CT_Hpaieusum041906

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza_ EU_ 3_6_2006

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

Outbreak Summary for European Union

March 6, 2006 , Impact Worksheet



Summary:
In the past several weeks, highly pathogenic avian influenza, subtype H5N1, has extended its range across Europe , the Middle East and Africa . It is now found in wild birds in nine of the 25 member nations of the European Union (EU) as well as eight other European countries. So far, within the EU, only France has experienced an outbreak of H5N1 in commercial poultry. EU member countries have implemented a coordinated disease mitigation strategy that includes protection and surveillance zones, strengthened biosecurity measures, and flock vaccination in limited circumstances.

The European Union held more than 7% of the world’s poultry stocks and produced 9% of the world’s shell eggs in 2005. Six EU countries are among the top 10 in world turkey stocks, led by France , which ranks 2 nd. France also ranks 5 th in world duck stocks. EU live poultry exports in 2004 represented more than 76% of world live poultry exports, four-fifths going to other EU countries. Six EU countries are among the top 10 world exporters of poultry meat, and 5 are among the top 10 exporters of shell eggs.

T he US regularly imports live birds, poultry, and poultry products from the EU. Most live imports in the past two years were pet birds from Belgium , while poultry meat products came largely from France . The US also imported bird skins and feathers from 16 EU countries. All live poultry and other bird species imported into the US (except from Canada) are required to have a USDA issued import permit, a health certificate issued by a government veterinarian in the country of origin, and to be quarantined for 30 days in a USDA animal import quarantine facility. This requirement includes pet birds as well as commercial birds. During the quarantine period, the birds are tested for various infectious pathogens, including avian influenza. Many poultry products are imported after processing, which mitigates the risk of disease transmission.

In response to the diagnosis of H5N1 influenza in commercial turkeys in France , APHIS Veterinary Services (VS) placed a temporary ban on the import of poultry and commercial shipments of live birds, hatching eggs and unprocessed avian products from the French Department of Ain. This restriction applies only to the Department of Ain, not the entire country. Any processed avian products from France must be accompanied by a VS import permit and government certification confirming the products were treated according to APHIS requirements.


What is the extent of the outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the European Union?

Over the past six weeks, highly pathogenic avian influenza, subtype H5N1, has extended its range across Europe , the Middle East , and Africa . Poultry production facilities have been affected in numerous countries throughout Asia , Africa , and eastern/central Europe . But, so far, within the 25-member European Union (EU), only France has experienced an H5N1 outbreak in a commercial poultry operation. As of March 2, 2006 , nine EU member nations - Austria , France , Germany , Greece , Hungary , Italy , Slovakia , Slovenia , and Sweden - have reported wild bird deaths caused by the H5N1 virus, mainly in swans.

Member countries of the EU are required to implement common disease mitigation strategies that are set forth by the European Commission. Regarding the diagnosis of H5N1 in wild birds, Commission Decision EC 2006/115 ( Feb. 17, 2006 ) requires a 3-km protection zone and a 10-km surveillance zone around locations where infected wild birds have been found. Within the protection zone, poultry must be kept indoors and movement of poultry and poultry products is severely restricted. In both the protection and surveillance zone, guidelines require the tightening of biosecurity procedures and bird hunting is forbidden. Additionally, in France and the Netherlands , vaccination is being allowed in limited areas and only in designated types of poultry flocks. Rules are in place that will limit the trade of vaccinated birds and bird products.

Following is a summary of H5N1 influenza activity in each of the EU countries.

Austria : Between February 13 and 17, 2006, several dead swans were found in a reservoir near the city of Graz . Laboratory samples from the swans confirmed H5N1 infection. Another swan brought to an animal shelter died and also tested positive for H5N1. The animal shelter was depopulated, and then cleaned and disinfected. Three ducks and two chickens from the shelter (all clinically healthy) also tested positive. On February 17, one of three wild ducks found in the same district tested positive for H5N1.

France : Seven wild ducks (pochards) were found dead on February 13, 2006 , in Joyeux, Department of Ain, southeastern France . A pooled sample collected from three ducks tested positive for H5N1 virus. Subsequently, on February 23, a commercial turkey farm in Ain reported deaths of 400 young turkeys. Testing confirmed the turkeys were infected with H5N1 virus and the flock of over 11,000 birds was destroyed. Forty-three countries have restricted or banned imports of poultry or poultry products from France due to the avian flu outbreak.

Germany : Three mute swans and one whooper swan were found dead on February 8, 2006 , on the northern part of Rügen, an island in the Baltic Sea . A dead goshawk was found on the northern part of Rügen the same day. Avian influenza virus H5N1 was diagnosed in two of the swans (mute and whooper) and the goshawk. As of February 28, 2006 , H5N1 virus had been confirmed in 128 wild birds, mostly ducks and/or geese in Rügen and a few birds in four other widely dispersed German states: Schleswig-Holstein, Baden-Württemberg , Brandenburg , and Bayern. A poultry flock depopulated on Rügen tested negative for H5N1 virus.


Current distribution of HPAI, subtype H5N1, in Europe

European Union (EU) countries with confirmed H5N1 infection in wild birds

Location of confirmed H5N1 infection in commercial poultry in France

Non-EU countries with affected wild birds or domestic poultry

No known reports of HPAI

Greece : Between January 30 and February 10, 2006 , several dead swans were collected in coastal areas near the towns of Paralia Katerini, Nei Epivates, Asprovalta, Thessaloniki , Polychrono, and Stavros. A dead red-breasted goose also was found at Skyros Island . Swans began arriving in early to mid January. According to wildlife experts, severe winter weather in northern Europe may have led to an unusually large number of birds migrating to Greece . As of March 2, 2006 , 19 wild birds (mostly swans as well as the red-breasted goose) had tested positive for H5N1 virus. Chicken consumption in Greece has dropped by 80%, despite a lack of known cases of H5N1 virus in farmed poultry.

Hungary : On February 21, 2006, test results confirmed that three dead swans found earlier in the month in the village of Nagybaracska, about 100 miles south of Budapest, were infected with the H5N1 virus. On March 2, H5N1 virus infections were confirmed in a dead mallard and dead gull found near Budapest , and in two dead swans found in southern Hungary . This report brought the number of confirmed H5N1 infections in Hungary to 12, all in wild birds.


Italy : In Italy , H5N1-confirmed cases in wild mute swans have been recorded in Sicily , Puglia , and Calabria . It is believed that the affected swans in Italy were migrating through the country from Russia . The initial Italian cases, found in southern Italy and confirmed to be H5N1-positive on February 11th, were some of the first H5N1 cases identified in the European Union. A wild duck found dead in Umbria (central Italy ) on February 13 was also subsequently confirmed to be infected with the H5N1 virus. Since these events, poultry sales in Italy have declined by 70% and unemployment in the poultry sector is on the rise.

Slovakia : On February 24, 2006 , the Slovak Agriculture Minister informed the press that two presumptive-positive cases of H5N1 had been confirmed by the EU’s reference laboratory. The samples were taken from a dead grebe found near the Danube river close to the capital Bratislava and from a dead wild falcon found along the Danube about 37 miles southeast of Bratislava.

Slovenia : Slovenia ’s first case of H5N1 infection was found in a dead mute swan that was reported to the OIE as H5N1-positive on February 16, 2006 . The swan was discovered close to the city of Maribor , about nine miles from the Austrian border. Since this event, an H5N1-infected grey heron was found near Maribor in the surveillance zone that was set up around the area of the initial detection. To date, press reports state that an additional 18 swans have been confirmed as H5N1-positive, all in the Maribor area of Slovenia .

Sweden : On February 28, 2006 , Sweden announced that it detected its first cases of avian influenza in two wild ducks that were found in the southeastern region of Oskarshamn. Although the ducks were affected by what was described as an aggressive form of the disease, confirmation of involvement of the H5N1 virus is currently being awaited.

Sources: OIE Disease Information Report; World Health Organization; ProMED; Selected open-source news articles.

What is the international market for poultry and poultry products in European Union countries?

The European Union (EU) poultry inventory was more than 1,335 million birds in 2005, representing 7% of world poultry stocks (see Appendix 1 for country and species details). Chickens accounted for the majority of EU stocks with approximately 1,187 million head. Inventories were largest in France , accounting for 275 million head, >1% of world stocks (Table 1). France ranks 2 nd in the world in turkey stocks and 5 th in duck stocks, with 13% and 2%, respectively. Six EU countries, France , Italy , United Kingdom , Germany , Portugal , and Slovakia , are among the top 10 in the world in turkey stocks.

The EU produced nearly 11.1 million metric tons of poultry meat in 2005, accounting for 14% of world poultry meat production (Appendix 2). France , the United Kingdom , and Germany are among the top 10 producers worldwide, together accounting for 6% of world poultry meat production (Table 2). Shell egg production by the EU represented 10% of world production in 2005 (Appendix 2). France ranks 9 th in the world for shell egg production, producing just over 1 million metric tons. France ’s shell eggs represent <2% of world production (Table 3).


Table 1. Inventory of live poultry*, top 10 EU countries, 2005

Country

Number of head

(1,000)

% of world

France

United Kingdom

Spain

Italy

Germany

Poland

Netherlands

Luxembourg

Portugal

Hungary

* Includes chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys

Source: United Nations FAO

Table 2. Production of poultry meat, top 10 producing EU countries, 2005

Country

Metric tons

% of world

France

United Kingdom

Spain

Germany

Italy

Poland

Netherlands

Hungary

Belgium

Portugal

Source: United Nations FAO

Table 3. Production of shell eggs, top 10 EU producing countries, 2005

Country

Metric tons

% of world

France

Germany

Spain

Italy

Netherlands

United Kingdom

Poland

Belgium

Hungary

Portugal

Source: United Nations FAO

The EU countries exported more than 666 million live poultry in 2004, representing 76% of world live poultry exports (Table 4). Approximately 80% of the EU countries’ live poultry exports were to other EU countries. Chickens accounted for the majority of live poultry exports, with slightly more than 621 million head (Appendix 3). The Netherlands , Germany , France , the Czech Republic , and Belgium were the top 5 exporting countries of live chickens in the world in 2004. Turkeys comprised most of the remaining live poultry exports with slightly more than 44 million exported. Eight EU countries were among the top 10 countries worldwide for live turkey exports, and 7 were among the top 10 for live goose exports in 2004.

Table 4. Live Poultry* exports, top EU countries, 2004

Country

Number head

(1000)

% of European Union

Quantity

% of World

Quantity

Value

(1000 $)

% of European Union

Value

% of World

Value

European Union (25)

EU (25) Excludes Intra-Trade

Netherlands

France

Germany

Czech Republic

Belgium

United Kingdom

Poland

Portugal

Spain

Austria

* Includes chickens, ducks, geese and turkeys

Source: United Nations FAO

Total exports of poultry meat and shell eggs accounted for 31% and 63% of world exports, respectively (Tables 5 and 6). The European Union exported 2.6 million metric tons of fresh poultry meat in 2004. Of this total, nearly 1 million metric tons were exported outside of the EU, representing >10% of world exports of fresh poultry meat. Six EU countries are among the top 10 exporters of poultry meat, and 5 are among the top 10 exporters of shell eggs (see Appendices 4, 5, and 6 for details on poultry meat and shell egg exports).


Table 5. Fresh poultry meat* exports, top EU countries, 2004

Country

Metric Tons

% of European Union

% of World

European Union (25)

EU (25) Excludes Intra-Trade

France

Netherlands

Belgium

Germany

United Kingdom

*Includes meat from chickens, ducks, geese and turkeys

Source: United Nations FAO

Table 6. Shell egg exports, top EU countries, 2004

Country

Metric Tons

% of

European Union

% of

World

European Union (25)

EU (25)

Excludes Intra-Trade

Netherlands

Spain

Belgium

Germany

France

Source: United Nations FAO


What are the US imports of live birds or poultry products from EU countries?

The US imported live birds and poultry from the EU during 2004 and 2005 (Table 7). The majority (>99%) of pet and other non-poultry commercial birds were imported from Belgium . All live poultry and other bird species imported into the US (except from Canada) are required to have a USDA issued import permit, a health certificate issued by a government veterinarian in the country of origin, and to be quarantined for 30 days in a USDA animal import quarantine facility. These requirements include pet birds as well as commercial birds. During the quarantine period, the birds are tested for various infectious pathogens, including avian influenza.

The US also imported p oultry products from the EU in 2004 and 2005. These products were imported mostly from France , with the quantity increasing more than 6-fold between 2004 and 2005. Goose liver, prepared or preserved (foi gras), came exclusively from France . The US also imported bird skins and feathers from 16 EU countries. Other lower risk products such as cooked and/or dried egg products, prepared or preserved meat, and processed skins and feathers and were also imported from a few EU countries in 2004 and 2005. These processed products are considered of low risk, and were imported in low quantities from a few countries.

The USDA currently considers the following EU countries as free of exotic Newcastle disease (END): Finland , France , Great Britain , Greece , Republic of Ireland , Luxembourg , Spain , and Sweden . All other EU countries are not considered free of END and thus importations of poultry and poultry products, including meat, are restricted.

In response to the diagnosis of highly pathogenic H5N1 in commercial turkeys in France , APHIS Veterinary Services (VS) placed a temporary ban on the import of poultry and commercial shipments of live birds, hatching eggs and unprocessed avian products from the French Department of Ain. This restriction applies only to the Department of Ain, not the entire country. Any processed avian products from France must be accompanied by a VS import permit and government certification confirming that the products were treated according to APHIS requirements.

Source: World Trade Atlas, VS Import Tracking System

What are the Canada and Mexico imports of live birds or poultry products from EU countries?

Canada also imported live birds from the EU during 2004 and 2005 (Table 8). Most live birds were imported from the Netherlands , with a doubling of the numbers between 2004 and 2005. Meat and other products were imported from five EU countries in 2004 and 2005, with Denmark and Hungary supplying the greatest quantities of imports in 2005. Eggs in the shell, fresh, preserved or cooked were imported exclusively from Germany . Skins and feathers were imported from 11 EU countries. Cooked or dried egg and egg products were imported from 5 EU countries.


Table 7. US bird and poultry product imports from EU countries, 2004-2005

Product

Country

2004

2005

Quantity

US $ (1,000s)

Quantity

US $ (1,000s)

Live Avian, Breeding, Pet, Commercial (number)

Belgium

Czech Republic

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Hungary

Ireland

Italy

Netherlands

Poland

Portugal

Spain

Sweden

United Kingdom

Poultry Meat and Other Products (kg)

France

Italy

Avian and Poultry Eggs, Hatching/Breeding/Research (kg)

France

Germany

Netherlands

United Kingdom

Eggs, In Shell, Fresh, Preserved or Cooked (dozen)

United Kingdom

Eggs and Egg Products, Cooked or Dried (kg)

Czech Republic

France

Germany

United Kingdom

Skins and Feathers (kg)

Austria

Belgium

Denmark

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Italy

Netherlands

Poland

United Kingdom

na = data not available

Source: World Trade Atlas, VS Import Tracking System


Table 8. Canadian bird and poultry product imports from EU countries, 2004-2005

Product

Country

2004

2005

Quantity

Canadian $ (1,000s)

Quantity

Canadian $ (1,000s)

Live Poultry (number)

France

Germany

Netherlands

United Kingdom

Live Birds (number)

Austria

Belgium

Estonia

France

Germany

Netherlands

United Kingdom

Poultry Meat and Other Products (kg)

Austria

Denmark

France

Hungary

United Kingdom

Eggs, In Shell, Fresh, Preserved or Cooked (dozen)

Germany

Eggs and Egg Products, Cooked or Dried (kg)

Belgium

France

Germany

Italy

United Kingdom

Skins and Feathers (kg)

Belgium

France

Germany

Italy

Poland

Spain

Sweden

United Kingdom

Source: World Trade Atlas

Mexico was a larger importer of live poultry and birds from the EU than either Canada or the US in 2004 and 2005 (Table 9). Denmark was the largest EU supplier of live poultry exports to Mexico in 2004, but did not export to Mexico in 2005. Mexico imported poultry meat and other products from France and Spain in 2004 and 2005. Cooked or dried egg and egg products were imported only from Italy , and only in 2004. Bird skins and feathers were imported from 6 EU countries in 2004 and 2005.

Table 9. Mexican bird and poultry product imports from EU countries, 2004-2005

Product

Country

2004

2005 (Jan – Nov)

Quantity

US $ (1000s)

Quantity

US $ (1000s)

Live Poultry

(number)

Denmark

France

Hungary

Spain

United Kingdom

Live Birds

(number)

Belgium

Czech Republic

Italy

Spain

Poultry Meat and Other Products (kg)

France

Spain

Eggs and Egg Products, Cooked or Dried (kg)

Italy

Bird Skins and feathers (kg)

Belgium

France

Germany

Italy

Netherlands

Spain

Source: World Trade Atlas

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from EU countries?

In 2004, more than 22.3 million passengers arrived in the US on direct flights from the EU (Appendix 7). This number does not include passengers who may have traveled to the US by indirect flights from EU countries. As part of APHIS-PPQ’s agriculture quarantine inspection monitoring, a total of 36,928 air passengers from the EU were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal year 2004. Of these passengers, 130 were found to be carrying the following products: chicken/turkey/poultry (18 kg), egg shells (14 pieces), eggs (1 kg), unspecified meat (124 kg), and animal food/feed (7 kg) (see Appendix 8). None of the passengers carrying these products reported having been on a farm prior to their travel or planned to visit a farm or ranch while in the US .

CEI’s plans for follow up: CEI will continue to monitor the HPAI situation in Europe and may issue additional reports. If you need more information or if you want to comment on this worksheet, you may reply to this message, or contact Steve Sweeney (970-494-7267) or Wolf Weber at (970-494-7222). Email addresses: steven.j.sweeney@aphis.usda.gov or wolf.d.weber@aphis.usda.gov


Appendix 1. Inventory of chickens, ducks, geese & turkeys in EU countries, 2005

Country

Chickens

Ducks

Geese

Turkeys

Poultry

Number of head

(1000)

% of world

Number of head

(1000)

% of world

Number of head

(1000)

% of world

Number of head

(1000)

% of world

Total number of head (1000)

% of world

Austria

Belgium

Cyprus

Czech Republic

Denmark

Estonia

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Ireland

Italy

Latvia

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Malta

Netherlands

Poland

Portugal

Slovakia

Slovenia

Spain

Sweden

United Kingdom

EU Total

Source: United Nations FAO


Appendix 2. Production of poultry meat & eggs in EU countries, 2005

Country

Poultry Meat

Eggs

Metric tons

% of world

Metric tons

% of world

Austria

Belgium

Cyprus

Czech Republic

Denmark

Estonia

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Ireland

Italy

Latvia

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Malta

Netherlands

Poland

Portugal

Slovakia

Slovenia

Spain

Sweden

United Kingdom

EU Total

Source: United Nations FAO


Appendix 3. Live poultry exports from EU countries, 2004

Country

Chickens

Ducks

Geese

Turkeys

Total Poultry

Number of head
(1000s)

Number of head
(1000s)

% of European Union

% of World

European Union (25)

N/A

EU (25) Excludes Intra-Trade

N/A

Austria

Belgium

Cyprus

Czech Republic

Denmark

Estonia

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Ireland

Italy

Latvia

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Malta

Netherlands

Poland

Portugal

Slovakia

Slovenia

Spain

Sweden

United Kingdom

Source: United Nations FAO


Appendix 4. Poultry meat* exports from EU countries, 2004

Country

Volume

Value

Metric Tons

% of World

1000s $

% of World

EU (25) Excludes Intra-Trade

European Union (25)

Austria

Belgium

Cyprus

Czech Republic

Denmark

Estonia

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Ireland

Italy

Latvia

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Malta

Netherlands

Poland

Portugal

Slovakia

Slovenia

Spain

Sweden

United Kingdom

*Includes chicken, duck, goose and turkey meat

Source: United Nations FAO


Appendix 5. Poultry meat exports, by species, from EU countries, 2004

Country

Chicken Meat

(Mt)

Duck Meat

(Mt)

Goose Meat

(Mt)

Turkey Meat

(Mt)

Total Poultry Meat

(Mt)

European Union (25)

EU (25) Excludes Intra-Trade

Austria

Belgium

Cyprus

Czech Republic

Denmark

Estonia

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Ireland

Italy

Latvia

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Malta

Netherlands

Poland

Portugal

Slovakia

Slovenia

Spain

Sweden

United Kingdom

Source: United Nations FAO


Appendix 6. Exports of shell eggs from EU countries, 2004

Country

Metric Tons

% of World

European Union (25)

EU (25) Excludes Intra-Trade

Austria

Belgium

Cyprus

Czech Republic

Denmark

Estonia

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Ireland

Italy

Latvia

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Malta

Netherlands

Poland

Portugal

Slovakia

Slovenia

Spain

Sweden

United Kingdom

Source: United Nations FAO


Appendix 7. Airline passengers arriving in the US on direct flights from EU countries, 2004

Country

Number of Passengers

Austria

Belgium

Cyprus *

Czech Republic

Denmark

Estonia *

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Ireland

Italy

Latvia

Lithuania *

Luxembourg *

Malta *

Netherlands

Poland

Portugal

Slovakia *

Slovenia *

Spain

Sweden

United Kingdom

TOTAL

Source: Department of Transportation Air Passengers on Direct Flights to the US , 2004


Appendix 8. Agriculture quarantine inspection, passengers from EU countries, FY 2004

Country

Total number of passengers sampled

Product found

Amount of product found

Number of passengers carrying product

Austria

No relevant products found

Belgium

Unspecified meat

3 kg

2

Cyprus

No relevant products found

Czech Republic

No relevant products found

Denmark

No relevant products found

Estonia

No relevant products found

Finland

Unspecified meat

1.25 kg

6

France

Chicken/turkey

4 kg

4

Egg shells

2 pieces

1

Unspecified meat

18 kg & 1 piece

14

Germany

Chicken/poultry

3.7 kg

2

Egg shells

12 pieces

1

Unspecified meat

18.75 kg

12

Animal food/feed

2.85 kg & 5 pieces

5

Greece

No relevant products found

Hungary

Chicken

2 kg

3

Ireland

No relevant products found

Italy

Unspecified meat

29.2 kg

24

Animal food/feed

2.5 kg

7

Latvia

No relevant products found

Lithuania

No relevant products found

Luxembourg

No relevant products found

Malta

No relevant products found

Poland

Unspecified meat

16 kg

4

Portugal

No relevant products found

Slovakia

No relevant products found

Slovenia

No relevant products found

Spain

Chicken

2 kg

1

Unspecified meat

20 kg & 4 pieces

16

Animal food/feed

1 kg

1

Sweden

No relevant products found

United Kingdom

Chicken/turkey

6 kg

8

Eggs

1 kg

1

Unspecified meat

18 kg

17

Animal food/feed

0.25 kg

1

Source: USDA APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection database.

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