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CEI LogoFoot and Mouth Disease in the Russian Federation

Impact Worksheet, April 2000


An outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease virus type O began on 15 April 2000 in the Ussuriysk district of Russia. The last outbreak of FMD in Russia that was reported to the OIE occurred in June 1995. Recent events in multiple countries near Ussuriysk district of eastern Russia have demonstrated that the FMD Type O virus is quite active in the region.

Russia , by world standards, has been a relatively small producer of bovine meat, ovine meat, and pig meat primarily for domestic consumption. Russian imports far exceeded exports of pork, beef, and animal products in 1998. Russia also exported and imported small quantities of a wide range of FMD-relevant products such as animal fats, offals, animal hair, and wool.

US imports from Russia in 1999 included small quantities of dairy products. Prior to this outbreak, Russia was not considered by USDA or the Office International des Epizooties to be free of the FMD virus. No actions are recommended at this time.

FMD Russia

How extensive is the situation in the affected country, and what was the country’s disease status prior to the outbreak?

The Ministry of Agriculture, Moscow notified the OIE on April 17, 2000 of an outbreak of FMD that began on April 15, 2000 in the Ussuriysk district, littoral territory. FMD virus type O was confirmed. The initial outbreak involved 965 pigs, of which 625 were affected. Emergency ring vaccination, quarantine, and control of animal movements are being used to control the outbreak. The last outbreak of FMD in Russia that was reported to the OIE occurred in June 1995.

Source: OIE emergency message, 17 April 2000 ; a 21 April 2000 OIE disease report on this outbreak is pending but unavailable as of 24 April

What is the country’s place in the international market for affected animals and animal products?

Russia , by world standards, has been a relatively small producer of bovine meat, ovine meat, and pig meat primarily for domestic consumption (see Table B below). Domestic meat production in 2000 has continued to decline and imports are becoming more important.

Source: United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization; USDA Foreign Agricultural Service

What is the country’s production and trade in affected animals and animal products?

Russia had about 29 million cattle, 17 million pigs, 14 million sheep, and smaller numbers of goats and buffaloes in 1999 (see Table A). Russia exported 317 cattle and 401 pigs in 1999. The destination of these animals was not reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization. Russia imported live pigs, cattle, sheep, and goats as shown in Table A.

Table A: Stocks and Trade in Live Animals, Russia

Live Animal

1999 Stocks


1998 Exports

1998 Imports


% World


% World


% World






















Production statistics by district were not available but a recent traveler to the Ussuriysk district reported that this eastern district is not a major pork production region because most feed grains are grown or imported in western Russia. Russia produced small amounts of world production of bovine, ovine, and pig meat in 1999. Russian imports far exceeded exports in these and other relevant product categories in 1998 (see Table B).

Table B: Production and Trade in Relevant Products, Russia


1999 Production


1998 Exports

1998 Imports

Metric ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Bovine meat

Pig meat



Mutton, lamb




Goat meat






Cheese and curd



Hides and skins



Milk, total



Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization

In addition, Russia exported and imported smaller quantities of a wide range of FMD-relevant products such as animal fats, oils, offals, animal hair, and wool.

The top five exporters of pork to Russia in 1998 were as follows:

China 74,323 metric tons (mt)
USA 56,734 mt
Denmark 42,144 mt
Canada 12,485 mt
Hungary 10,807 mt

Germany, Poland, France, Spain, and the Netherlands exported smaller quantities of pork to Russia. Ukraine was the major supplier of beef to Russia, although Ukraine is expected to lose market share due to declining stocks of export quality beef.

Sources: United Nations FAO, USDA Foreign Agricultural Service; personal contact with a Mongolian national at Colorado State University

What are the U.S. imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?

The US imported small quantities of dairy products (cheese, curd) with a total value less than $0.1 million in 1999. Small numbers of live birds and primates were also imported, however, none of the legally imported live animals are relevant to FMD transmission.

Source: World Trade Atlas

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?

All direct flights from Russia to US airports in New York or Washington, DC originate in Moscow which is located about 4000 miles from the current outbreak in eastern Russia. Flights leave daily from Vladivostok in eastern Russia to Moscow. In 1998, an estimated 216,000 passengers arrived in the US on direct flights from Russia. Of those passengers 115,506 were non-US residents. More passengers arrived on non-direct flights that originated in Russia, however, the number of those passengers was not known.

Airport monitoring conducted through the APHIS Agricultural Quarantine Inspection program included sampling of 848 passengers from Russia. Of these passengers, 100 carried restricted items of animal or plant origin, and 47 of the items were products potentially relevant to FMD transmission. Pork (carried by 26 passengers) and meat (carried by 9 passengers) were the most frequently confiscated items relevant to FMD.

Source: U.S. Dept. of Transportation ; USDA,APHIS,PPQ - Agricultural Quarantine Inspection database; Professional Travel Corporation

CEI’s plans for follow up on this outbreak:

CEI will continue to monitor this outbreak. If you seek more information or wish to comment on this worksheet, contact David Cummings at (970) 490-7895, or Reginald Johnson at (970) 490-7896.

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