Summary: On May 6, 1999, Zambia reported an outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) to the Office International des Epizootics (OIE). This outbreak was first identified in April 1999. Review of the current situation in Zambia reveals minimal risks to the US as a result of the FMD outbreak. The number of travelers from Zambia to the US is very small, and the only products of significance being imported are an unknown and small quantity of unspecified live animals. In Zambia, control measures are being used to limit the extent of this outbreak.
How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the country's disease status prior to the outbreak?
An outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) was reported by Zambia to OIE on May 6, 1999. The disease was initially detected on April 5, 1999, with an estimated date of first infection being March 22, 1999. There have been reports of disease in two areas of Zambia involving 24 bovine cases, and one death. FMD is considered to be endemic in cattle and small ruminants in Zambia. Samples were submitted to the Botswana Vaccine Institute for testing and were found to be positive for SAT2 type FMD virus. Zambia last reported an FMD outbreak to the OIE in July 1997. The disease is suspected to have originated from herds in a neighboring country and spread via movement of trade cattle. Control measures have included intensified surveillance and future plans to vaccinate susceptible animals.
Source: OIE disease information report.
What is the country's place in the international market for affected animals and animal products?
By world standards, Zambia is not a large producer of beef, veal, goat, mutton and lamb meat. During 1998, Zambia produced .08% of beef and veal meat produced worldwide, .02% of goat meat, .003 % of mutton and lamb, and .01% of pig meat produced worldwide. Zambia's live animal stocks of pigs, cattle, goats, and sheep represent less than .1% of world stocks of these animals.
Source: United Nations FAO
What is the country's production and trade in affected animals and animal products?
Zambia's relevant live animal stocks and meat production for 1998 are listed in the table below.
Live Animal Stocks and Meat Production in Zambia, 1998
|Pigs||285,000||Beef and Veal||41,075|
|Goats||600,000||Mutton and Lamb||238|
Zambia's agricultural exports consist mainly of maize and other crops. Zambia does not report any exports of the relevant livestock animals.
Source: United Nations FAO, USDA:Foreign Agricultural Service
What are the US imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?
According to the World Trade Atlas, the US has imported live animals from Zambia during 1997 and 1998. The only information available describes the animals as unspecified, not reported elsewhere, and valued at $80,000 in 1998 and $46,000 in 1997. Otherwise, no other animals or animal products of significance to these outbreaks were reported to have been imported to the US from Zambia.
Source: World Trade Atlas; January 1999
What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?
The World Tourism Organisation reported 2190 tourists arriving in the US from Zambia in 1996. This is the only year for which visitor number information is available for Zambia during the years for which we have data (1992-1996).
The Agricultural Quarantine Inspection Monitoring Program conducted by USDA, APHIS, PPQ found none of the 8 sampled airline passengers arriving in the US from Zambia during the period from 10/1/97 through 9/30/98 were carrying animal products. None of the 8 sampled passengers reported plans to visit or work on a farm or ranch while in the US. These numbers are an indication of the amount of restricted agricultural products (of interest) illegally entering the US via airline passengers.
Sources: World Tourism Organization, USDA, APHIS, AQI Database
Review of the current situation in Zambia reveals minimal risks to the US as a result of these outbreaks of disease. The number of travelers from Zambia to the US is very small, and the only products of significance being imported are an unknown and small quantity of unspecified live animals. In Zambia, control measures are being used to limit the extent of these outbreaks.
If you need more information or wish to comment on this worksheet, please reply to this message or contact Katherine Marshall at (970) 490-7801 or Victoria Bridges at (970) 490-7822.
Prepared by: Center for Emerging Issues, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health