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FMD Argentina 3_16_01

CEI LogoFoot and Mouth Disease, Argentina
March 16, 2001
Impact Worksheet


Summary:

On March 13, 2001, an outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) Type A in Argentina was reported to the OIE in the District of Rivadavia, Buenos Aires province. Newspaper articles in Argentina report that the outbreak has now spread to premises in the provinces of Cordoba and La Pampa. In August of 2000, serological evidence of FMD Type A was found in Argentina in the northeast part of the country and linked to illegal imports of cattle.

Argentina is the 5th largest producer of cattle in the world with 55 million head in 2000. This equals just over 4% of world production. Argentina's exports of live cattle are minimal. Argentina produces 5% of the world's bovine meat (beef and buffalo) at almost 3 million metric tons. This makes Argentina the 4th largest producer of beef and veal in the world. And they are the 10th largest exporter of fresh bovine meat, exporting approximately 160,000 metric tons in 1999, accounting for 3% of world beef exports. In 2000, the US was Argentina's number one market for beef, followed by Germany, Chile, Canada, and Israel.

Argentina fresh beef exports to the US were suspended in August 2000 due to the serological findings, reopening in December 2000 with the requirement of additional certification regarding its origin. In response to Argentina's March 13th OIE report, the USDA has issued a temporary ban on the importation of all live swine and ruminants, and any fresh swine or ruminant meat (chilled or frozen) and other products of swine and ruminants from Argentina. This ban effects any products processed on or after February 19, 2001.

Due to current restrictions on US imports of relevant animals and animal products from Argentina, the risk to the US from this current outbreak is considered to be very low.

Recommendations at this time include: no actions other than continued vigilance at US ports regarding imports from Argentina and continued education of passengers arriving from FMD affected countries .

How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the country’s disease status prior to the outbreak?

On March 13, 2001, an outbreak of FMD Type A in Argentina was reported to the OIE. The initial outbreak was in the District of Rivadavia, Buenos Aires province (indicated by push pin on map) affecting a premises with young bulls. Newspaper articles in Argentina report that the outbreak has now spread to premises in the provinces of Cordoba and La Pampa. The new Argentinian Under Secretary of Agriculture, according to one article, has estimated that the outbreak may be affecting 40 locations in the country. Producers in Entre Rios, Corrientes, and Santa Fe have said publicly that FMD has been present in Argentina since December 2000, although it is not clear if the outbreak has also affected these three provinces. Argentina's Farming and Food Health Agency stopped certifying meat exports on March 12, 2001 to markets that have restrictions due to FMD, including the US, Canada, and Chile. However, newspaper articles report that livestock movement controls were not immediately implemented in the country.

FMD Argentina

A finding of serological evidence of FMD Type A occurred in cattle in Argentina in August of 2000. Cattle in three provinces in the northeast part of the country were involved and the situation was linked to illegal imports of cattle. It appeared that Argentina's response to the situation was effective and serological surveillance found no further indications of FMD virus. Thus, based on the recommendations from an OIE sponsored team that traveled to Argentina with the purpose of clarifying the FMD situation in the country, the OIE Foot and Mouth Disease and Other Epizootics Commission announced on October 6, 2000 that Argentina would remain on the list of countries recognized by the OIE as FMD free without vaccination. However, in a report to the OIE dated February 21, 2001, Argentina stated it had created buffer and restriction zones in which vaccination for FMD would occur. While this was an attempt by Argentina to maintain OIE status of FMD free without vaccination for the majority of the country, the OIE Central Bureau did suspend Argentina's FMD free without vaccination status.

Source: OIE Disease Information Reports dated 2/21/00, 10/6/00, and 3/13/01; FMD in Argentina, August 2000 Impact Worksheet; Reuters News, 3/13/01; Buenos Aires Herald, 3/15/01; La Nacion 3/16/01

What is the country’s production and trade in affected animals and animal products?

Argentina is the 5th largest producer of cattle in the world with 55 million head in 2000 (Table A). This equals just over 4 percent of world production. Exports of live cattle are minimal. Production in other relevant species is much lower and Argentina is a minimal player in the world market for these species.

Table A: Stocks and Trade in Live Animals, Argentina

Live Animal

2000 Stocks

Trade

1999 Exports

1999 Imports

Head

% World

Head

% World

Head

% World

Cattle

55,000,000

4.1

21,041

0.2

5,664

<0.1

Goats

3,428,000

0.5

0

0

68

<0.1

Sheep

14,000,000

1.3

0

0

20,750

0.1

Pigs

3,200,000

0.4

12,854

<0.1

3,555

<0.1

Argentina produces 4.7% of the world's bovine meat (beef and buffalo) at almost 3 million metric tons (Table B). This makes Argentina the 4th largest producer of beef and veal in the world. Argentina is also the 10th largest exporter of fresh bovine meat, exporting approximately 160,000 metric tons in 1999, accounting for 2.9% of world beef exports. In 2000, the US was Argentina's number one market for beef, followed by Germany, Chile, Canada, and Israel. While the US receives similar proportions of fresh or frozen versus processed beef, the majority of beef going to Germany, Chile, Canada, and Israel is fresh or frozen (see Table C for US imports). Based on dollar value, a significant market for Argentina beef is Germany. Recently, almost $200 million a year worth of "Hilton" beef (a high quality beef from animals which have met specified criteria including being fed a high energy ration) have been exported to Europe, with approximately 75% going to Germany. However, due to the finding of BSE in Germany, total beef consumption has dropped, resulting in decreased demand for beef from Argentina even though BSE has not been found in Argentina. Argentina is anticipating the opening of beef markets in Mexico, Japan, and Korea in the near future.

Table B: Production and Trade in Relevant Products, Argentina

Products

2000 Production

Trade

1999 Exports

1999 Imports

Metric

ton

%

World

Metric ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Meat

cattle and buffalo

2,800,000

4.7

159,956

2.9

11,934

0.2

goat

7,260

0.2

0

0

0

0

sheep

45,000

0.6

459

<0.1

1,817

0.2

pig

181,436

0.2

13

<0.1

36,038

0.7

Hides/Skins

419,096

4.2

3,992

0.1

1,833

<0.1

Wool, greasy

65,000

2.8

19,062

3

690

0.1

Milk, cow, fresh

10,631,672

2.2

38,822

0.6

1,003

<0.1

Source: United Nations FAO, USDA FAS GAIN Report (2/1/01)

What are the US imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?

The Argentina beef industry has been seriously impacted by the serological indications of FMD in August 2000. While Argentina was not considered by the USDA to be free of FMD, they were considered FMD free without vaccination by the OIE. Since 1997, and prior to August 2000, the US did allow the importation of some fresh beef from Argentina under certain specific conditions. In addition, the US had been considering a request by Argentina to be recognized free of FMD without vaccination. Argentina fresh beef exports to the US were suspended in August 2000 due to the serological findings, reopening in December 2000 with the requirement of additional certification regarding its origin.

In response to Argentina's March 13th OIE report, the USDA has issued a temporary ban on the importation of all live swine and ruminants, and any fresh swine or ruminant meat (chilled or frozen) and other products of swine and ruminants from Argentina. This ban effects any products processed on or after February 19, 2001.

Recent US imports from Argentina (Table C) include: fresh/chilled/frozen beef; edible bovine offal; prepared meat, offal, blood, or sausage; cheese and curd; and small quantities of bovine semen, milk products, hides and skins, wool, and animal guts, bladders, stomachs and parts. As excepted during the time periods described above, the US has allowed the importation of some fresh/frozen beef from Argentina under certain specific conditions. Meat products are allowed to be imported from countries not free of FMD if the products are prepared or processed in a manner as specified in Federal regulations and under certain import conditions. Upon meeting these conditions and regulations, the risk of FMD transmission is mitigated.

Table C: US Imports of Animal Products from Argentina

Product

1999

2000

$ value (million)

quantity

$ value (million)

quantity

Bovine semen

0

0

0.16

No quantity given

Beef, frozen

40.2

21,779,411 kg

27.4

13,823,142 kg

Beef, fresh/chilled

13.5

3,223,413 kg

14.3

4,156,244 kg

Edible animal offal (bovine), fresh or frozen

1.1

460,155 kg

4.4

1,145,968 kg

Meat & offal, dried, salted (bovine)

0.02

1,185 kg

0

0

Prepared meat, offal, blood, sausage

73.4

20,089,123 kg

65.8

18,143,564 kg

Cheese & curd

22.9

6,697,672 kg

23.9

7,038,318 kg

Milk, cream, concentrates, powders

0.01

7,000 kg

0.11

64,622 kg

Whey, other milk products

0

0

0.24

54,200 kg

Hides & skins, raw, not tanned, bovine

0.02

771 peices

0.31

5,859 peices

Hides & skins, raw, not tanned, goat or sheep

0

0

0.001

22 peices

Wool, shorn, greasy

0.25

111,552 cyk

0.015

8,823 cyk

skins with wool on, fresh or preserved, but not tanned or further prepared, sheep

0

0

0.001

22 pieces

Animal guts, bladders, stomachs and parts

0.41

186,533 kg

0.37

172,840 kg

Animal feed preparations (not dog or cat food)

0.03

12,070 kg

0

0

Source: FMD in Argentina, August 2000 Impact Worksheet, World Trade Atlas, US Dept. of Commerce

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?

A total of 1,000,784 passengers arrived in the US on direct flights from Argentina in 1999. This number does not include passengers who arrived in the US from Argentina via indirect flights. About 3,000 direct flights, or about 8 flights per day, arrive in the US from Argentina.

As part of APHIS-PPQ’s agriculture quarantine inspection monitoring, 1227 air passengers from Argentina were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal year 1999. Forty-three (43) of these passengers were carrying a total of 49 kg of restricted items, such as cheese or meat, that could potentially harbor the FMD virus. Seven (7) of the passengers with restricted items reported plans to visit or work on a ranch or farm while in the US. Florida, Iowa, and Washington were their reported destinations.

Source: US Department of Transportation, and APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection data base

CEI’s plans for follow up:

CEI has no plans for further activity regarding FMD in Argentina at this point in time. If you seek more information or wish to comment on this worksheet, please reply to this message or contact Vicki Bridges at (970) 490-7822 or Ken Geter at (970) 490-7817.



Additional Information