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Foot and Mouth Disease in Mongolia

CEI LogoFoot and Mouth Disease, Mongolia, May 2000

Impact Worksheet

Summary: The Ministry of Agriculture and Industry, Mongolia, notified the OIE on 30 April 2000 of a Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) outbreak that began on 15 April in Dornogovi Province, a desert area of Mongolia. FMD virus type O was confirmed by the OIE FMD reference laboratory in Vladimir Russia. The last outbreak of FMD in Mongolia that was reported to the OIE occurred in 1973. Prior to this outbreak, Mongolia was not considered by USDA or the Office International des Epizooties to be free of the FMD virus. US imports of relevant products from Mongolia have been negligible. No actions are recommended.

The initial outbreak involved 18 herds located within a radius of approximately 15 km. Number of cases and species affected in the outbreak are 216 sheep, 152 goats, 151 cattle, and 26 camels. Quarantine and movement controls are being used to control the outbreak. Mongolia is a small producer of mutton, lamb, hides, and skins primarily for domestic consumption. Other recent FMD outbreaks in eastern Russia, Korea, and Japan have demonstrated that the FMD Type O virus is active in the region.

FMD Mongolia

How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the country’s disease status prior to the outbreak?

The Ministry of Agriculture and Industry, Ulan Bator, Mongolia notified the OIE on April 30, 2000 of an outbreak of FMD that began on April 15, 2000 in Ulaanbadrakh (county), Dornogovi Province. FMD virus type O was confirmed by the OIE FMD reference laboratory in Vladimir Russia, the All-Russian Research Institute for Animal Health. The initial outbreak involved 18 herds located within a 15 km radius. Number of cases and species affected in the outbreak were 216 sheep, 152 goats, 151 cattle and 26 camels. Quarantine and movement controls were being used to control the outbreak. The last reported outbreak of FMD in Mongolia occurred in 1973.

What is the country’s production and trade in affected animals and animal products?

Mongolia is a small producer of mutton, lamb, hides, and skins primarily for domestic use by Mongolia’s population of 2.6 million people. Mongolia had about 25 million sheep and goats, and 0.3 million camels in 1999 (see Table A). In 1998, Mongolia exported 60,000 sheep and goats to unidentified destination(s). Foreign Agricultural Service reports did not identify China, Russia, Kazakhstan , or South Korea as the importer of those animals. Mongolian live animal exports probably declined in 1999 due to livestock losses in the harsh winter. Mongolia also exported minuscule quantities of animal fats, fine goat hair, meat offals, and sausages; and imported minuscule quantities of sausages and cheese (see Table B).

Table A: Stocks and Trade in Live Animals, Mongolia

Live Animal

1999 Stocks

Trade

1998 Exports

1998 Imports

Head

% World

Head

% World

Head

Cattle

3,725,800

0.2 %

0

0

0

Pigs

21,000

< 0.1 %

0

0

0

Sheep

14,694,200

1.4 %

50,000

0.3 %

0

Goats

11,061,900

1.6 %

10,000

0.4 %

0

Camels

356,500

1.9 %

0

0

0

Table B: Production and Trade in Relevant Products, Mongolia

Products

1999 Production

Trade

1998 Exports

1998 Imports

Metric
ton

% World

Metric
ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Beef and veal

87,000

< 1 %

7,033

0.4 %

9

<0.01 %

Pig meat

650

< 0.001 %

0

0

19

< 0.01 %

Mutton, lamb

87,000

1.2 %

80

0.01 %

0

0

Goat meat

29,500

< 1 %

0

0

0

0

Milk, total

378,560

< 0.1 %

0

0

0

0

Hides and skins

25,500

1.6 %

65

< 0.01 %

0

0

Wool, greasy

20,000

< 1 %

4,600

< 1 %

0

0

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization

What are the U.S. imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?

No live animals, meat or dairy products were legally imported into the U.S. from Mongolia during 1999 or January-February 2000. The U.S. did import 35,551 kg of fine or coarse animal hair (processed beyond degreasing or carbonization, not fur) from Mongolia in 1999. Since this animal hair product was degreased, and scouring at the proper temperature should inactivate the FMD virus, the risk from this product is negligible.

Source: World Trade Atlas

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?

Passenger traffic is minimal from Mongolia to the United States. There are no direct flights. Airport monitoring conducted through the APHIS Agricultural Quarantine Inspection program included sampling of 3 passengers from Mongolia in 1999. None of these passengers carried restricted agricultural items, and none reported they were going to work on or visit a farm.

Source: US Department of Transportation, and APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection data base

CEI’s plans for follow up:

CEI has no further activity planned regarding this outbreak. If you seek more information or wish to comment on this worksheet, contact Judy Akkina at (970) 490-7852, or David Cummings at (970) 490-7895.



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