CT_Hpaisoafrica08062004

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Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, South Africa

August 11, 2004

Impact Worksheet

The National Department of Agriculture in South Africa confirmed cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in ostriches on August 6, 2004. This is the first reported occurrence of HPAI in South Africa. HPAI, subtype H5N2, was confirmed in ostrich farms in the Middleton area in Eastern Cape Province. A 30 km-radius quarantine area around Middleton has been established. There are no commercial poultry farms and few backyard poultry in the quarantined area. The HPAI, subtype H5N2 found in South Africa is not the subtype causing the current outbreaks in Asia (H5N1).

South Africa is the world leader in ostrich production. The ostrich industry generates more than 196 million US dollars in exports yearly, and accounts for 90% of ostrich products in the world.About 25% of the country’s ostriches are produced in the Eastern Cape area. The majority of South Africa's exported ostrich meat goes to Europe.

South Africa is not recognized by the US as free from exotic Newcastle disease, therefore imports of poultry and non-processed poultry products from South Africa are restricted. During 2003, 11,284 non-poultry birds were imported into the US from South Africa, and in Jan – May 2004, 7,189 birds were imported. Most birds were imported for commercial purposes. Live birds are quarantined in US ports prior to clearance for entry into the country, during which time testing for infectious diseases, including avian influenza, takes place.


How extensive is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in South Africa , and what was South Africa ’s disease status prior to the outbreak?

The National Department of Agriculture in South Africa confirmed cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza in ostriches on August 6, 2004. This is the first report of HPAI in South Africa although avian influenza that was non-pathogenic for poultry occurred in 1991, 1992, 1994, 1995, and 1998 (subtypes H7N1, H5N9, H9N2 and H6N8). HPAI, subtype H5N2, was confirmed in 2 ostrich farms in the Middleton area in Eastern Cape Province. A 30 km-radius quarantine area around Middleton has been established and ostriches on 15 farms in the quarantine area will be slaughtered and destroyed with an estimated 30,000 ostriches at risk. There are no commercial poultry farms in the area and few backyard poultry. Movement restrictions have been placed on all poultry and poultry products and exports have been voluntarily stopped. Estimated date of the first infection was July 21, 2004 and the source of infection is currently under investigation. No human cases have been found.

HPAI subtype H5N2 was isolated in outbreaks in Taiwan in January 2004 and Texas in February 2004. In the past, this subtype has been found in Mexico , Italy and the United States as well as in outbreaks in ostriches which occurred in Zimbabwe in 1995 and Denmark in 1998. This is a different subtype than the current outbreaks in Asia (H5N1) that have also affected humans. Past experience with HPAI subtype H5N2 viruses indicates that there is a low threat to public health.

Source: OIE Disease Information Report; USDA APHIS; CDC; ProMed

What is South Africa ’s place in the international market for ostriches, poultry and poultry products?

South Africa is the world leader in ostrich production. The ostrich industry generates more than 196 million US dollars in exports yearly, and accounts for 90% of ostrich products in the world. About 25% of the country’s ostriches are produced in the Eastern Cape area.The majority of South Africa’s exported ostrich meat goes to Europe. Specific statistics on ostrich stocks and a breakdown of ostrich product value are not available. South Africa produces other types of poultry, but South Africa’s percentage of world poultry stocks and world poultry exports is negligible.

Table 1: Poultry Stocks and Production, South Africa , 2002 and 2003

2002

2003

Stocks

Stocks

% of World Production

Poultry Stocks (hd)

120,833,000

120,833,000

<1%

Poultry Meat (mt)

824,762

824,762

1.1%

Hen Eggs (mt)

366,300

366,300

<1%

Table 2: Exports of live animal and animal products, South Africa , 2001 - 2002

Exports

2001

2002

% of World in 2002

Quantity

(# head or mt)

Value

(1000 $)

Quantity

(# head or mt)

Value

(1000 $)

Quantity

(# head or mt)

Value

(1000 $)

Poultry Stocks

3557

966

2551

1050

<1%

<1%

Poultry Meat

231

147

587

388

<1%

<1%

Hen Eggs

4797

3897

10,598

7642

1%

<1%

Source: United Nations FAO, South African Ostrich Business Chamber, IOL

What are the US imports of ostriches, poultry or ostrich and poultry products from South Africa?

South Africa is not recognized by the US as free from exotic Newcastle disease, therefore imports of poultry and non-processed poultry products from South Africa are restricted. During 2003, 11,284 birds were imported into the US from South Africa, and in Jan – May 2004, 7,189 birds were imported. Most birds were imported for commercial purposes. Live birds are quarantined in US ports prior to clearance for entry into the country, during which time testing for infectious diseases, including avian influenza, takes place. The US also imports skins and feathers of birds. Available statistics do not indicate if these products are of ostrich origin.

Swine can play a role in the transmission and epidemiology of avian influenza outbreaks. South Africa is not considered free of classical swine fever or swine vesicular disease by the USDA and therefore the US did not import any live swine or swine products of risk during 2002 through 2003.

Mexico imported no poultry or poultry products from South Africa. In 2003, Canada imported a small amount of feathers and preserved or cooked eggs (Table 4).


Table 3: US imports of ostriches, poultry or ostrich and poultry products from South Africa , 2003 – May 2004

Product

2003

2004 (Jan – May)

$value (million)

quantity (kg)

$value (million)

quantity(kg)

Skins & other parts of birds with feathers or down

1.883

63,757

0.919

28,329

Skins & other parts of birds with feathers processed

0.185

not reported

0.112

not reported

Live Birds (non-poultry) (hd)

0.100

11,284

0.069

7,189

Source: World Trade Atlas, VS Import Tracking System.

Table 4. Canadian Im ports of Live Birds and Poultry Products from South Africa , 2002 - 2003

Product

2002

2003

$value*

(million)

Quantity

(dozen)

$value*

(million)

Quantity

(dozen)

Feathers, cleaned and disinfected

0.011

Not reported

0.001

Not reported

Eggs, bird, in shell, nes, preserved or cooked

0.001

94

0.002

265

*Canadian dollars

Source: World Trade Atlas

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from South Africa ?

A total of 72,029 residents of South Africa arrived on flights to the US during 2003. As part of APHIS-PPQ’s agriculture quarantine inspection monitoring, 495 air passengers from South Africa were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal year 2003. None of these passengers were found to be carrying poultry products.

Source: Office of Travel & Tourism Industries, US Department of Commerce, USDA APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection database.

CEI’s plans for follow up: CEI will continue to monitor the situation and may issue additional reports. If you need more information or if you want to comment on this worksheet, you may reply to this message, or contact Cynthia Johnson (970-494-7332) or Liz Williams (970-494-7329).

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