CT_Fmdjapanext

Suspected Foot and Mouth Disease in Japan

CEI Logo

Suspected Foot and Mouth Disease, Japan, March 2000

Impact Worksheet

Summary: The Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries notified the OIE on March 24, 2000 of a suspected outbreak of FMD in Miyazaki City on the southern island of Kyushu. The last outbreak of FMD in Japan occurred in 1908. Prior to this occurrence the USDA recognized Japan as free of FMD, although Japan fell into a special category because they may import animals or meat from countries that are not recognized as free of FMD. To prevent any future incursion, USDA,APHIS,VS,NCIE has issued an interim rule, effective March 29, 2000, prohibiting the importation of FMD-susceptible animals and derived products from Japan.

Japan has relatively minor numbers of livestock and is a net importer of beef and pork. The US holds a 48% market share of Japan’s beef imports and a 28% share of pork imports. The island of Kyushu accounts for a substantial portion of Japan’s beef cattle and pigs.

The US imported no live ruminants or swine from Japan in 1999 and early 2000. However, numerous animal products including fresh meat, semen, and animal feeds were imported.

Recommendations at this time include: Imports of FMD-susceptible animals and derived products have already been prohibited through an interim rule. There are no further recommendations.

How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the country’s disease status prior to the outbreak?

Japan Map

The Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries notified the OIE on March 24, 2000 of a suspected outbreak of FMD in Miyazaki City on the southern island of Kyushu. As of March 25, diagnostic tests have been inconclusive, although serologic testing has shown the presence of FMD type O antibodies. The suspected outbreak occurred in an operation of 10 feeder cattle.

The last outbreak of FMD in Japan occurred in 1908 and the USDA recognized Japan as free of FMD, although Japan fell into a special category because they may import ruminants, swine, or meat from countries that are not recognized as free of FMD.

Source: Report to the OIE

What is the country’s place in the international market for affected animals and animal products?

Japan is a minor producer of bovine meat, pig meat, ovine meat, and dairy products, generally accounting for less than 2% of world production.

What is the country’s production and trade in affected animals and animal products?

Japan has about 4.7 million cattle, 9.9 million pigs, and a small number of sheep and goats. Japan exported only 72 live cattle and no pigs, goats or sheep in 1998. By contrast, Japan imported approximately 20,000 live animals, primarily cattle. Ninety-two percent (92%) of the live cattle imports came from Australia, and small numbers came from New Zealand, the US, and Canada.

Stocks and Trade in Live Animals, Japan

1999 Stocks

1998 Exports

1998 Imports

Live Animal

Head

% World

Head

% World

Head

% World

Cattle

4,656,000

0.35

72

18,712

Pigs

9,873,000

1.2

0

0

1,235

Goats

28,500

0

0

28

Sheep

16,300

0

0

58

Japan accounts for only a small amount of the world’s production of bovine meat, pig meat, ovine meat, and dairy products, and exports negligible amounts of these products. Japan is a major importer of bovine meat and pig meat, accounting for 13.5% and 11% of world imports, respectively, in 1998. The US holds a 48% market share of Japan’s beef imports and a 28% share of pork imports.

Production and Trade in Meat and Dairy, Japan

1999 Production

1998 Exports

1998 Imports

Meat and Dairy

Metric Ton

% World

Metric Ton

% World

Metric Ton

% World

Bovine meat

515,000

1.0

474

891,054

13.5

Pig meat

1,283,000

1.5

872

701,057

11.0

Sheep and goat meat

284

0

0

35,211

4.0

Milk, total

8,480,000

1.5

1,709

1,594,981

2.6

Source: United Nations FAO; USDA-FAS

Where in Japan are cattle and pigs concentrated?

Dairy cattle are raised primarily in Hokkaido, but also in northeastern Tohoku, and near Tokyo and Kobe (See map on page 1). Of the 37,400 dairy farms in Japan, 10,600 are on Hokkaido while Kyushu has about 4,000.

Beef cattle are mostly concentrated in the western part of the large island Honshu, and on Kyushu. Kyushu accounts for 42% of all beef cattle farms in Japan. The average size of beef cattle farms in Japan is 21.3 head.

Number of Farms, 1998

Dairy cattle

Beef cattle

Pigs

Kyushu

3,980

56,400

3,450

Japan, total

37,400

133,400

13,400

Hogs are raised throughout the country. About 26% of the nation’s pig farms are located on Kyushu.

Sources: Library of Congress; Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Japan

What are the U.S. imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?

Relevant animals and products imported into the US from Japan in 1999 and January 2000 are listed in Appendix A. No live cattle, pigs, sheep, or goats were imported during this time.

The US imported about 16,000 kg of fresh, chilled beef in 1999 and January 2000. Because of Japan’s special FMD-free category, meat imports from Japan must meet several criteria that basically ensure that the meat has not come from countries that are not FMD-free.

Numerous other animal products were imported from Japan, including dairy products, bones, semen, animal feeds, and hides and skins.

To prevent any future incursion, USDA,APHIS,VS,NCIE has issued an interim rule, effective March 29, 2000, prohibiting the importation of FMD-susceptible animals and derived products from Japan.

Source: World Trade Atlas

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?

A total of 6.6 million passengers arrived in the US on direct flights from Japan in 1998. As part of APHIS-PPQ’s Agricultural Quarantine Inspection monitoring, 11,162 passengers arriving from Japan were sampled for restricted items. Of these, only 170 passengers (1.5%) were found to be carrying a total of 83 kg of potentially relevant products, including beef, pork, and other meat items. Two (2) passengers of the 170 reported that they had plans to visit or work on a farm or ranch in the US.

Sources: US Dept of Transportation; APHIS-PPQ

CEI’s plans for follow up:

CEI currently has no plans to provide additional information on this situation; however, if the situation should change significantly, follow-up information will be provided. If you seek more information or wish to comment on this worksheet, please reply to this message or contact Judy Akkina at (970) 490-7852 or Chris Kopral at (970) 490-7819.

Appendix A

Relevant Animal Products Imported from Japan Into the U.S.

1999

January 2000

0201 Meat, Beef fresh/chilled

0201305000 described in additional u.s. note 3 to this chapter and entered pursuant to its provisions: meat of bovine animals, boneless, ex processed, fresh/ch (kg)

15,215

1,036

04 Dairy

0402100500 milk and cream in powder granules/other solid forms fat content by weight not exceeding 1.5% whether/not sweetened, described in general note 15 (kg)

550

0

0404100500 whey protein concentrates, modified whey, whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening (kg)

287

0

0410000000 edible products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included (kg)

3,793

0

0506 Bones, horn-cores

0506900020 bones, crude, steamed or ground (kg)

3,919

3,919

0511 Other animal

0511994050 animal products not elsewhere specified or included; dead animals of chapter 1, unfit for human consumption (kg)

4,922

4,922

0511993060 products chiefly used as food for animals or as ingredients in such food, nesoi (kg)

1,923

1,923

0511100090 bovine semen, nesoi (value in U.S. dollars)

0

$3,000.00

0504 Guts, etc, not of fish

0504000040 guts, bladders and stomachs of animals except hog and fish, whole and pieces, prepared for use as sausage casings (kg)

15,225

0

0510 Ambergris, pharm gland

0510004040 cantharides; glands except pancreas, organs and other animal products used in the preparation of pharmaceutical products, fresh, chld, frz, preserve (kg)

38

0

2309 Food waste, animal feed preparations

2309909500 preparations of a kind used in animal feeding, nesoi (kg)

87,918

5,380

2309901050 mixed feeds or mixed feed ingredients used in animal feedings, nesoi (tons)

38

8

2309901030 dairy cattle feed, prepared (tons)

3

0

3501 Casein, caseinate, derivatives

3501906000 caseinates and other casein derivatives, nesoi (kg)

10,451

0

3504 Proteins and derivatives

3504005000 peptones and their derivatives; other protein substances and their derivatives and hide powder, whether or not chromed, nesoi (kg)

54,980

7,505

3504001000 protein isolates (kg)

1,225

0

3502 Albumins

3502900000 albumins, albuminates and other albumin derivatives, nesoi (kg)

287

0

4101 Raw bovine, equine hides and skins

4101290000 hides and skins of bovine animals, nesoi, fresh or wet salted (kg)

0

20

4103 Other raw hides and skins, fresh not tanned

4103900090 hides and skins, nesoi, fresh or salted, dried, limed, pickled or otherwise preserved, but not tanned, parchment dressed or further prepared (value in u.s.dollars)

$2,000.00

$0.00

5101 wool, not carded/combed

5101304000 carbonized wool, not carded or combed, not processed in any manner beyond carbonized condition, unimproved (kg)

18

0

Complementary Content
${loading}