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FMD in Egypt

CEI LogoFoot and Mouth Disease, Egypt

Impact Worksheet, 20 September 2000

Summary: An outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in Egypt was reported by the OIE on 15 September 2000. Given the relatively low level of US imports and passenger flights from Egypt, US exposure to FMD from the current Egyptian outbreak is probably low.

The outbreak is located in north-central Egypt. Six bovine and two ovine cases were reported, and 670 bovine and 250 ovine animals were reported to be susceptible. No information on the virus type appeared in the OIE report. Egypt first suspected or diagnosed this outbreak in June 2000. Prior to this outbreak, the last FMD outbreak in Egypt that was formally reported to OIE occurred in December 1997. Egypt is a very small livestock producer by world standards, with over four million live sheep, three million goats, three million cattle, and three million buffaloes in 1999. US imports from Egypt in 1999 and 2000 have included very small quantities of unspecified live animals, cheese and curd, animal guts, and bones. The US imported sheep or goat meat valued at $60,000 from Egypt in 1999, but none in 2000. About 500 direct passenger airline flights arrive in the US from Egypt annually.

How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the country’s disease status prior to the outbreak?

An outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in Egypt was reported by the OIE on 15 September 2000. The outbreak occurred in the Fayoum governorate of north central Egypt. Six bovine and two ovine cases were reported, and 670 bovine and 250 ovine animals were reported to be susceptible. No information on the virus type appeared in the report to OIE. Somewhat unclear is the chronology of how this outbreak was first identified, confirmed, and reported. Egypt apparently first became aware of this outbreak in June 2000. Prior to the outbreak, the USA has not recognized Egypt as an FMD-free country. The last FMD outbreak in Egypt that was formally reported to OIE occurred in December 1997.

Egypt is located across the Mediterranean Sea from Greece (see map), which has experienced outbreaks of FMD type Asia 1 in Summer 2000, and adjacent to Israel which experienced FMD outbreaks in 1999. On the color map, countries in green reported FMD in 2000; countries in red reported FMD in 1999; and countries in purple reported FMD in 1998.

Source: OIE, 15 September 2000 ; USDA FAS Attache report

Map: Location of Egyptian outbreak vis-a-vis countries in region that reported an FMD outbreak in 1998-2000 (click to view full size)

Click to view full size

What is the country’s production and trade in affected animals and animal products?

Egypt is a very small livestock producer by world standards. Egypt had 4.4 million live sheep, 3.3 million goats, 3.2 million cattle, and 3.1 million buffaloes in 1999. Egypt imported about 1 percent of cattle traded in world markets, and 47 percent of world trade in buffaloes.

Table A: Stocks and Trade in Live Animals, Egypt

Live Animal

1999 Stocks

Trade

1998 Exports

1998 Imports

Head

% World

Head

% World

Head

% World

Cattle

3,150,000

0.2

0

0

89,660

1.1

Buffaloes

3,180,000

2.0

0

0

1,340

47

Sheep

4,400,000

0.4

5,314

0.03

5,000

0.1

Goats

3,260,990

0.5

16,762

0.6

0

0

Swine

29,000

0.0

0

0

0

0

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization

Egypt produced one percent or less of the world’s beef, pig meat, sheep and goat meat, and milk in 1999. Egyptian beef and veal imports represented about two percent of world imports in 1998.

Table B: Production and Trade in Relevant Products, Egypt

Products

1999 Production

Trade

1998 Exports

1998 Imports

Metric ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Beef and veal

265,000

0.5

508

0.0

102,579

2.1

Pig meat

3,045

0.0

0

0.0

5,227

0.1

Sheep & goat meat

123,000

1.1

213

0.0

1,091

0.1

Milk, total

3,510,000

0.6

9,321

0.0

520,811

0.8

Hides and skins (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat)

64,228

0.6

*

*

*

*

Offals edible fresh

*

0.0

26

0.0

25,121

0.0

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization * data not available

What are the US imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?

In 1999 and 2000, the US imported very small quantities of unspecified live animals, cheese and curd, animal guts, and bones. The US imported sheep or goat meat valued at $60,000 from Egypt in 1999, but none in 2000. The US has also imported minute quantities of bovine/equine leather (this year) and hydrogenated animal or vegetable oils (in 1999 only) from Egypt.

Table C: US Imports of Animals or Products from Egypt, 1999-2000

Product

1999

2000 (January - June)

$ Value (million)

Quantity (kg)

$ Value (million)

Quantity (kg)

Unspecified live animals

0.09

unknown

0.04

unknown

Cheese and curd

0.19

61,218

0.06

30,008

Guts, not of fish

0.04

54,432

0.09

unknown

Bones, horn-cores

0.02

79,730

0.01

39,730

Source: World Trade Atlas, US Dept. of Commerce

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?

A total of 68,881 passengers arrived in the US on direct flights from Egypt in 1998. This number did not include passengers who arrived in the US from Egypt via indirect flights. About 500 direct flights arrive in the US from Egypt annually.

As part of APHIS-PPQ's agriculture quarantine inspection monitoring, 438 air passengers from Egypt were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal year1999. Forty-six of these passengers (11%) carried a total of 92 kg of restricted items, such as cheese or meat, that could potentially harbor the FMD virus. None of the passengers with restricted items reported plans to visit or work on a ranch or farm while in the US..

Source: US Department of Transportation, and APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection data base

CEI’s plans for follow up:

As of 20 September, CEI has no further plans regarding the Egyptian situation. If you seek more information or wish to comment on this worksheet, contact David Cummings at (970) 490-7895 or Ken Geter at (970) 490-7817.



Additional Information