The Asian Longhorned Beetle Eradication Program Survey Protocols
When one or more Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) infestation points are identified in an area, the survey procedures listed below will be implemented. The host tree identified as infested will serve as the epicenter, and all survey protocols will originate from that point.
APHIS conducts surveys to:
The types of surveys conducted in an area depend on the scope of the infestation, and the circumstances surrounding the infestation. Below is a general description of surveys; however, there is flexibility in the survey protocols. The number of times APHIS inspectors survey an area depends on forest and host composition, the degree of infestation, and the time it takes between survey cycles. The control strategy employed in an area (e.g., removal and/or treatment of all host trees in an area) will impact the number of survey cycles.
The discovery of ALB triggers an initial survey to determine the scope of the infestation. The intention of this survey is to quickly understand the general area of infestation, and determine the type of response needed in terms of resources and quarantine enactment. This survey establishes the regulated quarantine boundary.
Core Survey (Level 1)
The Core Survey (Level 1) establishes the center of an infestation and is defined as a ½-mile radius around any infested tree, which exhibits signs of ALB oviposition sites or exit holes. All potential host trees are surveyed within Level 1. If additional infestations are found, the core area will be extended by a ½ mile from the outermost find.
Buffer Survey (Level 2)
The Buffer Survey (Level 2) establishes the boundary of an infestation and is defined as an additional 1-mile expansion beyond the boundary of the Core Survey (Level 1). This results in surveying 1.5 miles from the point of infestation. Level 2 Survey areas should be expanded to a minimum of 2.5 miles from areas that are or were centers of high populations, as denoted by the presence of a cluster of trees with many exit holes or one or more trees with >100 exit holes.
Buffer Surveys focus on maples species (Acer) in areas where they are present. Additional preferred hosts (Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Salix, Ulmus) are surveyed when maples are not present or within 100 yards. Sweet birch (Betula lenta) and Japanese maple (Acer palmatum) are not considered a preferred host.
High Risk Site Survey (Level 3)
High risk site surveys (Level 3) are conducted to identify, and inspect, high-risk locations where potentially infested host material may have been transported, stored, processed, or sold. Site inspections primarily focus on maples when they are present. High risk sites include, but are not limited to:
After all trees within the Level 1 and Level 2 boundaries have been surveyed during the first survey cycle, secondary surveys are conducted within the same boundaries. Secondary inspections are crucial to detecting residual ALB infestations since they tend to develop slowly and become easily visible and detectable over time. Secondary surveys continue until a final cycle confirms there are no infested trees. Completion of a final survey is dependent on several factors, including but not limited to:
To declare eradication, a final round of negative survey is required, control activities and secondary surveys have also been completed. Four (4) years is the minimum amount of time between an initial detection and a final survey cycle is completed.
When there is more than a four (4) year survey lapse prior to the final cycle, an interim survey cycle may be needed.
General Survey Information
The following information applies to all of the surveys listed above. Staff must:
A Quality Assurance (QA) program consisting of random and targeted re-survey, pseudo ALB damage placement, field monitoring, training and testing must be implemented in order to: