CEI Short Report - Bolivia , FMD, February 2, 2007
On January 26, 2007, the Bolivian Animal Health Service (SENASAG) reported to the OIE its first outbreak of FMD since July 2003. The outbreak occurred on a small holding in Santa Cruz Department that housed 34 cattle, 5 of which presented clinical signs for FMD. Santa Cruz Department had been considered FMD-free with vaccination by the OIE and an initiative to declare the entire country as such was well underway. Subsequently, on January 29, the OIE was notified by SENASAG of two additional FMD outbreaks, both also in Santa Cruz Department. (See attached map.) The subsequent outbreaks occurred in 9 of 26 cattle and 5 of 5 swine on one holding and in 6 of 620 cattle on the other. FMD serotype O was documented in two of the three outbreaks. The serotype associated with the remaining affected premises had not yet been determined. The second OIE report included information that some of the cattle on one of the premises had not been vaccinated.
According to press accounts, cattle suspected of introducing the disease to one of the affected farm were purchased from a cattle market on January 10. Bolivian authorities are currently investigating about two dozen additional live cattle markets in the region. Upon discovery of the initial outbreak, Bolivia halted beef exports to Venezuela , Peru , Colombia , Ecuador , and Paraguay . Additionally, strict controls have been implemented on the Bolivian border with Paraguay and Brazil . Control measures within Bolivia include movement controls, dipping/spraying, quarantines, and establishment of zones. A decision to implement depopulation is pending and vaccination is ongoing, with Brazil donating 2 million doses toward that effort.
In 2005, Bolivia housed a stock of about 6.8 million head of cattle, 3 million swine, 8.5 million sheep, and 1.5 million goats. Bolivia is self-sufficient in meat production and exported 555 metric tons of cattle meat (boneless, fresh, chilled or frozen) and 118 metric tons of otherwise prepared bovine meat during 2004. The vast majority of Bolivia s bovine meat exports are shipped to Venezuela , Peru , Colombia , and Ecuador . Bolivia exports a relatively small number of live cattle and does not export meat of swine, sheep, or goat. According to the World Trade Atlas, since 2005 the U.S. has imported a very small number of live hares and about 45,500 kilograms of reptile meat and offal from Bolivia .
As a course gauge for risk of animal disease entry into the U.S. , PPQs Agriculture Quarantine Inspection Monitoring data may be referred to. During FY2005, 161 air passengers from Bolivia were surveyed upon entry into the US . Twelve of these passengers were found to be carrying beef, pork, unidentified meat, or cheese products. By weight, items that were seized from each passenger ranged from less than one kilogram to five kilograms. Two of the passengers reported that they were traveling to a farm while in the US . None of the passengers reported that they were traveling from a farm in Bolivia . According to US Bureau of Transportation estimates, 76,859 air passengers entered the US on direct flights from Bolivia during 2005.
Sources: OIE, World Trade Atlas, FAOSTATS, FMD News (UC Davis), PPQ AQIM FY2005 data