CT_Hpaimalaysia082004

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza_ Malaysia_ 8_23_2004

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Malaysia
August 23, 2004
Impact Worksheet

Summary:

An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Malaysia was reported to the OIE on August 19, 2004. The outbreak occurred in one 60-bird flock of free-range village chickens in the village of Pasir Pekan, Kelantan State, located 22 km from the border with Thailand . According to the OIE, which distinguishes between peninsular Malaysia and the island part of Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak), this is the first report of HPAI in peninsular Malaysia . It also appears to be the first report for all of Malaysia . The subtype has been identified as H5N1, the same subtype that caused significant outbreaks in southeast Asia in late 2003 and early 2004 and continues to circulate.

Malaysia had 170 million chickens and 13 million ducks in 2003, accounting for about 1% of world stocks each. Malaysia exported substantial numbers of live poultry in 2001 and 2002. Exports of live chickens and ducks in 2002 accounted for 6.1% and 51.7% of world exports, respectively. Exports of eggs were also significant, accounting for 11.4% of world exports. Most of the live birds and eggs are exported to Singapore .

The US, Canada , and Mexico imported no live poultry, no poultry meat, no eggs, and no feathers from Malaysia in 2003 or January-June 2004. The US did import commercial shipments of pet birds from Malaysia in October 2003 and February 2004. Live birds are quarantined in US ports prior to clearance for entry into the country, during which time testing for infectious diseases, including avian influenza, takes place.

A total of 76,315 and 33,361 air passengers originating in Malaysia entered the US in 2002 and January-June 2003. None of the 161 air passengers sampled as part of APHIS, PPQ’s Agricultural Quarantine Inspection monitoring were found to be carrying poultry products.

How extensive is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Malaysia , and what was Malaysia ’s disease status prior to the outbreak?

An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Malaysia was reported to the OIE on August 19, 2004 . The outbreak occurred in one 60-bird flock of free-range village chickens in the village of Pasir Pekan , Kelantan State , located 22 km from the border with Thailand . Thailand continues to experience reemergence of HPAI, with 65 outbreaks reported in 23 provinces from July 5 to August 9. According to the OIE, which distinguishes between peninsular Malaysia and the island part of Malaysia ( Sabah and Sarawak ), this is the first report of HPAI in peninsular Malaysia . It also appears to be first report for all of Malaysia . The subtype has been identified as H5N1, the same subtype that caused significant outbreaks in southeast Asia in late 2003 and early 2004, and is still circulating. Control measures include depopulation of all poultry and birds within a 1-km radius of the infected flock; quarantine and surveillance within 10-km of the infected flock; movement restrictions; and clinical surveillance in Kelantan State .

In late 2003 and early 2004, 9 Asian countries reported HPAI, in an unprecedented spread of the disease in Asian poultry populations. Eight (8) countries confirmed HPAI subtype H5N1: Cambodia , China including Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), Indonesia , Japan , Laos , South Korea , Thailand , and Vietnam . In addition, Pakistan reported an outbreak of HPAI subtype H7, not H5. Unofficial sources reported poultry die-offs in Saudi Arabia and Myanmar .

A regional summary of the outbreaks, issued on January 29, 2004 is available at /vs/ceah/cei/IW_2004_files/hpai_asia_summary_0104_files/hpai_asia_summary_0104.htm. FAO has continued to track AI outbreaks and issues periodic summaries in their AI Bulletins available at http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/subjects/en/health/diseases-cards/avian_update.html

Source: OIE Disease Information Report; Reuters 8/19/04 ; FAO AI Bulletin 8/9/04

What is Malaysia ’s place in the international market for poultry and poultry products?

Malaysia had 170 million chickens and 13 million ducks in 2003, accounting for about 1% of world stocks each. Production of poultry meat and eggs also accounted for about 1% of world production of these commodities in 2003.

Table 1: Poultry Stocks and Production, Malaysia , 2001 and 2002

2002

2003

2003 % of World Production

Chickens (1,000 hd)

1.0

Ducks (1,000 hd)

1.2

Poultry meat (mt)

1.1

Hen eggs (mt)

0.9

Source: United Nations FAO

Malaysia exported substantial numbers of live poultry in 2001 and 2002. Exports of live chickens and ducks in 2002 accounted for 6.1% and 51.7% of world exports, respectively. Exports of eggs were also significant, accounting for 11.4% of world exports. Most of the live birds and eggs are exported to Singapore . Poultry meat exports were much less, making up only 0.1% of world exports. Exports of poultry meat went primarily to Japan , Singapore , and Hong Kong . Singapore exports small amounts of live chickens and poultry meat, 0.1% and 0.03% of world exports, respectively.

Table 2: Exports of live Poultry and Poultry Products, Malaysia , 2001 - 2002

Exports

Quantity

Value

(1000 $)

Quantity

Value

(1000 $)

Quantity

Value

(1000 $)

2001

2002

% of World in 2002

Live Birds (1,000 head)

Chickens

47,878

76,221

50,650

76,058

6.1

8.8

Ducks

7,855

25,290

8,261

24,290

51.7

67.8

Products (mt)

Poultry meat

10,942

17,049

14,858

24,505

0.1

0.2

Eggs in the shell

75,974

36,329

115,283

43,284

11.4

4.3

Source: United Nations FAO; USDA, FAS Gain report #MY3047, 9/17/03 ; Reuters 8/19/04

What are the US imports of live birds or poultry products from Malaysia ?

Malaysia is not recognized by the US as free from exotic Newcastle disease, therefore imports of poultry and non-processed poultry products are restricted. The US imported no live poultry, no poultry meat, no eggs, and no feathers from Malaysia in 2003 or January-June 2004. Two commercial shipments consisting of 6,791 and 9,646 pet birds were imported from Malaysia in October 2003 and February 2004; both shipments consisted of assorted finches. Live birds are quarantined in US ports prior to clearance for entry into the country, during which time testing for infectious diseases, including avian influenza, takes place.

Source: World Trade Atlas; VS Import Tracking System

What are the Canadian and Mexican imports of poultry products from Malaysia ?

Neither Canada nor Mexico imported live poultry, poultry meat, eggs, or feathers from Malaysia in 2003 or January-June 2004.

Source: World Trade Atlas

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from Malaysia ?

A total of 76,315 and 33,361 air passengers originating in Malaysia entered the US in 2002 and January-June 2003.

As part of APHIS, PPQ’s Agricultural Quarantine Inspection monitoring, a total of 161 air passengers from Malaysia were sampled in fiscal 2003 for items of agricultural interest. None of those sampled were found to be carrying poultry products.

Source: US Dept of Transportation; APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection data base

CEI’s plans for follow up:

The Center for Emerging Issues has no further plans for follow-up of HPAI in Malaysia . If you need more information or if you want to comment on this worksheet, you may reply to this message, or contact Chris Kopral at (970) 494-7325.

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