CT_Hpaijapan0104

HPAI Japan 01_2004

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza , Japan

January 14, 2004

Impact Worksheet

Summary: On January 12, 2004, Japan reported an infection of one layer flock with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H5N1 in the Yamaguchi Prefecture. This is the first reported outbreak of HPAI in Japan since 1925. Japan has approximately 283 million poultry and produced close to 1.2 million metric tons of poultry meat in 2002. Japan exported 110,000 live chickens during 2002, which is less than 0.1% of world exports for that year. CEI does not have information regarding the destination of Japan’s live chicken exports.

Because Japan is not considered free of exotic Newcastle disease, the US did not import live poultry or at-risk poultry products from Japan. The US did import processed feathers, processed bird eggs and yolks, and a small number of bird eggs for hatching. Processed products are not a disease transmission risk and are legally imported products.

How extensive is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Japan , and what was Japan ’s disease status prior to the outbreak?

On January 12, 2004, Japan reported an infection of one layer flock with HPAI, subtype H5N1 in the Yamaguchi Prefecture (see map). This is the first reported outbreak of HPAI in Japan since 1925.

HPAI has also recently occurred in Vietnam (see Impact Worksheet, January 12, 2004), South Korea and Taiwan. In Vietnam, avian influenza subtype H5N1, was detected in parent broiler stock on 3 farms in the southern part of Vietnam. South Korea reported the first occurrence of HPAI, subtype H5N1, on December 12, 2003 (see Impact Worksheet, December 16, 2003). In December, unofficial sources reported the first case of HPAI, subtype H5N1, in Taiwan. Cases were limited to ducks illegally smuggled from China, found on the water offshore of Quemoy Island.

The World Health Organization has reported three human cases of infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) in Vietnam , with additional cases being investigated. To date, there is no evidence of human to human transmission.

Source: OIE Disease Information Report; World Health Organization

What is Japan ’s place in the international market for poultry and poultry products?

Japan has approximately 283 million poultry and produced close to 1.2 million metric tons of poultry meat in 2002. In terms of total world stocks and production, these products accounted for 1.8-1.9% of both stocks and production. Japan has approximately 2.5 million metric tons of egg production, accounting for 4.3% of world production in 2001-2002.

Table 1: Poultry Stocks and Production, Japan, 2001 and 2002

2001

2002

Stocks
(1,000 head)

Stocks
(1,000 head)

% of World Stocks

Chickens

292,437

283,102

1.8%

Turkeys

3

3

<0.1%

Production
(Metric Tons)

Production
(Metric Tons)

% of World Production

Chicken meat

1,216,416

1,221,219

1.9%

Turkey meat

12

12

<0.1%

Eggs

2,514,218

2,512,195

4.3%

Source: United Nations FAO

Japan exported 110,000 live chickens during 2002 and did not export any live poultry during 2001. CEI does not have information on the destination of Japan’s live chicken exports in 2002. Japan’s share of world exports in poultry and poultry products is very small, amounting to 0.1 percent or less during 2002.

Table 2: Exports of live Poultry and Poultry Products, Japan , 2001 - 2002

Exports

Quantity

Value
(1000 $)

Quantity

Value
(1000 $)

Quantity

Value
(1000 $)

2001

2002

% of World in 2002

Live Birds (1,000 head)

Chickens

0

0

110

184

<0.1%

<0.1%

Fresh or Frozen Meat (mt)

Chicken meat, not canned

2,838

2,280

2,901

2,562

<0.1%

<0.1%

Chicken meat, canned

121

514

268

870

<0.1%

<0.1%

Eggs, in the shell

42

90

64

126

<0.1%

<0.1%

Eggs, dried

7

166

5

110

<0.1%

0.1%

Eggs, liquid

169

998

37

271

<0.1%

0.1%

Source: United Nations FAO


What are the US imports of live birds or poultry products from Japan ?

Because Japan is not considered free of exotic Newcastle disease, the US restricts imports of poultry or poultry products from Japan. The US imported processed feathers and processed bird eggs from Japan during 2002, amounting to about 12.3 and 35.4 thousand kilograms, respectively. Between January and October 2003, the US imported processed bird eggs and yolks valued at approximately $164,000. The poultry products that the US imported from Japan are processed and thus are legal imports and not at risk for transmission of avian influenza. Trade data indicates a small number of bird eggs for hatching were imported in 2003. Hatching eggs from Japan require a permit for entry; however, no such permits were issued in 2003. APHIS is checking to see if these items were miscoded in the trade database. Japan exported 43 live birds to the US between January 2002 and October 2003. All but two of these birds were classified as pet birds. Live birds imported from Japan are routinely quarantined and tested for infectious diseases prior to release for entry into the US.

[ Update - January 27, 2004: A review of trade and customs information found that the hatching eggs were incorrectly classified. The imported product was cooked eggs in the form of omelets, a legal import and of no disease transmission risk due to the processing procedure.]

Table 3: US Imports of Live Birds and Poultry Products from Japan , 2002 – Oct. 2003

Product

2002

2003 (Jan. – Oct.)

$value
(million)

quantity
(head or kg)

$value
(million)

Quantity
(dozen or kg)

Live birds, non-poultry (hd)

unknown

17

unknown

26

Down, not further worked than cleaned, disinfected, or treated for preservation (kg)

0.543

12,333

0

0

Bird eggs for hatching (doz)

0

0

0.003

5

Bird eggs, not in shell, fresh, cooked, frozen, or preserved (kg)

0.153

35,416

0.159

33,895

Egg yolks, fresh, cooked, frozen, or preserved (kg)

0

0

0.006

864

Source: World Trade Atlas; VS Import Tracking System

Canada imported relatively small amounts of processed egg products and live non-poultry birds from Japan between 2002 and October 2003. Mexico imported only a small number of live non-poultry birds from Japan over the same time period.

Swine can play a role in the transmission and epidemiology of avian influenza outbreaks. Japan is not considered free of classical swine fever or swine vesicular disease by the USDA and therefore the US did not import any live swine or swine products of risk during 2002 through October 2003.

Source: World Trade Atlas

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from Japan ?

In fiscal 1999, 6,842,667 passengers arrived in the US from Japan on direct flights. However, some of these passengers would have been in transit and may not have originated their travel in Japan as the Tokyo International Narita Airport is a major airline hub in Asia. About 4,826,000 air passenger arrivals in the US reported Japan as their country of residency.

As part of USDA, APHIS-PPQ’s Agricultural Quarantine Inspection Monitoring system, 19,046 air passengers arriving in the US from Japan in fiscal year 2002 were sampled for items of agriculture interest. Of these passengers, 10 groups were found to be carrying 11 items of interest. Four preserved eggs, 4 hardboiled egg, 2 kg of chicken and 1 kg of eggs were found in these 10 groups. No passengers in these groups were planning to visit or work on a ranch or farm while in the US .

Source: Office of Travel & Tourism Industries, US Department of Commerce, USDA APHIS-PPC Agricultural Quarantine Inspection database.

CEI’s plans for follow up: CEI will continue to monitor the situation and may issue additional reports. If you need more information or if you want to comment on this worksheet, you may reply to this message, or contact Kathy Orloski (970-494-7221) or Wolf Weber (970-494-7222).

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