What is pseudorabies?
A: Pseudorabies is a disease of swine that can also affect cattle, dogs, cats, sheep, and goats. Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a contagious herpesvirus that causes reproductive problems, (abortion, stillbirths), respiratory problems and occasional deaths in breeding and finishing hogs.
Q: Is PRV contagious to humans?
A: No. The virus has never been shown to be contagious to humans, not even to people working on farms with many PRV-infected animals.
Q: How is the virus spread?
A: PRV is primarily spread through direct animal-to-animal (nose-to-nose) contact between an Infected, shedding pig and a noninfected pig. If present on inanimate objects, such as boots, clothing, feed, trucks, and equipment, the virus can also spread from herd to herd and farm to farm.
Q: How can pseudorabies be prevented?
A: Pseudorabies can be prevented primarily through biosecurity, a sound management practices that include disease control and prevention in mind.
Q: How long has the virus existed in the United States?
A: PRV is known to have existed in the United States for at least 150 years.
Q: How many States are pseudorabies free?
A: Currently, all 50 States are considered free of PRV in commercial production swine herds. Commercial swine herds are defined as those herds which have adequate measures in place to prevent contact and potential infection from feral and transitional production swine which are known potential carriers of the PRV virus.
Q: How is a herd determined to be pseudorabies infected?
A: A pseudorabies-infected herd contains animals that have tested positive serologically or have had the virus isolated in an official test conducted by an approved laboratory.
Q: How many herds are still infected with the virus and in what States?
A: No commercial production herds have been found to be infected with PRV since early 2003. Sporadic infections have been found in transitional production herds, those swine which are captured feral swine, or have the potential to come in contact with feral swine. Any infected transitional herds have been promptly depopulated when found, and intense epidemiological investigations have been conducted to ascertain that no viral spread to commercial production swine has occurred.
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Influenza A Virus in Swine (IAV-S)
FY2016 : 1st Quarter
2015 IAV-S Surveillance Program Assessments
Internal and external program reviews were initiated in FY 2015 for APHIS’ surveillance program for influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) to assess the program and help inform future VS budget formulation efforts. The original funding for this program was received from DHHS as part of a fiscal year (FY) 2009 supplemental appropriation in response to the H1N1 pandemic. This funding source is projected to last through FY 2016. Funding beyond FY2016 is uncertain.
The assessment undertaken by APHIS’ Office for Policy and Program Development (PPD) was meant to evaluate what results had been achieved by the IAV-S surveillance program and to determine changes that would be needed as the current program is transitioned into part of a larger comprehensive surveillance program for swine. It incorporates the opinions of key stakeholders and program officials to highlight issues that may be relevant to future program management or budget formulation activities. The external review, performed under contract with an independent scientific professional, examined the technical and scientific merit of the program and made recommendations for future program efficiencies.
Classical Swine Fever
Other Swine Surveillance Resources