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FMD, Guinea, April 1999
Impact Worksheet

Summary: Guinea has reported an outbreak of FMD to the OIE. The FMD virus subtype was not reported. The disease was detected in cattle that had seasonally moved into Guinea from an unspecified neighboring country. The US imported very small amounts of goat skins and wool from Guinea in 1997 and 1998. FMD virus can survive in skins and wool for weeks, depending on processing or storage conditions. The risk to the US, although not zero, is minimal at this time, since numbers of tourists and potentially relevant imports are small.

How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the country's disease status prior to the outbreak?

According to the OIE report of April 23, 1999, an outbreak of FMD has occurred in eastern Guinea. The disease was initially detected in March 1999 in a herd of 300 cattle that had seasonally moved into Guinea from an unspecified neighboring country. West Africa, including Guinea, is endemic for FMD. 1 However, Guinea has never officially reported FMD to the OIE prior to this outbreak, which may reflect the level of veterinary services in Guinea rather than the FMD disease situation. Among neighboring countries, Senegal, Mali, and the Ivory Coast all reported FMD to OIE in 1996 and 1997. There were no new OIE reports from these countries in 1998 or 1999. Guinea's other neighbors, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, and Liberia have not reported FMD to OIE in this decade. Source: OIE Disease Information Report.

Guinea Map
1Personal communication, D. Mackay, Institute for Animal Health Pirbright Laboratory, UK

What is the country's place in the international market for affected animals and animal products?

Guinea's live animal stocks of cattle, goats and sheep represent less than 0.5% of world stocks of these animals. Guinea's production of beef, goat, mutton and pig meat represents less than 0.1% of world production. Though Guinea is a net exporter of live cattle, goats and sheep, the number of live animal exports are minimal by world standards (less than 0.05%). Guinea does not export any meat or dairy products.

Source: United Nations FAO

What is the country's production and trade in affected animals and animal products?

Guinea's relevant live animal stocks and meat production for 1998 are listed in the table below. In terms of livestock numbers, cattle are the predominant livestock species.

Guinea, Live Animal Stocks and Meat Production for 1998

Live Animals
Number Head
% of World's Production
Pigs44,500< 0.01%
Metric Tons
% of World Production
Beef and Veal 15,2600.03%
Mutton and Lamb1,6320.02%

Guinea's relevant live animal and animal product imports and exports are listed in the table below. Guinea is a net exporter of cattle, goats, and sheep and is a net importer of beef and veal, butter, cheese and curd.

Guinea, Live Animal and Animal Product Imports and Exports, 1998

Live Animals
Number Exported
% of World Exports
Number Imported
% of World Imports
Animal Products
Metric Tons
Exported % of World Exports
Metric Tons Imported
% of World Imports
Beef and Veal0014950.06%
Cheese and Curd00110<0.01%
Source: United Nations FAO

What are the U.S. imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?

The only potentially relevant products imported from Guinea were 150 and 622 goat skins in 1997 and 1998, respectively, and 210 square meters of wool fabric in 1997. FMD virus survival in skins and wool depends upon processing and storage conditions. The virus has been shown to survive in skins up to 352 days, and in wool for 20 days.

Source: World Trade Atlas; Foot and Mouth Disease: Sources of Outbreaks and Hazard Categorization of Modes of Virus Transmission, CEI, December 1994.

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?

The World Tourism Organization reported 2,108 tourists arriving in the U.S. from Guinea in 1996.

The Agricultural Quarantine Inspection Monitoring Program conducted by USDA, APHIS, PPQ found 1 of the 14 (7%) sampled airline passengers arriving in the U.S. from Guinea for FY1998 to be carrying an animal product. This passenger was carrying 1 kg. of beef and the destination in the U.S. for this passenger was Massachusetts. None of the 14 sampled passengers reported plans to visit or work on a farm or ranch while in the U.S. Because these passengers were questioned after they had cleared inspections, these numbers are an indication of the amount of restricted agricultural products of interest illegally entering the U.S. via airline passengers.

Source: World Tourism Organization; USDA,APHIS,PPQ

CEI's interpretation:

The risk to the US from this outbreak of FMD in Guinea is minimal at this time. Control measures including quarantine and movement control have been applied in the country. The number of travelers from Guinea to the US is very small. The US has not imported any live animals from Guinea, although the US did import small amounts of goat skins and wool fabric.

CEI's plans for follow up:

There are no plans for additional follow-up information.

If you seek more information or wish to comment on this worksheet, please contact Judy Akkina at (970) 490-7852 or Chris Kopral at (970) 490-7819.

Prepared by: Center for Emerging Issues, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health

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