CT_Hpainoneusummary41306

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza_ Non-Eu_ 4_13_2006

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

Outbreak Summary for non-EU Countries of Europe

March 20, 2006 , Impact Worksheet


Summary:

Over the past several weeks, highly pathogenic avian influenza, subtype H5N1, has extended its range across Europe , the Middle East , and Africa . As of March 20, 2006 , 11 European Union (EU) member nations and 10 other non-EU European nations have reported bird deaths caused by the H5N1 virus. The 10 non-EU members reporting H5N1 in birds are Albania , Bosnia-Herzegovina , Bulgaria , Croatia , Romania , Russia , Serbia and Montenegro , Switzerland , Turkey , and Ukraine . Nine of these countries have reported H5- or H5N1-related deaths in wild birds, mainly swans, and five have reported H5N1-related deaths in domestic poultry, including chickens, turkeys, pheasants, ducks and geese.

The 20 non-EU European countries had poultry stocks of nearly one billion in 2005, representing 5.4% of world stocks. Chickens accounted for 95% of non-EU European poultry stocks. Russia and Turkey had the largest poultry stocks of the non-EU European countries in 2005, with 1.8% and 1.7%, respectively, of world stocks. Russia ranked 6 th and 7 th in the world for stocks of geese and chickens, respectively. Turkey ranked 8 th and 9 th in the world for stocks of chickens and geese, respectively. Romania ranked 3 rd in the world for geese stocks and Ukraine ranked 6 th in the world for duck stocks in 2005.

Live poultry and poultry meat exports from the non-EU European countries were minimal in 2004. The US receives relatively minimal imports of live birds from non-EU European countries. All of the live bird imports for 2004 and 2005 fall under the non-poultry category, and were mainly considered commercial (not pet) birds. Greater than 99% of the live bird imports were from Russia . All live poultry and other bird species imported into the US (except from Canada) are required to have a USDA issued import permit, a health certificate issued by a government veterinarian in the country of origin, and to be quarantined for 30 days in a USDA animal import quarantine facility. These requirements include pet birds as well as commercial birds. During the quarantine period, the birds are tested for various infectious pathogens, including avian influenza. Many poultry products are imported after processing, which mitigates the risk of disease transmission.

The only poultry products imported from non-EU European countries in 2004 and 2005 were skins and feathers. Four countries supplied these imports during this time period, with Switzerland supplying over 75% of the imports in 2004, and Ukraine supplying over 75% in 2005.


What is the extent of the outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the non-EU European countries?

Over the past eight weeks, highly pathogenic avian influenza, subtype H5N1, has extended its range across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa . Poultry production facilities have been affected in numerous countries throughout Asia, Africa, and eastern/central Europe . As of March 10, 2006, 11 European Union (EU) member nations and 10 other (non-EU) European nations have reported bird deaths caused by the H5N1 virus (see map). The 10 non-EU members reporting H5N1 in birds are Albania , Bosnia-Herzegovina , Bulgaria , Croatia , Romania , Russia , Serbia and Montenegro , Switzerland , Turkey , and Ukraine . Nine of these countries have reported H5- or H5N1-related deaths in wild birds, mainly swans, and five have reported H5N1-related deaths in domestic poultry, including chickens, turkeys, pheasants, ducks and geese.

Although the non-EU European countries do not have a common obligation regarding responses to H5N1 outbreaks as do the EU members, most of these countries follow guidelines similar to those laid out by the European Commission (EC). Under various scenarios, actions may include stamping out and disinfection, control of wildlife reservoirs, quarantine, and movement controls. In addition, many of the affected non-EU countries are designated as EU accession countries or are EU candidate countries, thus have responded to H5N1 outbreaks with mitigation strategies similar to those specified by the EC.

Following is a summary of H5N1 influenza activity in each of the non-EU European countries.

Albania : An outbreak of avian influenza was reported in chickens in the village of Çuke , Sarande County ( Vlore State ) on February 16, 2006. All 60 susceptible birds died from the disease. The diagnosis was confirmed as H5N1 by the OIE Reference Laboratory in Weybridge , UK .

Bosnia-Herzegovina: On February 16, 2006, two of about 15 swans that had recently arrived at Plivsko Lake in central Bosnia, showed signs of avian influenza. The swans were killed and samples sent to a laboratory for further examination. Pathological findings and initial tests showed H5 strain. Veterinary authorities ordered the slaughter of the rest of the swan flock and about 4,400 poultry within a 3-km protection zone.


Current distribution of HPAI, subtype H5N1, in Europe

.

Non-EU countries with confirmed H5N1 infection in wild birds and/or poultry

European Union (EU) countries with confirmed H5N1 infection in wild birds and/or poultry

Countries with no known reports of H5N1 infection

Sources: OIE Disease Information Report; World Health Organization; ProMED; Selected open-source news articles.

Bulgaria : On February 11, 2006, Bulgaria confirmed H5N1 infection in a swan found dead near Vidin , on the western Danube riverside. The swan was collected on January 31. Subsequently, Bulgaria reported two more cases of H5 bird flu in dead swans found near the Black Sea coast. One of the newly discovered swans was found in Lake Shabla near the northern border with Romania , which has been battling dozens of outbreaks of H5N1 since October 2005. The other bird was found near the Black Sea port town Varna .

Croatia : Croatia has had three outbreaks of H5 avian influenza, all in wild birds, since October 2005. The first two outbreaks occurred in 30 swans at two freshwater fish farms in the northeastern part of the country. Monitoring and sampling of waterfowl at these locations over the next two months showed low to minimal levels of infection with H5N1. The third occurrence of H5N1 was in a dead swan found February 15, 2006, on the island of Ciovo in the Adriatic Sea . On February 21, H5N1 avian influenza virus was isolated from a dead swan found at Slatina, on the island of Ciovo. The swan was found on February 15.

Romania : Beginning in October 2005, Romania began experiencing multiple outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 in backyard poultry flocks. The disease was first found in hens, ducks, turkeys and geese. Later it was found in wild swans, herons and coots. Genetic studies showed close homology with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Turkey and central Asia . Romanian authorities declared the epidemic extinguished in backyard poultry flocks and wild swans by mid-November 2005, but new outbreaks soon occurred in wild waterfowl and more backyard poultry flocks. Animal health workers culled thousands of flocks where H5N1 had been detected. Migratory birds, including white-fronted geese, swans, ducks and cormorants, occupying lakes and wetlands near some of the towns, were blamed for outbreaks. As of February 24, 2006, avian influenza had been found in 35 villages across the country.

Russia : Russia has experienced three large outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza since July 2005. Last summer, about 17,000 domestic poultry died of H5N1 virus and more than 600,000 were killed to prevent the disease’s spread. Contact with wild waterfowl at open reservoirs was considered the suspect source. During a second H5N1 outbreak from October 2005 to January 2006, about 1,500 domestic poultry died and 6,500 were culled. The third outbreak, concentrated in the Daghestan Republic on the Caspian Sea, began in February 2006 and has killed nearly half a million domestic poultry in southern Russia. An additional 220,000 birds have been culled in an attempt to stem this most recent outbreak. Altogether, since July 2005, more than 1.3 million domestic poultry have died or been slaughtered in Russia due to highly pathogenic avian influenza. Russia planned to begin mass vaccinations of domestic poultry flocks against avian influenza starting March 10.

Serbia and Montenegro : On February 28, 2006, a dead mute swan was found near a village in northwest Serbia , near the border with Croatia and Hungary . By March 1, a total of 17 dead mute swans had been found at this location. Nine of 15 tested swans were positive for H5N1 virus. Another dead swan, testing H5N1 positive, was found March 4 on the River Drina near the Bosnian border . Subsequently, a rooster found dead in a backyard farm in nearby Bajina Baste also was confirmed as infected with H5N1. This was the first case of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in domestic poultry in Serbia . A total of 561 birds (chickens, hens, rosters and ducks) were culled in the affected area.

Switzerland : A dead goosander (merganser), testing positive for H5N1 virus, was found in the harbor of Geneva on February 26, 2006. Subsequently a dead swan, two ducks and a coot found near the German border tested positive for H5 avian influenza. These latter cases will be further tested at the OIE reference laboratory in the UK to confirm the presence of H5N1 virus.

Turkey : H5N1 avian influenza was first reported in Turkey in early October 2005. The initial outbreak was in a flock of 1,700 turkeys in the western part of the country, followed by an outbreak in the same region in 1,200 backyard poultry (chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese). Animal health authorities immediately culled all backyard poultry (more than10,000 birds) within 3 km as well as more than 2,600 free range turkeys in direct contact with the infected flocks. The outbreak was declared ended by early December 2005, but shortly afterward avian influenza was discovered in four backyard poultry flocks in eastern Turkey . This was near the border with Iran , Armenia , and Azerbaijan , an area considered one of the main routes for migratory birds passing through the Anatolia region of Turkey . Since mid-December, 151 outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in 28 provinces throughout Turkey have resulted in culling of nearly 2.3 million poultry. Authorities have reported 24 occurrences of H5N1 virus in wild birds, including swan, hawk, pigeon, dove, and sparrow.

Ukraine : Ukraine reported its first outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in late November 2005. The outbreak occurred in several small villages on the Crimean Peninsula , which extends from southern Ukraine into the Black Sea . More than 1,900 poultry (chickens and geese) were initially affected, and the disease was later found in domestic turkeys. Virus isolates were closely related to those found in outbreaks of H5N1 in Russia , and China . More than 62,000 birds were destroyed in house-to-house surveys of villages across the peninsula, and the outbreak was declared over by the end of December 2005. But, H5N1 reappeared in Crimea in early January in backyard poultry, as well as in a few wild birds, including ducks, jays, rooks, pigeons, and gulls. By the end of February, more than 200,000 poultry, both in backyard and commercial flocks, had been destroyed by animal health workers. Also in late February, zoo officials reported H5 avian influenza-related deaths in zoo birds (parrots and pheasants) in Odessa , a seaport in southern Ukraine . It was unclear whether the disease in zoo birds was caused by H5N1 virus, although officials implied that it was not. The country's top veterinary officer said Ukraine had begun testing several types of vaccine for H5N1 in poultry, but no decision had been made whether to undertake mass vaccinations.

What is the international market for poultry and poultry products in non-EU European countries?

The 20 non-EU European countries had poultry stocks of nearly one billion in 2005, representing 5.4% of world stocks (see Appendix 1 for country and species details). Chickens accounted for 95% of non-EU European poultry stocks, with ducks, geese, and turkeys accounting for 3%, 1% and 1%, respectively. Russia and Turkey had the largest poultry stocks of the non-EU European countries in 2005 (Table 1), with Russia having almost 335 million head (1.8% of world stocks), followed closely by Turkey ’s almost 303 million head (1.7% of world stocks). Russia ranked 6 th and 7 th in the world for stocks of geese and chickens, respectively. Turkey ranked 8 th and 9 th in the world for stocks of chickens and geese, respectively. Romania ranked 3 rd in the world for geese stocks and Ukraine ranked 6 th in the world for duck stocks in 2005.

Source: United Nations FAO

The non-EU European countries produced nearly 3.2 million metric tons of poultry meat in 2005, accounting for 3.9% of world poultry meat production (Appendix 2). Russia and Turkey were the largest poultry meat producers among the non-EU European countries (Table 2). In 2005 Russia ranked 12 th in the world with production of 1.13 million metric tons and Turkey ranked 18 th in the world with production of 958 thousand metric tons.

Source: United Nations FAO


Table 1. Stocks of live poultry*, top 10 producing non-EU European countries, 2005

Country

Number of head (1000)

% of world

Russia

Turkey

Ukraine

Romania

Belarus

Bulgaria

Serbia and Montenegro

Moldova , Republic of

Croatia

Switzerland

* Includes chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys

Source: United Nations FAO

Table 2. Production of poultry meat*, top 10 producing non-EU European countries, 2005

Country

Metric tons

% of world

Russia

1.4

Turkey

1.2

Ukraine

0.6

Romania

0.2

Belarus

0.1

Serbia and Montenegro

0.1

Bulgaria

0.1

Switzerland

0.1

Norway

0.1

Croatia

0.1

*Includes chicken, duck, goose and turkey meat

Source: United Nations FAO

Shell egg production by the non-EU European countries represented 7.2% of world production in 2005 (Appendix 2). Russia ranked 5 th in the world, with production of over 2 million metric tons of shell eggs representing 3.2% of world production in 2005 (Table 3). Turkey and Ukraine ranked 10 th and 12 th in the world for shell egg production.

Source: United Nations FAO


Table 3. Production of shell eggs, top 10 producing non-EU European countries, 2005

Country

Metric tons

% of world

Russia

Turkey

Ukraine

Romania

Belarus

Bulgaria

Serbia and Montenegro

Norway

Croatia

Moldova , Republic of

Source: United Nations FAO

Live poultry exports from the non-EU European countries were minimal in 2004 (Appendix 3). Turkey exported approximately 4.2 million head, Ukraine 1.8 million head, and Russia 1.3 million head, accounting for 0.5%, 0.2% and 0.2% of world exports, respectively (Table 4). The majority of these exports were chickens.

Source: United Nations FAO

Table 4. Live poultry exports from top non-EU European countries, 2004

Country

Chickens

Total Live Poultry*

Number head

(1000)

Value

(1000 $)

Number head

(1000)

Value

(1000 $)

% of World Quantity

% of World Value

Russia

Turkey

Ukraine

* Includes chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys

Source: United Nations FAO

Turkey exported the most poultry meat from the non-EU European countries with slightly more than 29,153 metric tons, accounting for 0.4% of world fresh poultry meat exports in 2004 (Table 5). Belarus exported 13,246 metric tons for fresh poultry meat, accounting for 0.2% of world exports. The other non-EU European countries exported minimal, if any, fresh poultry meat, each accounting for less than 0.1% of world exports (Appendix 4). Belarus ranks 10 th in the world for shell egg exports, with 31,196 metric tons (2.9% of world exports), and Turkey ranks 13 th in the world.

Source: United Nations FAO


Table 5. Fresh poultry meat and shell egg exports from top non-EU European countries, 2004

Country

Chicken Meat

Duck Meat

Goose Meat

Turkey Meat

Total Fresh Poultry Meat

Shell Eggs

Metric Tons

Metric Tons

% of World

Metric Tons

% of World

Belarus

Turkey

Source: United Nations FAO

What are the US imports of live birds and poultry products from non-EU European countries?

The US receives relatively minimal imports of live birds from non-EU European countries (Table 6). All of the live bird imports for 2004 and 2005 fall under the non-poultry category, and were mainly considered commercial (not pet) birds. Greater than 99% of the live bird imports were from Russia . Eight other countries supplied live bird imports to the US in 2004 and 2005 to make up the remainder of imports. The live bird imports from the non-EU European countries are slightly more than half of what the US imports from the EU.

All live bird species imported into the US (except from Canada) are required to have a USDA issued import permit, a health certificate issued by a government veterinarian in the country of origin, and to be quarantined for 30 days in a USDA animal import quarantine facility. These requirements include pet birds as well as commercial birds. During the quarantine period, the birds are tested for various infectious pathogens, including avian influenza.

Of the non-EU European countries, only Iceland and Switzerland are considered to be free of exotic Newcastle disease by the USDA, therefore there are significant restrictions on US importation of poultry products from most of these countries. Many poultry products are imported after processing, which mitigates the risk of disease transmission. The only poultry products imported from non-EU European countries in 2004 and 2005 were skins and feathers (Table 6). Four countries supplied these products for import during this time period, with Switzerland supplying over 75% of the imports in 2004, and Ukraine supplying over 75% in 2005. The quantity of skins and feathers imported into the US from non-EU European countries is small (less than 10%) compared to the amount imported from the EU during this same time period.

Source: World Trade Atlas, VS Import Tracking System


Table 6. US live bird and poultry product imports from non-EU European countries, 2004-2005

Product

Country

2004

2005

Quantity

US $ (1,000s)

Quantity

US $ (1,000s)

Live Birds (not poultry)

Albania

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Croatia

Macedonia

Norway

Russia

Switzerland

Turkey

Ukraine

Skins and Feathers (kg)

Moldova

Romania

Russia

Switzerland

Ukraine

Source: World Trade Atlas, VS Import Tracking System

What are Canada ’s and Mexico ’s imports of live birds or poultry products from non-EU European countries?

Canada imported a few live birds and small amounts of skins and feathers from non-EU European countries in 2004 and 2005 (Table 7). All live bird imports were from Russia . Skins and feathers came from 3 countries, with the majority coming from Russia . The imports of live birds and poultry products for non-EU European countries are less than the imports into Canada from the EU in 2004 and 2005.

Source: World Trade Atlas

Table 7. Canadian live birds and poultry product imports from non-EU European countries, 2004-2005

Product

Country

2004

2005

Quantity

Canadian $ (1,000s)

Quantity

Canadian $ (1,000s)

Live Birds (number)

Russia

Skins and Feathers (kg)

Russia

Switzerland

Ukraine

Source: World Trade Atlas


The only non-EU European country Mexico imported live birds from in 2004 or 2005 was Switzerland . Mexico imported 647 live birds (valued at US$2000) in 2004 and 545 live birds (valued at US$10,000) in 2005 (Jan – Nov). No poultry products were imported into Mexico from non-EU European countries during this time period. Mexico imported many more live birds from the EU than it did from non-EU European countries in 2004 and 2005, and also imported a limited number of poultry products from the EU during this time period.

Source: World Trade Atlas

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from non-EU European countries?

In 2004, nearly 644,000 air passengers arrived in the US who reported their country of residency as one of the non-EU European countries (Appendix 5). This number does not include non-resident travelers from these countries, such as those who were in the country for business trips or vacations.

As part of APHIS-PPQ’s agriculture quarantine inspection monitoring, 6,208 air passengers from the non-EU European countries were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal year 2004. Of these passengers, 50 were found to be carrying the following relevant products: processed chicken (5 kg), preserved eggs (4 kg), unspecified meat broth (2 kg), and unspecified meat, including meat, sandwich meat and processed meat (79 kg) (Appendix 6). One passenger from Russia , carrying unspecified meat broth, reported having been on a farm prior to the flight. None of the passengers carrying these products planned to visit a farm or ranch while in the US .

Are there any political/trade issues between the US and the non- EU European countries and what is the status of their veterinary infrastructures?

Republic of Albania

US - Albanian Relations:

In 2003, Albania and the US signed and ratified a number of agreements. The US strongly supports Albania 's EU and NATO membership goals. Since FY 1991, the US has provided more than $531 million in assistance--not counting US Department of Agriculture (USDA) food aid--to Albania to facilitate its transition from an isolated European communist state to a modern democracy with a market-oriented economy, and to support long-term development.

Veterinary Infrastructure:

In 2001, Albania reported to the OIE having 1,010 veterinarians, including 450 government veterinarians. An EU mission completed in 2000 reported that the government veterinary authority has legal authority and is well organized. It consists of a network of public and private veterinarians and is 80% funded by the government. However, the veterinary services have been weakened by economic reforms and privatization and are struggling with regard to disease control and other animal health issues. Albania has one central veterinary laboratory, which is well equipped and has a well-trained staff, and 12 regional laboratories. Albania has an import permit system for live animals and meat with six border inspection posts for animal imports.

Sources: US Dept. of State Background Note: Albania , accessed 3/9/06 at: www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3235.htm; European Commission, “Follow-up of the 1999 Food Security Programme in Albania ” (Mission in Albania from the 13 th to the 22 nd of November 2000), Final Report; OIE Handistatus II at : http://www.oie.int/hs2/report.asp?lang=en

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH)

US – Bosnian Relations:

The 1992-95 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina was ended with the crucial participation of the US in brokering the 1995 Dayton Accords. After leading the diplomatic and military effort to secure the Dayton agreement, the US has continued to lead the effort to ensure its implementation. The US has donated hundreds of millions of dollars to help with reconstruction, humanitarian assistance, economic development, and military reconstruction in Bosnia and Herzegovina .

Veterinary Infrastructure:

There is reported to be a lack of cooperation between the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, resulting in two independent parallel organizations performing veterinary duties within the same country. A recently established State Veterinary Office is designed to serve as an umbrella organization and is recognized by the international community, but it is not yet recognized by the two entities. In 2004, BiH reported 1,015 veterinarians, including 132 government veterinarians. The country has two main laboratories and a network of smaller labs, but it has no formal links to the EU reference labs. Additionally, not all labs are functional, some being poorly equipped and not able to test for certain animal diseases.

Government oversight for farm registration, animal identification, and animal movement control is weak. BiH does have detailed import requirements following OIE guidelines, but poor control of borders has resulted in smuggling. There are 15 border inspection posts, but imports are poorly documented.

Sources: US State Dept. Background Note – Bosnia and Herzegovina , accessed 3/9/06 at: www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2868.htm; OIE Handistatus II at : http://www.oie.int/hs2/report.asp?lang=en

Republic of Bulgaria

US – Bulgarian Relations:

The year 2003 marked the 100th anniversary of diplomatic relations between the US and Bulgaria . US-Bulgarian relations were severed in 1950 but were restored a decade later, with bilateral relations between the two nations improving dramatically after the fall of communism. The US signed a Bilateral Investment Treaty in 1994 and gave Bulgaria most-favored-nation trade status in October 1996. In 1989, the US Congress passed the Support for East European Democracies Act (SEED), authorizing financial support to facilitate development of democratic institutions, political pluralism, and free market economies in the Balkan region. Since 1990, Bulgaria has received more than $460 million in SEED assistance.

Veterinary Infrastructure:

Bulgaria reported having 3,047 veterinarians, including 74 government veterinarians, in 2004. An EU mission conducted in December 2001 reported that the government veterinary authority has legal authority; government services are, however, being reorganized. The country has one central laboratory with a network of regional labs. Occasional problems arise with the availability of test kits. Bulgaria has a system in place for certifying internal movements of animals and products.

Sources: US State Dept. Background Note – Bulgaria, accessed 3/9/06 at: www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3236.htm; European Commission, “Final Report of a Mission Carried Out in Bulgaria from 10/12/01 to 14/12/01 in order to assess the Operation of Animal Health and Public Health Controls in Respect of the Export of Animals and Animal Products to the European Union,” DG(SANCO)?3377/2001—MR Final (01/03/02); OIE Handistatus II at : http://www.oie.int/hs2/report.asp?lang=en

Republic of Croatia

US – Croatian Relations:

US engagement in Croatia is aimed at fostering a democratic, secure, and market-oriented society that will be a strong partner in Euro-Atlantic institutions. The United States opened its Embassy in Zagreb in 1992. In an effort to promote regional stability through refugee returns, the US has given more than $13.4 million since 1998 in humanitarian assistance. The US also has provided additional financial assistance to Croatia through the Southeastern European Economic Development Program to facilitate democratization and restructuring of Croatia 's financial sector.

Veterinary Infrastructure:

In 2004, Croatia reported having 2,748 veterinarians, including 937 government veterinarians. The number of government veterinarians more than quintupled between 1998 and 1999 (from 157 to 791). A 1999 EU mission concluded that the Croatian veterinary services were performing adequately and were effectively in control of the whole Croatian territory. The report stated that the Croatian veterinary services have a good structure, a clear chain of command, legal provision to fight important diseases, and dedicated staff. Croatia has one central laboratory, which functions as a reference laboratory, and four regional laboratories. Because Croatian certificates were involved in the illegal movement of cattle infected with foot and mouth disease in 1993, the central veterinary services now have strict control in issuing certificates. Sharing borders with five countries ( Slovenia , Bosnia-Herzegovina , Italy , Hungary , and Yugoslavia ), Croatia has 31 border inspection posts.

Sources: US State Dept. Background Note – Croatia , accessed 3/9/06 at: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3166.htm; European Commission, “Final Report of a Mission to Croatia from 12 to 16 July 1999 (Animal Health and Certification)” DG(SANCO)/1158/1999/MR—FINAL (11/30/1999); OIE Handistatus II at : http://www.oie.int/hs2/report.asp?lang=en

Macedonia ( Former Yugoslav Republic )

US – Macedonia Relations:

The United States and Macedonia have enjoyed good bilateral relations since Macedonia gained its independence in 1991. Today, Macedonia and the US enjoy a cooperative relationship across a broad range of political, economic, cultural, military, and social issues.

Veterinary Infrastructure:

Macedonia reported having 62 government veterinarians and 329 other veterinarians in 2004. There is one central laboratory with modern equipment and trained staff. Animal movement within the country is controlled by veterinary certification, and there are 10 border inspection posts.

Sources: US State Dept. Background Note – Macedonia , accessed 3/9/06 at: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/26759.htm; OIE Handistatus II at : http://www.oie.int/hs2/report.asp?lang=en

Romania

US - Romanian Relations:

US bilateral relations with Romania began to improve in the early 1960s with the signing of an agreement providing for partial settlement of American property claims. Cultural, scientific, and educational exchanges were initiated, and in 1964 the legations of both nations were promoted to full embassies.

Veterinary Infrastructure:

Based on its 2004 report to the OIE, Romania has a well-organized Veterinary Services with 2,016 government veterinarians and at least one central laboratory. There are 4,014 additional veterinarians in private practice, universities, or laboratories.

Sources: US Dept. of State Background Note: Romania , last accessed on 3/9/06 at: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35722.htm ; OIE Handistatus II at : http://www.oie.int/hs2/report.asp?lang=en

Russia

US – Russian Relations

The US and Russia share common interests on a broad range of issues. Not only are missiles no longer targeted at the other’s homeland, but the US and Russia have become strong allies in the global war on terrorism. In addition, Russia is an important partner in the Middle East Peace Process “Quartet” (along with the UN and the EU). US assistance programs in Russia are generally working at the grassroots level by bolstering small business through training and enhanced availability of credit; expanding exchanges so that more Russian citizens can learn about America 's market democracy on a first-hand basis; and increasing the number of partnerships between Russian and US cities, universities, hospitals, business associations, charities, and other civic groups.

Veterinary Infrastructure:

Information not available.

Sources: US Dept. of State Background Note: Russia , last accessed on 3179/06 at: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3183.htm

Serbia and Montenegro

US – Serbia and Montenegro Relations:

At the outset of hostilities between NATO and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (F.R.Y.) in the spring of 1999, the United States and the F.R.Y. severed diplomatic relations. In response to the overthrow of the Milosevic regime in October 2000, the US reestablished a diplomatic presence and the US Embassy reopened in May 2001. Since the fall of Milosevic however, the US is giving some aid to Serbia and Montenegro , though there are Congressional restrictions based on Serbia ’s need to meet its international obligations to the International Criminal Tribunal of the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). Ten million dollars of US aid in fiscal year 2005 was suspended due to Serbia ’s non-cooperation with the ICTY; however, due to the subsequent transfer of twelve indictees to Tribunal, the way has been cleared for the restoration of the previously suspended aid.

Veterinary Infrastructure:

In 2004, Serbia and Montenegro reported 464 central and local government veterinarians, 1,324 State veterinarians, and 810 private practitioners. In addition, 310 veterinarians work in laboratories, universities, or training institutions in Serbia and Montenegro .

Sources: US State Dept. Background Note – Serbia and Montenegro , accessed 3/17/06 at: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5388.htm; OIE Handistatus II at : http://www.oie.int/hs2/report.asp?lang=en

Switzerland

US – Swiss Relations:

Switzerland is a democratic country subscribing to most of the ideals with which the US is identified. The country is politically stable with a fundamentally strong economy. Co operation under the US-Swiss Joint Economic Commission invigorated bilateral ties by recording achievements in a number of areas, including consultations on anti-money laundering efforts, counter-terrorism, and pharmaceutical regulatory cooperation.

Veterinary Infrastructure:

Of the 2,220 veterinarians active in Switzerland during 2004, 1,515 were private practitioners, 160 were working in industry, 162 were government veterinarians, and 383 worked in laboratories, universities, and training institutions.

Sources: US State Dept. Background Note – Switzerland , accessed 3/17/06 at:: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3431.htm ; OIE Handistatus II at : http://www.oie.int/hs2/report.asp?lang=en


Turkey

US – Turkish Relations:

US-Turkish friendship dates to the late 18th century and was officially sealed by a treaty in 1830. The present close relationship began with the agreement of July 12, 1947, which implemented the Truman Doctrine. As part of the cooperative effort to further Turkish economic and military self-reliance, the US has loaned and granted Turkey more than $12.5 billion in economic aid and more than $14 billion in military assistance. Turkey has been designated a Big Emerging Market (BEM) for US exports and investment by the Department of Commerce. In 2001, the US-Turkey trade balance was almost even, with each country exporting approximately $3 billion to the other. The US is Turkey 's third-largest export market.

Veterinary Infrastructure:

The Turkish Veterinary Service is well-staffed and organized and, in 2004, had 1,858 government veterinarians. Private and other veterinarians numbered 5,387. Turkey has central and regional veterinary laboratories, as well as 10 regional research institutes.

Sources: US Dept. of State Background Note: Turkey last accessed on 3/9/06 at: www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3432.htm; OIE Handistatus II at : http://www.oie.int/hs2/report.asp?lang=en

Ukraine

US – Ukraine Relations:

The Ukrainian Government began taking steps in the fall of 1999 to reinvigorate their economy after a period of decline. Ukraine ’s democratic “Orange Revolution” has led to closer cooperation and more open dialogue between Ukraine and the United States . US policy remains centered on realizing and strengthening a democratic, prosperous, and secure Ukraine more closely integrated into European and Euro-Atlantic structures. Total US assistance to Ukraine since independence has been more than $3 billion and is targeted to promote political and economic reform and to address urgent humanitarian needs.

Veterinary Infrastructure:

In 2004, Ukraine had 4,080 government veterinarians, 4,201 veterinarians working in laboratories, industry, and training institutions, and 2,003 private practitioners.

Sources: US State Dept. Background Note – Ukraine ; http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3211.htm ; OIE Handistatus II at : http://www.oie.int/hs2/report.asp?lang=en

CEI’s plans for follow up: CEI will continue to monitor the HPAI situation in Europe and may issue additional reports. If you need more information or if you want to comment on this worksheet, you may reply to this message, or contact Barbara Bischoff at 970-494-7282.

Email addresses: barbara.a.bischoff@aphis.usda.gov or steven.j.sweeney@aphis.usda.gov


Appendix 1. Stocks of chickens, ducks, geese & turkeys, 2005

Country

Chickens

Ducks

Geese

Turkeys

Poultry

Number of head (1000)

% of world

Number of head (1000)

% of world

Number of head (1000)

% of world

Number of head (1000)

% of world

Number of head (1000)

% of world

Albania

Andorra

Belarus

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bulgaria

Croatia

Iceland

Liechtenstein

Macedonia , The Fmr Yug Rp

Moldova , Republic of

Monaco

Norway

Romania

Russian Federation

San Marino

Serbia and Montenegro

Switzerland

Turkey

Ukraine

Vatican City

Total

Source: United Nations FAO


Appendix 2. Production of poultry meat & shell eggs, 2005

Country

Poultry Meat

Shell Eggs

Metric tons

% of world

Metric tons

% of world

Albania

Andorra

Belarus

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bulgaria

Croatia

Iceland

Liechtenstein

Macedonia , The Fmr Yug Rp

Moldova , Republic of

Monaco

Norway

Romania

Russian Federation

San Marino

Serbia and Montenegro

Switzerland

Turkey

Ukraine

Vatican City

Total

Source: United Nations FAO


Appendix 3. Live poultry exports from non-EU countries, 2004

Country

Chickens

Geese

Turkeys

Total Live Poultry

Number head

(1000)

Value

(1000 $)

Number head

(1000)

Value

(1000 $)

Number head

(1000)

Value

(1000 $)

Number head

(1000)

Value

(1000 $)

% of World Quantity

% of World Value

Albania

Andorra

Belarus

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bulgaria

Croatia

Iceland

Liechtenstein

Macedonia ,The Fmr Yug Rp

Moldova , Republic of

Monaco

Norway

Romania

Russian Federation

San Marino

Serbia and Montenegro

Switzerland

Turkey

Ukraine

Vatican City

Source: United Nations FAO


Appendix 4. Poultry meat and shell egg exports from non-EU European countries, 2004

Country

Chicken Meat

Duck Meat

Goose Meat

Turkey Meat

Total Fresh Poultry

Shell Eggs

Metric Tons

Metric Tons

% of World

Metric Tons

% of World

Albania

Andorra

Belarus

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bulgaria

Croatia

Iceland

Macedonia , The Fmr Yug Rp

Moldova , Republic of

Monaco

Norway

Romania

Russian Federation

San Marino

Serbia and Montenegro

Switzerland

Turkey

Ukraine

Vatican City

Source: United Nations FAO


Appendix 5. Airline passengers arriving in the US from non-EU European countries, based on country of residency, 2004

Country

Number of Passengers

Albania

Andorra

Belarus

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Bulgaria

Croatia

Iceland

Liechtenstein

Macedonia

Moldova

Monaco

Norway

Romania

Russia

San Marino

Serbia and Montenegro

Switzerland

Turkey

Ukraine

Vatican City

TOTAL

*n/a = not available

Source: Office of Travel and Tourism Industries, Air Passenger Arrivals by Country of Residence, 2004, http://www.tinet.ita.doc.gov/view/f-2004-203-001/index.html


Appendix 6. Agriculture quarantine inspection, passengers from non-EU European countries, FY 2004

Country

Total number of passengers sampled

Product found

Amount of product found

Albania

Meat, unspecified

1 kg

Andorra

Belarus

No relevant products found

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Unspecified meat

36 kg

Bulgaria

Unspecified meat

3 kg

Croatia

Unspecified meat

2 pieces

Unspecified sandwich meat

1.2 kg

Chicken, Processed

5 kg

Iceland

Unspecified meat

12 kg

Liechtenstein

Macedonia

No relevant products found

Moldova

No relevant product found

Monaco

No relevant product found

Norway

Unspecified meat

2 pieces

Unspecified meat

4 kg & 2 pieces

Unspecified sandwich meat

2 kg

Unspecified meat, processed

0.10 kg

Romania

Unspecified meat

3.5 kg

Unspecified sandwich meat

1.25 kg

Unspecified meat, preserved

1.25 kg

Unspecified meat, processed

3 kg

Russia

Unspecified meat

1 kg

Unspecified meat, broth

2 kg

San Marino

Serbia and Montenegro

Switzerland

Unspecified meat

1 kg

Turkey

Unspecified meat

5

Ukraine

Eggs, Preserved

4 kg

Vatican City

Total

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