CT_Hpaimiddleeastsum041906

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

Outbreak Summary for the Middle East

April 5, 2006 , Impact Worksheet

Summary:

Over the past several months, highly pathogenic avian influenza, subtype H5N1, has spread across the eastern hemisphere from its origins in East Asia . In western and northern Europe , H5N1 virus has been found mainly in wild birds, especially swans and other waterfowl. In Eastern Europe , Africa , and the Middle East , H5N1 has instead mainly affected backyard flocks and commercial poultry production facilities. As of March 31, 2006 , six Middle Eastern nations – Egypt , Iran , Iraq , Israel , Jordan , and the Palestinian Authority – have reported bird deaths caused by the H5N1 virus. Iraq and Egypt also have had H5N1 infections in humans.

Countries considered to be in the Middle East for this worksheet are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Most Middle East nations have aggressively and, in some cases, proactively undertaken efforts to mitigate the biological, public health, and economic risks of bird flu. Mitigation strategies have included stamping out, disinfection of premises, control of wildlife reservoirs, quarantine, and movement controls. Responses by several countries have been recognized for thoroughness and transparency, which may help to control this serious public health and economic threat.

In 2005 and 2006, the US imported live birds (pets, commercial pet birds and not specified) from Bahrain , Egypt , Iran , Israel , Kuwait , Qatar , and Saudi Arabia (Table 7), including 3547 birds from Israel and 1192 birds from Qatar .

The US imported more than one million kilograms of poultry meat and other products from Israel in both 2004 and 2005. Poultry meat that is imported from Israel is required to be cooked and therefore would be of negligible risk for transmission of HPAI. Additionally, as of January 2006, all slaughter plants certified to export poultry meat to the US have been delisted, resulting in no currently approved facilities for poultry meat export to the US . Israel supplied 132,300 dozen fresh table eggs to the US in 2004, but none in 2005. The US imported 3,000 kg of skins and feathers from Egypt and 1,110 kg from Israel in 2004, and 635 kg from Israel in 2005. The US did not import any hatching eggs from Middle East countries in 2004 or 2005. Neither Canada nor Mexico imported birds, poultry, or poultry products of interest from the Middle East Countries in 2004 or 2005.


What is the extent of the outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the Middle East ?

Over the past several months, highly pathogenic avian influenza, subtype H5N1, has spread across the eastern hemisphere from its origins in East Asia . In western and northern Europe , H5N1 virus has been found mainly in wild birds, especially swans and other waterfowl. In Eastern Europe , Africa , and the Middle East , H5N1 has mainly affected backyard poultry flocks and commercial poultry production facilities. As of March 31, 2006 , six Middle Eastern nations – Egypt , Iran , Iraq , Israel , Jordan , and the Palestinian Authority – have reported bird deaths caused by the H5N1 virus. Iraq and Egypt also have had H5N1 infections in humans.

Although the Middle East countries do not have a common obligation regarding responses to H5N1 outbreaks, most nations have aggressively and, in some cases, proactively undertaken efforts to mitigate the biological, public health, and economic risks of avian influenza. Mitigation strategies have been implemented similar to those in other countries, which under various scenarios include stamping out, disinfection of premises, control of wildlife reservoirs, quarantine, and movement controls. Responses by several countries have been recognized for thoroughness and transparency, which may help to control this serious public health and economic threat.

What is the extent of H5N1 avian influenza in Middle East countries that have reported outbreaks?

Egypt : Egypt confirmed its first outbreak of H5N1 virus in birds on February 17, 2006 . This was the first official report of HPAI in Egypt since 1965. The initial outbreak, reported in seven governates (provinces), affected backyard poultry flocks, including chickens, turkeys, geese, ducks, pigeons and peacocks. Some wild birds were also affected. Reports of bird deaths throughout the country accumulated rapidly, and by the end of March, H5N1 had been found on 506 farms in 19 of Egypt ’s 26 governates. Authorities ordered a zoo closed where H5N1 virus had killed ducks, turkeys, Chinese geese, and other birds. More than 500 birds at the zoo were destroyed and ponds drained as a precaution. Egypt has a large population of poultry, many of which are kept on roof terraces in close proximity to humans. Since the initial outbreak of avian influenza in Egypt , more than 25 million birds have died or been destroyed. Two people are confirmed to have died of H5N1 infection and three others (still living) are thought to be infected with H5N1.

Iran : Iran ’s first and only report of H5N1 avian influenza was in wild swans in early February, 2006. Officials found 153 dead whooper swans on February 2 during surveillance activities in the Anzali wetland, near the Caspian Sea coast. Veterinary authorities immediately established protection and surveillance zones around the wetland and culled all poultry within 2 kilometers (km). Owners were reimbursed by the government, and movement controls for poultry were established to prevent illegal transport. In January 2006, before H5N1 had been reported in Iran , a government official reported that 30,000 poultry had been culled along the border with Turkey and Azerbaijan and the goal was to remove 150,000 birds by the end of January.

Current distribution of HPAI, subtype H5N1, in the Middle East

Middle East countries with confirmed H5N1 domestic poultry

Middle East countries with confirmed H5N1 infection in wild birds

No known reports of HPAI

Iraq : The spread of H5N1 avian influenza to Iraq became evident through a human death. A teenage girl and her uncle, both of whom had contact with sick poultry, died during mid and late January 2006. They were both from a village in the Kurdish region of northeastern Iraq . Despite bird deaths in the village, H5N1 avian influenza had not been confirmed in birds in Iraq . (Note: In October 2005, large-scale poultry deaths on commercial farms in northern Iraq were reported. Although birds were tested for avian influenza and negative results obtained, the reliability of those reports is now doubtful.) During early February 2006, chickens and ducks from backyard flocks and commercial farms in the same region as the human cases tested positive for H5 avian influenza virus. Iraq 's Kurdish provinces are a major poultry-producing region supplying chickens and eggs for much of the country. Shortly thereafter, two pigeons and their owner in southeastern Iraq , 600 km from the index case, were fatally infected with H5N1 virus.

Since January, nearly 1.6 million birds have been killed in Sulaimaniyah (northeastern) and Maisan (southeastern) provinces of Iraq . Recent suspected human cases of H5N1 infection in Dayala province, northeast of Baghdad , also have prompted culling of poultry and disinfection of affected premises in that region.

Israel : Israel first reported highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza on March 16, 2006. The initial outbreak occurred in turkeys at two kibbutzim in southern Israel , near the border with Egypt . Two more H5N1 outbreaks in turkey farms were reported on March 17, and shortly thereafter a big broiler farm near one of the turkey farms was infected. Over the next 10 days, three more outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian flu occurred in various locations in Israel , including a broiler breeder farm near Jerusalem. By the end of March, nine outbreaks of H5N1 had been documented in Israel , mainly in the southern half of the country. To contain the epidemic, the government culled more than 1.2 million birds on 13 farms. Israel has imported approximately 4 million doses of vaccine from the Netherlands which will be used if stamping out and quarantine measures prove ineffective.

Jordan : On March 23, 2006 , Jordan became the most recent Middle East country to confirm H5N1 virus in birds. The outbreak occurred in backyard turkeys and chickens in the town of Kufranjeh (Ajloun governorate) in the northwest region of Jordan . Jordan immediately began culling poultry within a 6-km radius of the affected farm and the Ajloun governor said that more than 20,000 chickens on four poultry farms would be destroyed. Questions have arisen regarding compensation to backyard poultry owners which could be impacting reporting of sick birds. Birds within a 10-km radius were being vaccinated. Quarantine, movement controls, screening, zoning and disinfection have also been undertaken.

Palestine : Palestinian officials confirmed an outbreak of H5N1 virus at two farms in Gaza territory on March 22, 2006 . One outbreak occurred at Netzarim near Gaza City in the central part of the territory. The other was near the southern town of Rafah on the border with Egypt (about 20 km from Israel ’s first H5N1 outbreak). By March 26, five suspected outbreaks had been reported in Gaza , all affecting large commercial poultry farms. With 1.4 million people, Gaza is one of the most densely populated territories in the world. The main concern, from a public health perspective, is that thousands of households keep backyard (and sometimes in-house) poultry. These birds are potentially exposed to infection from various sources and are in close contact with the human population. Palestinian officials have begun culling poultry on the affected farms with advice and assistance from their Israeli counterparts .

Middle East countries yet to report H5N1 avian influenza are Bahrain , Kuwait , Lebanon , Libya , Oman , Qatar , Saudi Arabia , Syria , UAE, and Yemen .

Sources: OIE Disease Information Report; World Health Organization; ProMED; Selected open-source news articles; APHIS personal contact.

What is the international market for poultry and poultry products in Middle East countries?

Iran , Egypt , and Kuwait individually reported poultry stocks of approximately 3 million head in 2005, each representing two percent of world stocks (Table 1). Other Middle East countries reported no stocks or stocks representing less than one percent of world stocks (Appendix 1).

Source: United Nations FAO

Table 1. Inventory of live poultry*, top producing Middle East countries, 2005

Country

Number of head

(1,000)

% of world

Iran

2

Egypt

2

Kuwait

2

Source: United Nations FAO

*Includes chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys

Leading poultry meat-producing countries in the Middle East in 2005 were Iran , Egypt , Saudi Arabia , and Israel (Table 2). Other Middle East countries each produced less than 131,000 mt (Appendix 2).

Source: United Nations FAO

Table 2. Production of poultry meat*, top producing Middle East countries, 2005

Country

Metric tons

% of world

Iran , Islamic Rep of

<1

Egypt

<1

Saudi Arabia

<1

Israel

<1

Source: United Nations FAO

*Includes meat from chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys and meat of pigeon and other birds

Iran produced significantly more hen eggs than other Middle East countries, producing 610,000 mt in 2005 and accounting for approximately 1% of world production. Other top producing Middle East countries of hen eggs for 2005 were Egypt , Syria , and Saudi Arabia , though production in each of these countries was less than 250,000 mt (Table 3). Other Middle East countries each produced less than 100,000 mt of hen eggs (Appendix 2).

Table 3. Production of hen eggs, top producing Middle East countries, 2005

Country

Metric tons

% of world

Iran

1

Egypt

<1

Syria

<1

Saudi Arabia

<1

Source: United Nations FAO

The Middle East countries exported minor quantities of live poultry in 2004. Ninety percent of live poultry exports from these countries came from Egypt and Iran , with Egypt exporting 17.3 million head and Iran exporting nearly 2.4 million head. Both of these countries contributed less than one percent of world live poultry exports. Other Middle East countries exported relatively few live poultry (Appendix 3).

Source: United Nations FAO

Iran exported 13,880 mt of fresh poultry meat in 2004 and United Arab Emirates exported 12,630 mt, accounting for 70% of poultry meat exports from the Middle East . However, each country accounted for less than one percent of world exports (Table 4). Other Middle East countries exported minimal amounts of fresh poultry meat (Table 4 and Appendix 4).

Table 4. Fresh poultry meat* exports, top Middle East countries, 2004

Country

Metric Tons

% of Middle East

% of World

Iran

37

<1

United Arab Emirates

33

<1

Saudi Arabia

12

<1

Jordan

5

<1

Israel

4

<1

Lebanon

3

<1

*Includes meat from chickens, ducks, geese and turkeys

Source: United Nations FAO

Iran ranked 13 th in the world in 2004 for egg exports, with 10,938 mt representing one percent of world exports. Other Middle East countries that exported nearly 2,000 mt or more each were Saudi Arabia (4,938 mt), Oman (2,682 mt), Syria (2,323 mt), Egypt (2,075 mt), and Jordan 1,976 mt) (Table 5). The remaining Middle East countries exported minimal amounts of shell eggs (Appendix 6).

Table 5. Shell egg exports, top Middle East countries, 2004

Country

Metric Tons

% of

Middle East

% of

World

Iran

41

1

Saudi Arabia

19

<1

Oman

10

<1

Syria

9

<1

Egypt

8

<1

Jordan

7

<1

Source: United Nations FAO

What are the US imports of live birds or poultry products from Middle East countries?

In 2005 and 2006, the US imported live birds (pets, commercial pet birds and not specified) from Bahrain , Egypt , Iran , Israel , Kuwait , Qatar , and Saudi Arabia (Table 6), including 3547 birds from Israel and 1192 birds from Qatar . All live bird species imported into the US (except from Canada) are required to have a USDA issued import permit, a health certificate issued by a government veterinarian in the country of origin, and to be quarantined for 30 days in a USDA animal import quarantine facility. These requirements include pet birds as well as commercial birds. During the quarantine period, the birds are tested for various infectious pathogens, including avian influenza.

Table 6. US live bird imports from Middle East countries, 2005-2006

Country

2005 Qty

2005 Type/Reason

2006 Qty

2006 Type/Reason

Live Avian, Breeding, Pet, Commercial (number)

Bahrain

African Grey Parrot/Pet

Birds/Breeding

Egypt

Not specified/commercial

African Grey Parrot/Pet

Plain Pigeon/Commercial

Iran

Not specified/commercial

African Grey Parrot/Pet

Israel

Birds/Pet

Not specified/Commercial

Kuwait

Pigeon ( Ghana )/Breeding

Qatar

Birds/Breeding

Saudi Arabia

Parrots/Pet

Source: APHIS Veterinary Service Import Tracking System

According to the US Customs trade data, as reported to the World Trade Atlas, the US imported more than one million kilograms of poultry meat and other products from Israel in both 2004 and 2005 (Table 8). In the past there have been errors in the trade data indicating importation of poultry meat from Israel when importation did not actually occur. Poultry meat that is imported from Israel is required to be cooked and therefore would be of negligible risk for transmission of HPAI. Additionally, as of January 2006, all plants certified to export poultry meat to the US have been delisted, resulting in currently no approved facilities for poultry meat export to the US . Israel supplied 132,300 dozen fresh table eggs to the US in 2004, but none in 2005. The US imported 3,000 kg of skins and feathers from Egypt and 1,110 kg from Israel in 2004, and 635 kg from Israel in 2005. The US did not import any hatching eggs from Middle East countries in 2004 or 2005.

Sources: APHIS Veterinary Service Import Tracking System; World Trade Atlas; USDA FSIS

Table 8. US bird and poultry product imports from Middle East countries, 2004-2005

Product

Country

2004

2005

Quantity

US $ (1,000s)

Quantity

US $ (1,000s)

Poultry Meat and Other Products (kg)

Israel

Fresh table eggs, in shell, preserved or cooked, consumer grades (dozen)

Israel

Skins and Feathers (kg)

Egypt

Israel

Source: World Trade Atlas

What are Canada ’s and Mexico ’s imports of live birds or poultry products from Middle East countries?

Neither Canada nor Mexico imported birds, poultry, or poultry products of interest from the Middle East Countries in 2004 or 2005.

Source: World Trade Atlas

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from EU countries?

In 2004, 668,156 passengers arrived in the US on direct flights from Middle East countries. Of these passengers, 469,439 arrived on flights from Israel (Appendix 7). This does not include passengers who may have originated their travel in Middle East countries, but arrived in the US via indirect routes.

As part of APHIS-PPQ’s agriculture quarantine inspection monitoring, a total of 2278 air passengers from the Middle East countries were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal year 2004. Of these passengers, 10 were found to be carrying the following products: chicken (7.3 kg), poultry (1 kg), and unspecified meat (29 kg). None of the passengers carrying these products reported either having been on a farm prior to their travel or plans to visit a farm or ranch while in the US .

Sources: USDA APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection database, Department of Transportation Air Passengers on Direct Flights to the US , 2004

Are there any political/trade issues between the US and the non- EU European countries and what is the status of their veterinary infrastructures?

Bahrain

Agricultural Economics: Agriculture accounted for less than 1% of Bahrain ’s 2005 estimated GDP of $11.6 billion. Bahrain ’s agricultural production includes fruit, vegetables, poultry, dairy products, shrimp, and fish. Total US imports from Bahrain in 2004 were $405 million, up 7 percent from 2004.

US-Bahrain Relations: Bahrain has been a base for US naval activity in the Gulf since 1947. Bahrain ’s strategic partnership with the US has intensified since 1991. Bahraini pilots flew strikes in Iraq during the 1991 Gulf War, and the island was used as a base for military operations in the Gulf.

Veterinary Infrastructure: Bahrain reported having 24 veterinarians in 2004, of which 12 were government officials, 6 were in laboratories, universities or training institutions, and the remaining 6 were private practitioners

Sources: 2005 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, Office of the United States Trade Representative, March 2005, accessed 3/29/2006: http://www.ustr.gov/assets/Document_Library/Reports_Publications/2005/2005_NTE_Report/asset_upload_file383_7446.pdf?ht= ; US Department of State Background Note: Bahrain, January 2006, accessed 3/30/2006:

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/26414.htm; OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/2006 : http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=19

Egypt

Agricultural Economics

Egypt ’s major agricultural products are cotton, rice, onions, beans, citrus fruits, wheat, corn, barley, and sugar. Approximately one-third of Egyptian labor is engaged directly in farming, particularly crops, and many others work in the processing or trading of agricultural products. While the desert hosts some large, modern farms, more common traditional farms occupy one acre each, typically in a canal-irrigated area along the banks of the Nile . Many small farmers also have cows, water buffaloes, and chickens, although larger modern farms are becoming more important. Livestock and food are among Egypt ’s major imports, supplied by the EU, US, and Japan .

US-Egypt Relations

The United States and Egypt enjoy a strong and friendly relationship based on shared mutual interest in Middle East peace and stability, revitalizing the Egyptian economy and strengthening trade relations, and promoting regional security. In 1996, Congress authorized the President to allow Egypt and Jordan to export products to the United States duty-free, as long as these products contain inputs from Israel . This trade initiative supports the Middle East peace process by encouraging regional economic integration.

Multinational exercises, US assistance to Egypt 's military modernization program, and Egypt 's role as a contributor to various UN peacekeeping operations continually reinforce the US-Egyptian military relationship.

Veterinary Infrastructure:

For 2004, Egypt reported having 19,750 government veterinarians; 5,000 veterinarians at laboratories, universities and training institutions; 12,500 private practitioners, and 4,250 veterinarians employed in other categories, such as the private sector.

Source: US Department of State, Background Notes: Egypt, September2005, US Trade Representative Report, Dec 14, 2004; http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5309.htm ; OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/2006 : http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=56

Iran

Agricultural Economics

Principal agricultural products of Iran are wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool, and caviar. Iran is not self-sufficient in food. Imports of $31.3 billion in 2004 were comprised of food, machinery and semifinished goods. Major suppliers were Germany , Japan , France and China .

Agriculture has suffered from shortages of capital, raw materials, and equipment, as well as from the war with Iraq ; in addition, a major area of dissension within the regime has been how to proceed with land reform.

US-Iranian Relations

Iran 's regional goals are dominated by wanting to establish a leadership role, curtail the presence of the United States and other outside powers, and build trade ties. On April 7, 1980 , the United States broke diplomatic relations with Iran , and on April 24, 1981 , the Swiss Government assumed representation of US interests in Tehran . Iranian interests in the United States are represented by the Government of Pakistan. Commercial relations between Iran and the United States are restricted by US sanctions and consist mainly of Iranian purchases of food and medical products and US purchases of carpets and food.

Veterinary Infrastructure

Iran reported 5109 veterinarians in 2004, 1158 government officials and 3951 private practitioners.

Sources: US Department of State Background Note Iran, August 2005, accessed 3/30/2006 :

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5314.htm ; OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/2006 : http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=90

Iraq

Agricultural Economics

Agriculture accounted for 13.6 percent of Iraq ’s estimated 2005 GDP of $24.3 billion. Iraq ’s agricultural production includes wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, cotton, dates, cattle, and sheep. In 2004, food and live animals made up 5% of Iraq ’s exports while crude oil accounted for 83%.

Despite its abundant land and water resources, Iraq is a net food importer. Under the UN Oil-For-Food program, Iraq imported large quantities of grains, meat, poultry, and dairy products. A Ba'ath regime policy to destroy the "Marsh Arab" culture by draining the southern marshes and introducing irrigated farming to this region destroyed a natural food-producing area, while concentration of salts and minerals in the soil due to the draining left the land unsuitable for agriculture. Efforts have begun to overcome the damage done by the Ba'ath regime in ways that will rehabilitate the agricultural sector and confront environmental degradation.

US-Iraq Relations

With the lifting of UN sanctions after the Ba’ath regime was removed in 2003, Iraq is gradually resuming trade relations with the international community, including with the US . The US designated Iraq as a beneficiary developing country under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) program in September 2004.

Veterinary Infrastructure

Iraq reported having 10,266 veterinarians, of which 2100 were government officials (central, local), 860 were in laboratories, universities, or training institutions, 4100 were private practitioners, and 3206 fell into other categories.

Sources: US Department of State Background Note Iraq, August 2005, accessed 3/30/2006 :

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/6804.htm ; OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/2006 : http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=91

Israel

Agricultural Economics

Israeli agricultural production includes citrus and other fruits, vegetables, beef, dairy, and poultry products.

US-Israeli Relations

Commitment to Israel 's security and well being has been a cornerstone of US policy in the Middle East since Israel 's creation in 1948, in which the United States played a key supporting role. Israel and the United States are bound closely by historic and cultural ties as well as by mutual interests. Continuing US economic and security assistance to Israel acknowledges these ties and signals US commitment. The broad issues of Arab-Israeli peace have been a major focus in the US-Israeli relationship.

In 2004, US imports from Israel were $14.5 billion, up 13.8 percent from the previous year. Israel is currently the 19 th largest export market for US goods. Israel prohibits the importation of any meat or meat product that is not certified as kosher by Israel ’s chief rabbinate. Work on an agreement on veterinary certificates of health for live animal imports was suspended after the announcement of the discovery of a single US case of BSE involving an imported animal in Washington State . Israel permits the domestic production and marketing of non-kosher meat, but bans its importation.

Veterinary Infrastructure

Israel reported having 1657 veterinarians in 2004, of which 261 were government officials (central, local), 101 were in laboratories, universities, or training institutions, 445 were private practitioners, and 850 fell into other categories, such as poultry slaughter houses (24), retired (153), industry or occupation unknown.

Sources: 2005 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, Office of the United States Trade Representative, March 2005, accessed 3/29/2006 :

http://www.ustr.gov/assets/Document_Library/Reports_Publications/2005/2005_NTE_Report/asset_upload_file383_7446.pdf?ht= ; US Department of State Background Note Israel, September 2004, accessed 3/30/2006 :

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3581.htm ; OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/2006 : http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=93

Jordan

Agricultural Economics

Jordan ’s agricultural products include fruits, vegetables, wheat, olive oil, barley and olives. Ten percent of the land is arable and 5 percent is cultivated.

US-Jordanian Relations

Relations between the US and Jordan have been close for over four decades. These relations were damaged by support in Jordan for Iraq during the first Gulf war. Although the Government of Jordan stated its opposition to the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait , there was popular support for Iraq within Jordan . Following the first Gulf war, Jordan largely restored its relations with Western countries through its participation in the Middle East peace process and enforcement of UN sanctions against Iraq . The US-Jordan Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was signed in October 2000. Jordan was previously one of the few trading partners with which the US consistently had a trade surplus; the effects of the FTA has reversed this dynamic since 2002. The US is now Jordan 's leading export destination with Jordan ’s main exports to the US being textiles and garments. Food products imported to the US from Jordan are typically processed foods.

Veterinary Infrastructure

Jordan reported 1024 veterinarians in 2004, of which 221 were government officials, 35 were in laboratories, universities, or training institutions, and 455 were private practitioners. Those working for the government included 141 working for the Ministry of Agriculture, and 80 working for other Ministries such as the Ministry of Health, Interior and Finance. Veterinarians working abroad, retired or not yet employed numbered 313.

Source: US Department of State; Northern Virginia Technology Council; www.jordanusfta.com ; Office of the US Trade Representative; US Department of State Background Note: Jordan, September 2005, accessed 3/30/2006: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3464.htm ; OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/2006: http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=96

Kuwait

Agricultural Economics

Agriculture accounts for only 0.3 percent of Kuwait ’s $48 billion estimated 2004 GDP. With the exception of fish, most food is imported. Fish and shrimp are plentiful in territorial waters, and large-scale commercial fishing has been undertaken locally and in the Indian Ocean . Kuwait ’s 2004 imports of $11.12 billion were primarily food, construction materials, vehicles and parts. Major suppliers were US (13 percent), Japan (11 percent), Germany (9 percent), UK (6 percent), and Saudi Arabia (6 percent).

US-Kuwaiti Relations

The US and Kuwait signed a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement in February 2004, providing a forum to address US concerns. In December 2004, Kuwait removed its December 2003 ban on some imports of US beef and beef products, originally imposed due to concerns of BSE, but kept in place a ban on imports of beef originating in the state of Washington .

Veterinary Infrastructure

Kuwait reported 93 veterinarians in 2004, of which 27 were government officials, 13 worked in laboratories, universities, or training institutions, and 53 were private practitioners.

Sources: 2005 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, Office of the United States Trade Representative, March 2005, accessed 3/29/2006 ;

http://www.ustr.gov/assets/Document_Library/Reports_Publications/2005/2005_NTE_Report/asset_upload_file383_7446.pdf?ht= ; US Department of State Background Note Kuwait, November 2005, accessed 3/30/2006 :

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35876.htm ; OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/2006 : http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=105

Lebanon

Agricultural Economics

Lebanon ’s agricultural production accounts for 12 percent of the country’s 2004 GDP of 19 billion. Agricultural products include citrus, potatoes, grapes, tomatoes, olives, apples, sugar beets, tobacco, sheep and goats.

US-Lebanese Relations

The United States seeks to maintain its traditionally close ties with Lebanon , and to help preserve its independence, sovereignty, national unity, and territorial integrity. The United States has assisted the American University of Beirut and the Lebanese American University with budget support and student scholarships. Assistance also has been provided to the Lebanese-American Community School and the International College . In 1993, the US resumed the International Military Education and Training program in Lebanon to help bolster the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF)--the country's only nonsectarian federal institution--and reinforce the importance of civilian control of the military.

Veterinary Infrastructure

Lebanon reported having 118 veterinarians in 2004, of which 25 were government officials, 3 were in laboratories, universities, or training institutions, and 90 were private practitioners.

Sources: US Department of State Background Note Lebanon, August 2005, accessed 3/30/2006 :

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35833.htm ; OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/2006 : http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=107

Libya

Agricultural Economics

Libyan agriculture products include wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans and cattle. Agriculture workers comprised 17 percent of the 2001 work force in Libya . Although agriculture is the second-largest sector in the economy, climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit output. With higher incomes and a growing population causing food consumption to rise, combined with the limited agriculture output, the result is that approximately 75 percent of Libya 's food is imported. In 2003, Libya imported nearly $6.3 billion of machinery, transport equipment, food, and manufactured goods. Major suppliers were Italy (27 percent), Germany (10 percent), Tunisia (8 percent), UK (7 percent), South Korea (7percent) and France (6 percent).

US-Libyan Relations

On December 19, 2003 , Libya announced its intention to rid itself of weapons of mass destruction and MTCR-class missile programs. Since that time, it has cooperated with the US , the UK , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons toward these objectives. The President of the US signed an Executive Order on September 20, 2004 terminating the national emergency with respect to Libya and ending some economic sanctions. Certain export controls remain in place and Libya remains on the state sponsors of terrorism list.

Veterinary Infrastructure

Libya reported having 664 veterinarians in 2004, of which 270 were government officials (central, local), 100 were in laboratories, universities, or training institutions, 160 were private practitioners, and 134 were in other categories, particularly the private sector.

Source: US Department of State Background Note: Libya , November 2005, accessed 3/30/2006 :

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5425.htm ; OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/2006 : http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=109

Oman

Agricultural Economics

Oman ’s agriculture and fisheries contributed 2.1 percent of the country’s 2004 GDP of $24.8 billion. Agriculture and fisheries products include dates, bananas, mangoes, alfalfa, other fruits and vegetables, kingfish, tuna, other fish, shrimp, lobster and abalone. The country imported $5.7 billion of machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, and lubricants in 2004. Major suppliers of imported goods were UAE (28 percent), Japan (17 percent), UK (7 percent), US (7 percent) and Germany (5 percent).

Agriculture and fishing are the traditional way of life in Oman . Dates, grown extensively in the Batinah coastal plain and the highlands, make up most of the country's agricultural exports. Poultry production is steadily rising. Fish and shellfish exports totaled $104.7 million in 2004.

US-Oman Relations

Oman has traditionally supported Middle East peace initiatives. The US has maintained relations with the Sultanate since the early years of American independence. Both bilaterally and regionally through the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), Oman is pursuing free trade agreements with a number of key trading partners, including the US. The US-Oman Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was signed in January 2006 and awaits ratification and implementation.

As a member of the GCC, Oman applies the GCC common external tariff of five percent for most products, with a few exceptions. Oman ’s exceptions include 100 percent tariff rates on pork products. On April 30, 2005 Oman lifted the ban on imports of US beef, which was imposed in late 2003 as a result of the discovery of a single US case of BSE involving an imported animal in Washington State .

Veterinary Infrastructure

Oman reported 129 veterinarians in 2004, of which 54 were government officials, 14 worked in laboratories, universities, or training institutions, and 52 were private practitioners, and 9 were employed in other categories.

Sources: 2005 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, Office of the United States Trade Representative, March 2005, accessed 3/29/2006 :

http://www.ustr.gov/assets/Document_Library/Reports_Publications/2005/2005_NTE_Report/asset_upload_file383_7446.pdf?ht =; Oman Lifts the Ban on Imports of U.S. Beef, USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Global Agriculture Information Network (GAIN) Report Number MU5001, June 16, 2005, accessed 3/30/2006:

http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200506/146129978.doc ; US Department of State Background Note: Oman, February 2006, accessed 3/30/2006 : http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35834.htm ; OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/2006 : http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=146

Palestine

Palestine reported 121 veterinarians in 2004, of which 34 were government officials, 11 worked in laboratories, universities, or training institutions, and 76 were private practitioners .

Source: OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/200 6 : http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=213

Qatar

Agricultural Economics

Agriculture employs 20 percent of Qatar ’s workforce and accounts for less than 2 percent of GDP. Qatar does produce some fruits and vegetables, but most food is imported. Major suppliers of various imported products, including agriculture products, are France (27 percent), US (10 percent), Saudi Arabia (10 percent), Germany (5 percent), and Japan (5 percent).

US-Qatar Relations

Bilateral relations are strong and expanding. Qatar and the United States coordinate closely on regional diplomatic initiative, cooperate to increase security in the Gulf, and enjoy extensive economic links, especially in the hydrocarbons sector.

Qatar also has signed defense pacts with the US , UK , and France , and plays an active role in the collective defense efforts of the Gulf Cooperation Council. Qatari military forces played an important role in the first Gulf War, and Qatar has supported US military operations critical to the success of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

US imports from Qatar in 2004 were $387 million, up 17 percent from 2003. The US and Qatar signed a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) in March 2004, providing a forum to address US concerns. Qatar still imposes a ban on imports of US beef in response to the discovery of a single US case of BSE involving an imported animal in Washington State .

V eterinary Infrastructure

Qatar reported 90 veterinarians in 2004, of which 57 were government officials, 10 worked in laboratories, universities, or training institutions, and 23 were private practitioners.

Sources: 2005 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, Office of the United States Trade Representative, March 2005, accessed 3/29/2006 :

http://www.ustr.gov/assets/Document_Library/Reports_Publications/2005/2005_NTE_Report/asset_upload_file383_7446.pdf?ht= ; US Department of State Background Note: Oman, February 2006, accessed 3/30/2006 :

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5437.htm ; OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/200 6: http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=159

Saudi Arabia

Agricultural Economics

Agriculture employs 12 percent of the Saudi workforce, producing dates, grains, livestock and vegetables. Only 1.7 percent of the land is arable.

Most livestock can be imported to Saudi Arabia duty-free, although infant industries, such as those producing rabbit meat and edible offal, enjoy 20 percent tariff protection. Importation of pork products is prohibited. On November 12, 2005 , the Saudi government imposed an immediate ban on the importation of live birds from all exporting countries due to concerns over avian influenza. The government decree excludes day-old chicks and hatching eggs from the import ban, therefore US exports of day old chicks and hatching eggs to Saudi Arabia , valued in 2003 at more than $4.2 million, will not be affected.

US-Saudi Relations

The US and Saudi Arabia share a common concern about regional security, oil exports and imports, and sustainable development. Close consultations between the US and Saudi Arabia have developed on international, economic, and development issues such as the Middle East peace process and shared interests in the Gulf. The US is Saudi Arabia 's largest trading partner, and Saudi Arabia is the largest US export market in the Middle East. US imports in 2003 from Saudi Arabia were $20.9 billion, up 15.8 percent from the previous year. Saudi Arabia is in the process of negotiating terms of accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), providing a forum to address US concerns.

Saudi Arabia ’s relations with the United States were strained after the September 11, 2001 , terrorist attacks in which 15 of the suicide bombers were Saudi citizens. Currently, Saudi Arabia is an important partner in the campaign against terrorism, providing assistance in the military, diplomatic, and financial arenas. Counterterrorism cooperation between Saudi Arabia and the United States increased significantly after the May 12, 2003 bombings in Riyadh and continues today.

Veterinary Infrastructure

Saudi Arabia reported 305 veterinarians in 2004, all of which were government officials.

Sources: 2005 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, Office of the United States Trade Representative, March 2005, accessed 3/29/2006 :

http://www.ustr.gov/assets/Document_Library/Reports_Publications/2005/2005_NTE_Report/asset_upload_file383_7446.pdf?ht= ; US Department of State Background Note: Saudi Arabia, August 2005, accessed 3/30/2006 :

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3584.htm ; Saudi Arabia Poultry and Poultry Products Semi-Annual Report, USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Global Agriculture Information Network (GAIN) Report Number SA5022, December 31, 2005, accessed 3/30/2006: http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200512/146176499.doc ; OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/200 6: http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=164

Syria

Agricultural Economics

Agriculture accounts for 25 percent of Syria ’s GDP and employs 30 percent of the work force. Syria produces cotton, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruits and vegetables. Thirty-two percent of the land is arable. In 2002, Syria imported $6.55 billion of foodstuffs, metal and metal products, machinery, textiles and petroleum. Major suppliers of imported goods were Germany , Turkey , Italy , France, US and Japan .

US-Syrian Relations

In the aftermath of September 11, 2001 , the Syrian Government began limited cooperation with the US in the global war against terrorism. However, Syria opposed the Iraq war in 2003, and bilateral relations with the US swiftly deteriorated. Tensions between Syria and the US intensified in late 2004 and 2005, primarily over issues relating to Iraq and Lebanon . Syria currently is the subject of US economic sanctions under the Syria Accountability Act, which prohibits the export and re-export of most US products to Syria .

Veterinary Infrastructure

Syria reported 3712 veterinarians in 2004, of which 1310 were government officials, 112 worked in laboratories, universities, or training institutions, and 2290 were private practitioners.

Sources: US Department of State Background Note: Syria , October 2005, accessed 3/30/2006 :

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3580.htm ; OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/200 6: http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=180

Turkey

Agricultural Economics

Agriculture employs 36 percent of Turkey ’s workforce and provides 12 percent of the gross national product. Major cash crops include cotton, sugar beets, hazelnuts, wheat, barley, and tobacco, which provide more than 40 percent of jobs and 6 percent of exports.

US-Turkey Relations

The US trade deficit with Turkey was $1.6 billion in 2004, an increase of $686 million from $888 million in 2003. US imports from Turkey were $4.9 billion, up 30.3 percent. Turkey is currently the 32 nd largest export market for US goods.

Turkey maintains high tariff rates on many food and agricultural products to protect domestic producers. The Turkish government often increases tariffs on grains during the domestic harvest. High feed prices harm Turkish livestock industries, particularly for beef and poultry.

The USTR has concerns about the lack of transparency in Turkey ’s import licensing system, which can result in costly delays, charges and other uncertainties that stifle trade for many agricultural products. Turkey is in the process of rewriting its import regulations for agriculture products in order to comply with EU regulations. However, some new regulations do not appear to be fully consistent with those of the EU, and for many products, such as red meat, no written standards exist.

The Turkish government has a poor track record of notifying WTO members of proposed technical regulations and phytosanitary requirements, and implementation appears to be arbitrary. Importers report increasing difficulty in obtaining information on sanitary and phytosanitary certifications.

Veterinary Infrastructure

Turkey reported having 7245 veterinarians in 2004, of which 1858 were government officials, 1360 worked in laboratories, universities, or training institutions, and 3242 were private practitioners. Turkey also has 785 veterinarians involved in food hygiene, including meat inspection.

Sources: USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service, US Department of State Background Note: Turkey , December 2005, accessed 4/4/06 : http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3432.htm ; 2005 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, Office of the United States Trade Representative, March 2005, accessed 3/29/2006 :

http://www.ustr.gov/assets/Document_Library/Reports_Publications/2005/2005_NTE_Report/asset_upload_file383_7446.pdf?ht= ; OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/200 6: http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=190

United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Agricultural Economics

Agriculture employed 8 percent of the UAE workforce, contributing 3 percent of the emirates $102 billion GDP in 2004. Agriculture products include vegetables, dates, dairy products, poultry and fish. The emirates imported $54.2 million of machinery, consumer goods and food in 2004, supplied by Western Europe , Japan , US, China and India .

US-UAE Relations

Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of seven emirates, each with its own ruler. The US has enjoyed friendly relations with the UAE since 1971. Private commercial ties, especially in petroleum, have developed into friendly government-to-government ties which include security assistance. The breadth, depth, and quality of US-UAE relations increased dramatically as a result of the US-led coalition's campaign to end the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait . The UAE has been a key partner in the war on terror after September 11, 2001 .

US imports from UAE in 2003 were $1.1 billion, up 1.3 percent from 2002. UAE is currently the 29 th largest export market for US goods. The US began Free Trade Agreement negotiations with the UAE in March 2005. An important objective of these negotiations is the removal of trade barriers for US goods and services providers.

A USDA FAS report indicates that UAE market suppliers continue to shift to Western Hemisphere sources for poultry products. UAE poultry production in 2006 is forecast to expand 5-10 percent depending on the successful return to operations of a major poultry producer. In 2004, the global avian influenza issue and softer demand in traditional re-export markets negatively affected trade. Poultry sourced from the US showed a strong rebound in 2005 after the market closure in 2004.

Veterinary Infrastructure

The UAE reported having 345 veterinarians in 2004, of which 75 were government officials, 35 worked in laboratories, universities, or training institutions, and 235 were private practitioners.

Sources: 2005 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers, Office of the United States Trade Representative, March 2005, accessed 3/29/2006 :

http://www.ustr.gov/assets/Document_Library/Reports_Publications/2005/2005_NTE_Report/asset_upload_file383_7446.pdf?ht= ; US Department of State Background Note: United Arab Emirates, February 2006, accessed 3/30/2006: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5444.htm ; UAE Annual Poultry Meat Report, USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Global Agriculture Information Network (GAIN) Report Number TC5017, September 1, 2005, accessed 3/30/2006: http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200509/146130738.pdf ; OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/200 6: http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=5

Yemen

Agricultural Economics

Fifty-three percent of the Yemeni workforce is employed in agriculture, contributing 14.3 percent of the $12.8 billion GDP in 200 4. Agricultural products include qat (a shrub containing a natural amphetamine), coffee, cotton, fruits, vegetables, cereals, livestock and poultry. Only 3 percent of the land is arable.

Exports of crude petroleum, refined oil products, seafood, fruits, vegetables, hides, tobacco products totaled $3.9 billion in 2004. Yemen imported $3.9 billion of petroleum products, cereals, feed grains, foodstuffs, machinery, transportation equipment, iron, sugar and honey. Major suppliers were United Arab Emirates , Saudi Arabia , Kuwait , United States , India , China , France , and Switzerland .

US-Yemen Relations

Yemen is an important partner in the global war on terrorism, providing assistance in the military, diplomatic, and financial arenas . Current US commercial assistance is focused on aiding the business sector in supporting US-Yemen bilateral trade relations, encouraging American business interests in country, and diversifying Yemen ’s economy toward non-petroleum dependent sectors.

Veterinary Infrastructure

Yemen reported having 296 veterinarians in 2004, of which 100 were government officials, 30 worked in laboratories, universities, or training institutions, 4 were private practitioners, and 162 employed in the private sector or other work.

Source: US Department of State Background Note: Yemen , January 2006, accessed 3/30/2006 :

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35836.htm ; OIE Handistatus II, accessed 3/31/200 6: http://www.oie.int/hs2/gi_veto_pays.asp?c_pays=215

CEI’s plans for follow up: CEI will continue to monitor the HPAI situation in the Middle East and may issue additional reports. If you need more information or if you want to comment on this worksheet, you may reply to this message, or contact Steve Sweeney at steven.j.sweeney@aphis.usda.gov or Barbara.a.bischoff@aphis.usda.gov


Appendix 1. Inventory of chickens, ducks, geese & turkeys in Middle East countries, 2005

Country

Chickens

Ducks

Geese

Turkeys

Poultry

Number of head

(1000)

% of world

Number of head

(1000)

% of world

Number of head

(1000)

% of world

Number of head

(1000)

% of world

Total number of head (1000)

% of world

Bahrain

Egypt

Iran

Iraq

Israel

Jordan

Kuwait

Lebanon

Libya

Oman

Palestine

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

Syria

United Arab Emirates

Yemen

Source: United Nations FAO


Appendix 2. Production of poultry meat & eggs in Middle East countries, 2005

Country

Poultry Meat

Hen Eggs

Metric tons

% of world

Metric tons

% of world

Bahrain

<1

<1

Egypt

<1

<1

Iran

1

1

Iraq

Israel

<1

<1

Jordan

<1

<1

Kuwait

<1

<1

Lebanon

<1

<1

Libya

<1

<1

Oman

<1

<1

Palestine

<1

<1

Qatar

<1

<1

Saudi Arabia

<1

<1

Syria

<1

<1

United Arab Emirates

<1

<1

Yemen

<1

<1

Source: United Nations FAO


Appendix 3. Live poultry exports from Middle East countries, 2004

Country

Chickens

Ducks

Turkeys

Total Poultry

Number of head
(1000s)

Number of head
(1000s)

% of Middle East

% of World

Egypt

Iran

Iraq

Israel

Jordan

Lebanon

Oman

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

Syria

United Arab Emirates

Source: United Nations FAO

Appendix 4. Poultry meat* exports from Middle East countries, 2004

Country

Volume

Value

Metric Tons

% of World

1000s $

% of World

Bahrain

Egypt

Iran

Iraq

Israel

Jordan

Kuwait

Lebanon

Libya

Oman

Palestine

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

Syria

United Arab Emirates

Yemen

Source: United Nations FAO

*Includes chicken, duck, goose and turkey meat

Appendix 5. Poultry meat exports, by species, from Middle East countries, 2004

Country

Chicken Meat

(Mt)

Duck Meat

(Mt)

Goose Meat

(Mt)

Turkey Meat

(Mt)

Total Poultry Meat

(Mt)

Bahrain

Egypt

Iran

Iraq

Israel

Jordan

Kuwait

Lebanon

Libya

Oman

Palestine

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

Syria

United Arab Emirates

Yemen

Source: United Nations FAO


Appendix 6. Exports of eggs and egg products from Middle East countries, 2004

Country

Hen Eggs (Mt)

Eggs, excluding Hen (Mt)

Eggs Liquid Hen (Mt)

Eggs Dry Whole Yolks Hen (Mt)

% of World

Bahrain

Egypt

Iran

Iraq

Israel

Jordan

Kuwait

Lebanon

Libya

Oman

Palestine

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

Syria

United Arab Emirates

Yemen

Source: United Nations FAO


Appendix 7. Airline passengers arriving in the US on direct flights from Middle East countries, 2004

Country

Number of Passengers

Bahrain

Egypt

Iraq

Iran

Israel

Jordan

Kuwait

Lebanon

Libya

Oman

Palestine

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

Syria

UAE

Yemen

Source: Department of Transportation Air Passengers on Direct Flights to the US , 2004

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