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Organisms and Vectors

Organisms and Vectors

The National Import Export Service (NIES), Organisms and Vectors (OV) Unit regulates the importation into the United States, and interstate transportation, of organisms and vectors of pathogenic diseases of livestock and poultry.

The Code of Federal Regulations, in 9 CFR, §122.2 , mandates that “no organisms or vectors shall be imported into the United States or transported from one State or Territory or the District of Columbia to another State or Territory or the District of Columbia without a permit”.


What's New?


Myobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis were removed from the VS-regulated livestock and poultry pathogens (partial list) – new (5/8/2018)

M. tuberculosis and M smegmatis are rare pathogens for livestock or poultry.  Both have been removed from the list of materials that Organisms and Vectors regulates for interstate transport. M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis , if exposed to animals or animal products, still requires a permit for importation into the US.

New Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus: Asian lineage H7N9 permitting restrictions – new (6/5/2017)

The Federal Select Agent Program (FSAP) issued a notice “Permits for Asian lineage H7N9 strains” informing all stakeholders of requirements for Avian influenza virus H7N9 of Asian lineage. The notice link is above, for your reference.   

What does the notice mean to Organism and Vectors permittees?

  • Some strains of Asian lineage H7N9 virus are considered highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, and are regulated as select agents.
  • Movement of select agents is controlled by FSAP.
  • Therefore all Asian lineage H7N9 influenza viruses are prohibited from moving under permit unless the strain has been verified as low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus and granted a letter of exclusion from select agent status by the Federal Select Agent Program. VS 16-6 permit is required for movement of LPAI. Further information about Avian Influenza exclusions can be found in the Avian Influenza Guideline

If you have additional questions regarding permitting of LPAI virus including H7N9, please call Veterinary Services, Organism and Vectors Permitting Unit at 301-851-3300, option 3 or email

Import Permits are issued to allow importation into the United States of:  organisms that may cause disease in livestock and poultry, vectors that could carry livestock and poultry pathogens, and/or organisms or vectors that were exposed to animal(s) or animal product(s) outside of the US.  Please note the National Import Export Service (NIES), Organisms and Vectors (OV) Unit does not issue permits for Select Agents.   For information on applying for Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents please visit Agricultural Select Agent Services.

Interstate transport permits are issued for the transfer of organisms that may cause disease in livestock and poultry, and/or vectors that could carry livestock and poultry pathogens between facilities within the US.

The NIES OV does not permit select agents, licensed veterinary biological products, non-infected animals or products, intrastate movement, or storage of biological materials. Conditions and restrictions of the permit apply as long as the material is maintained.  However, permits do not need to be “renewed” for continued storage of material.

Permit application, VS Form 16-3: To apply for an OV permit please complete and submit an “Application for Permit to: Import or Transport Controlled Material or Organisms or Vectors”, VS Form 16-3, through the ePermits system, email, fax or mail.

Epermits, the online permitting system, is the fastest way to submit an application.


Use of ePermits requires eAuthentication. To apply for eAuthentication, click here.  

Alternatively, for a fillable pdf VS Form 16-3, please click here. You can also submit the paper version via fax at 301-851-2239, email at, or mail:

4700 River Road, Unit 2
Riverdale, MD 20737
Phone:  301-851-3300, option 3
Fax:  301-851-2239

Types of permits

New permit – initial application for organisms and vectors permit.  $150.00

Amended permit – application to revise an existing permit, within the current permit period.  An amended permit does not extend the expiration date of the permit.  $75.00

Renewal permit – application to renew an existing permit for an additional time period.  Some changes to the permit may be made within the renewal application, such as address or contact information updates, and revisions relevant to the existing material description or its proposed use (for example different genotypes/mutations of a virus, or additional restriction for animal experimentation, etc).  $97.00

*Always check with local and state authorities as additional laws or regulations may apply.  An Organisms and Vectors import or transport permit does not supersede any other state or Federal regulations.

APHIS Permit for:

Other Permits:

The Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Import Permit Program (IPP) regulates the importation of infectious biological agents, infectious substances, and vectors of human disease into the United States.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service permits are required for certain live animals, including bats and materials from endangered species such as Vero cells. Please call 1-800-344-WILD for further information.

Exports of Infectious Materials

The export of a wide variety of etiologic agents of human, plant, and animal diseases may require a license from the Department of Commerce. Information may be obtained by calling the Department of Commerce Bureau of Export Administration at 202-482-4811 or through the internet at:

For questions please contact the organisms and vectors staff via email at or via phone at 301-851-3300 option 3

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