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Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, The Netherlands

Impact Worksheet, March 5, 2003

Summary:

The Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries of the Netherlands on March 1, 2003 announced a suspected outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in 6 layer farms in the Gelder Valley. Additional farms were added to the outbreak on March 2, bringing the total to 16 farms. The outbreak was confirmed on March 2, 2003 by PCR testing by the Central Institute for Animal Disease Control in Lelystad, NL. HPAI viral subtype H7N7 was identified and analysis of the virus suggests it developed in the wild bird population of the Netherlands. Movement and export bans for the entire Netherlands were put in place March 1, 2003.

The Gelder Valley has a high poultry population, with approximately one-third of Dutch poultry located in Gelderland (see map below). While the Netherlands does not have a large percentage of total world poultry stocks, the Netherlands is a significant exporter of poultry and poultry products. On a per head basis, the Netherlands exports the most live chickens in the world, 22 percent of world trade. The Netherlands is also the world’s largest egg exporter, second largest turkey meat exporter and third largest chicken meat exporter. U.S. imported 13,000 day-old chicks and 90,000 hatching eggs in 2002 from the Netherlands. All birds and hatching eggs from the Netherlands are quarantined upon entry into the U.S.

How extensive is the disease in the Netherlands, and what was the Netherlands’ disease status prior to the outbreak?

Initial reports by the Dutch government indicated 6 infected farms were identified February 28, 2003 with additional farms added on March 1, bringing the total to 16 farms. The farms are located in the Gelder Valley of the Netherlands and most of the infected farms are located in the Gelderland province (see map below). The suspected outbreak of HPAI was reported by the Dutch government March 1, 2003 with confirmation made March 2, 2003 by PCR testing. Analysis of the virus indicated that it had likely mutated from the H7N3 subtype previously identified in the Mallard and an H11N7 subtype identified in the Shoveler (duck). Both subtypes were identified during routine surveillance of the Dutch bird populations and the uniqueness of the H7N7 subtype suggests that it originated from the wild bird reservoir in the Netherlands.

HPAI Netherlands Map On March 1, the Dutch government imposed a movement ban on all poultry in the Gelderland for 10 km around suspected farms. A movement ban on the entire country was imposed for 72 hours beginning 12:00 pm March 1, 2003. An export ban of live poultry and hatching eggs was also imposed for the entire country. Markets and exhibitions of poultry were banned and tracebacks of products, animal feed and contacts began March 1 st.

The Netherlands has never reported an outbreak of HPAI before.

Source: ProMED, Translation of Press Release from the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries of the Netherlands; ProMED, Posting: Characteristics of the Virus Causing the Current HPAI outbreak in the Netherlands, Fouchier, R. A. M. et al.; OIE Emergency Report.

What is the Netherlands’ place in the international market for poultry and poultry products?

While the Netherlands maintains large stocks of chicken, these stocks represent a small proportion of the chicken stocks in the rest of the world or even the EU (Table 1). The Netherlands produced 756,000 metric tonnes of poultry in 2002, which was only 1 percent of the world poultry meat production. The Netherlands stocks of ducks and turkeys both represent less than 1 percent of the world stocks and small shares of the EU stocks. The Dutch production of eggs was 12 percent of the EU total and 1 percent of the world total. France dominates the production of poultry and poultry products in the EU.

Table 1: Poultry Stocks and Production, Netherlands, 2001 and 2002

Poultry and Poultry Products

2001

2002

1,000 hd or mt

1,000 hd or mt

Percent of European Union

Percent of World

Chickens (1,000 hd)

100,334

98,000

9.7%

0.6%

Ducks (1,000 hd)

1,020

1,020

3.3%

0.1%

Turkeys (1,000 hd)

1,523

1,523

1.5%

0.6%

Poultry Meat (mt)

756,000

756,000

8.4%

1.0%

Duck Meat (mt)

14,000

14,000

4.1%

0.5%

Turkey Meat (mt)

42,000

42,000

2.2%

0.8%

Eggs (mt)

658,000

653,000

12%

1.3%

Source: United Nations FAO

The Netherlands exports the most live chickens in the world. The Dutch share of total live chicken exports (head) in 2001 was 22 percent and the value of these chickens was 13 percent of the world export total (Table 2). Only German chicken exports by value were higher than the Netherlands in 2001. Though the Netherlands’ export of geese was small in value, only 8 countries export live geese. The Netherlands tied with the United Kingdom as the eighth largest goose exporter in the world. The Dutch exports of live turkeys in 2001, 1.4 million head, were the seventh largest export quantity for any country in the world. The Dutch turkeys also appear to be relatively expensive as the value of these exported turkeys ranks the Netherlands fourth in the world. France, Germany and the UK all exported more live turkeys (in quantity) than the Netherlands in 2001.

The Netherlands is a significant exporter of poultry meat and poultry products. The Netherlands is the third largest exporter of chicken meat, behind the U.S. and Brazil. The Netherlands is the second largest exporter of turkey meat, by volume, and ranks fourth in the world exports for the same product by value. The Netherlands also exports 6 percent of the world trade in goose meat.

The Netherlands is the largest exporter of eggs in the world. Table egg exports from the Netherlands are 32 percent of total quantity exported and 26 percent of the total value of world exports. The Netherlands is also the dominant exporter of other egg products, ranking first in the export quantity and value for liquid eggs, dried egg and dried yolks.

The Netherlands exports 16 percent of the world trade in chicken livers. Only the UK exports more chicken livers than the Netherlands, but the Dutch chicken livers are relatively higher priced, giving the Dutch the largest share of the chicken liver export market by value.

Table 2: Exports of Live Poultry and Poultry Products, Netherlands, 2000 - 2001

Exports

2000

2001

% of World in 2001

Quantity

Value

(1000 $)

Quantity

Value

(1000 $)

Quantity

Value

Live Birds (1,000 head)

Chickens

118,524

81,478

177,622

111,346

22.0%

13.0%

Ducks

2

43

1

24

<0.1%

0.1%

Geese

-

23

-

4

1.2%

0.2%

Turkeys

1,126

10,552

1,435

15,628

3.0%

15%

Fresh or Frozen Meat (mt)

Chicken meat

581,063

691,874

586,628

791,572

7.9%

10.5%

Duck meat

8,920

15,218

7,923

14,685

6.0%

6.4%

Goose meat

37

93

216

1,190

0.6%

1.1%

Turkey meat

93,431

91,898

91,627

94,436

9.9%

7.1%

Other bird meat

21

157

52

361

0.5%

0.7%

Table 2 (Continued): Exports of Live Poultry and Poultry Products, NL, 2000 - 2001

Exports

2000

2001

% of World in 2001

Quantity

Value

(1000 $)

Quantity

Value

(1000 $)

Quantity

Value

Eggs (mt)

Eggs, in the shell

295,671

290,816

318,631

258,448

32.1%

26.1%

Eggs, dry whole yolks

3,497

10,935

3,444

10,261

11.0%

11.2%

Dried egg

48,173

60,964

45,522

55,403

24.8%

19.8%

Liquid eggs

44,676

50,029

42,078

45,142

27.6%

24.0%

Eggs, excluding hen

26

459

18

64

0.1%

0.1%

Poultry Livers, fresh, chilled, frozen, salted (mt)

Duck liver

77

224

47

130

1.6%

0.3%

Goose liver

2,620

11,788

11

73

0.3%

0.1%

Chicken liver

31,036

14,240

27,520

15,160

16.8%

16.2%

Source: United Nations FAO

What are the U.S. imports of poultry or poultry products from the Netherlands?

Live poultry imported into the U.S. from the Netherlands during 2001 and 2002 were primarily imported as hatching eggs (Table 3). Of the non-poultry birds imported in 2001, over 98 percent were for commercial purposes. In 2002, all but 4 of the non-poultry birds imported from the Netherlands were imported for breeding purposes. All live poultry and other bird species imported into the U.S. (except from Canada) are required to have a USDA issued import permit, a health certificate issued by a government veterinarian in the country of origin, and be quarantined for 30 days in a USDA animal import quarantine facility. This includes pet birds as well as commercial birds. During the quarantine period, the birds are tested for various infectious pathogens. Hatching eggs from the Netherlands also must go through a quarantine period along and have a USDA issued import permit and health certificate.

In regards to poultry products imported into the U.S. from the Netherlands, relatively small amounts of feathers and down were imported in 2001 and 2002.

Table 3: U.S. Imports from the Netherlands, 2001 - 2002

Product

2001

2002

Quantity

Value (million $)

Quantity

Value (million $)

Live birds, not poultry

11,096

-

344

-

Live poultry, day old chicks

0

0

13,040

-

Bird eggs, in shell, for hatching (0407000020)

150,120

0.612

90,000

0.515

Feathers, not further worked than cleaned, disinfected, or treated for preservation (0505100060)

147,269

kg

0.157

181,640 kg

0.138

Table 3 (Continued): U.S. Imports from the Netherlands, 2001 - 2002

Product

2001

2002

Quantity

Value (million $)

Quantity

Value (million $)

Down, not further worked than cleaned, disinfected, or treated for preservation (0505100065)

12,920

kg

0.117

0

0

Source: World Trade Atlas, USDA:VS Import Database

Movement of animals and animal products between member countries of the EU is very open. The table below (Table 4) shows U.S. imports from all EU countries during 2001 and 2002. Also listed in the table are the countries of origin for the vast majority of each imported product. Belgium is the primary country of origin for live birds coming into the U.S. from the EU, while France is the primary EU supplier of hatching eggs, poultry meat, and poultry livers and offal.

Table 4: U.S. imports from the EU, 2001 – 2002

Product

2001

2002

Primary Country of Origin

Quantity

Value (million $)

Quantity

Value (million $)

Live Birds (head)

Live turkeys, ducks, geese and guineas, weighing > 185 grams each (0105990000)

4

0.004

0

0

Belgium

Live birds (0106390000 & 0106001000)

82,985

0.690

41,324

0.531

Live psittaciformes (including parrots, parakeets, macaws and cockatoos) (0106320000)

0

0

1,054

0.032

Live birds of prey (0106310000)

0

0

7 (head)

0.002

Eggs (dozen)

Bird eggs, in shell, for hatching (0407000020)

191,899

2.905

120,775

1.644

France, UK

Down, Feathers, Skins (kg)

Down, not further worked than cleaned, disinfected, or treated for preservation (0505100065)

620,019

11.086

767,473

11.595

France

Feathers, not further worked than cleaned, disinfected, or treated for preservation (0505100060)

511,496

1.254

956,081

1.314

Italy, Germany, Netherlands

Skins and parts of birds with their feathers or down; powder and waste of feathers or parts of feathers (0505906000)

1,010

0.19

1,208

0.058

UK, Belgium

Table 4 (Continued): U.S. imports from the EU, 2001 – 2002

Product

2001

2002

Primary Country of Origin

Quantity

Value (million $)

Quantity

Value (million $)

Meat and Offal (kg)

Meat of poultry and edible meat offal, salted, in brine, dried, or smoked, including edible flours and malts of poultry meat or offal (0210992000 and 0210902000)

4,991

0.01

180

0.003

France

Livers from ducks, geese, guinea fowl, fresh, chilled, or frozen (0207360020, 0207340000)

142,330

1.188

356,097

1.617

Livers from geese, prepared or preserved (1602202000)

22,988

0.539

20,855

0.35

Offals (not liver) from ducks, geese, guinea fowl, fresh, chilled, or frozen (0207360040, 0207350000)

11,048

0.026

36,567

0.075

Meat from ducks, geese, guineas, fresh, chilled, or frozen (0207330000, 0207320000)

245

0.008

600

0.019

Source: World Trade Atlas

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the Netherlands?

In 2000, over 2.2 million passengers arrived in the U.S. on direct flights from the Netherlands. This does not consider passengers arriving in the U.S. via connecting flights whose travel originated in the Netherlands. In addition, this number likely includes many passengers who’s travel originated in other countries because the Netherlands is a major hub for the airline KLM.

As part of APHIS-PPQ’s agriculture quarantine inspection monitoring, 2,015 air passengers whose travel originated in the Netherlands were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal year 2001. Of these passengers, 10 were found to be carrying a total of 9.6 kg of pate. In addition, 10 passengers were found to be carrying unspecified types of meat. The unspecified types of meat amounted to a total of approximately 12 kg. One passenger who was carrying pate reported that they were going to visit or work on a farm or ranch in Kentucky. None of the other passengers with pate or unspecified types of meat reported plans to visit or work on a ranch or farm while in the U.S.

Source: APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection database

CEI’s plans for follow up:

CEI will continue to monitor the situation but has no plans at this time to issue additional reports. If you need more information or if you want to comment on this worksheet, you may reply to this message, or contact Vicki Bridges (970-494-7322) or Jennifer Grannis (970-494-7328).

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