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Foot and Mouth Disease in Peru

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FMD in Peru, July 1999
Impact Worksheet






Summary: According to a Peruvian newspaper, an outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease has been detected in Peru. This is the first outbreak of FMD in livestock in 27 months. The U.S. does not consider Peru to be free of FMD and has imported no live cattle, pigs, sheep, or goats from Peru in 1998 or 1999, nor any fresh or frozen meats from these animals. Passenger traffic from Peru is substantial; over 345,000 passengers arrived in the U.S. on flights from Peru in 1997. Peru is a minor producer of bovine, ovine, and swine products by world standards.



How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the country's disease status prior to the outbreak?

The Peruvian newspaper El Comercio reported on July 20, 1999 that an outbreak of FMD Type A was detected in the province of Sullana. The last previously reported case of FMD in livestock in Peru was reported 27 months ago. In the current outbreak, cattle, sheep, and swine were affected. It is not specified how many premises were involved. The affected animals were depopulated and a campaign to vaccinate 20,000 head of livestock has begun. The Ministry of Agriculture has imposed a quarantine. The USDA does not consider Peru to be free of FMD.

Source: ProMED

What is the country's place in the international market for affected animals and animal products?

By world standards, Peru is not a large producer of bovine, ovine, or swine meat. During 1998, Peru produced less than 0.5 percent of worldwide beef and veal, mutton and lamb, goat meat, and pig meat production. In 1998, Peru held 1 percent of world sheep stocks and less than 0.5 percent of world cattle, pig, and goat stocks.

Source: United Nations FAO

What is the country's production of affected animals and animal products?

Peru's relevant live animal stocks and meat and milk production for 1998 are listed in the table below.

Live Animal Stocks and Meat/Milk Production in Peru, 1998

Live Animals
Meat
Milk
Type
# of Head
Type
Metric Tons
Type
Metric Tons
Sheep Mutton and Lamb Cow Milk
Cattle Beef and Veal Goat Milk
Goats Goat
Pigs Pig meat

Peruvian production of meat and milk products in 1998 was largely unchanged from 1997 production. The top meat product produced in Peru was beef and veal, followed by pig meat, mutton and lamb, and goat meat.

Source: United Nations FAO

What is the country's trade in affected animals and animal products?

Peru imported 2,338 cattle in 1997 and exported only 1. Peru imported 48 pigs and exported none in 1997. Peru's imports of beef and veal were negligible in 1997 (173 mt) as were its imports of pig meat (383 mt) and ovine meat (382 mt). Peru had no exports of beef and veal, pig meat or ovine meat in 1997. In 1997, Peru imported 383,324 metric tons of milk (fluid milk equivalent). Imported milk provides approximately half of Peru's total consumption.

Source: United Nations FAO, USDA: Foreign Agricultural Service

What are U.S. imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?

The United States imported no live cattle, pigs, sheep, or goats from Peru in 1998 or Jan - May 1999, nor any fresh or frozen meats from these animals. The U.S. did import small quantities of products derived from meat or meat offal, as well as some hides and skins.

Product
1998
1999 (January-May)
$value (million)
quantity
$value (million)
quantity
Products of animal origin used as food for animals (code 0511993060) kg
Soups, broths and preparations thereof (code 2104100060) kg
Protein concentrates and textured protein substances (code 2106100000) kg
Flours, meals and pellets of meat or meat offal, unfit for human consumption (code 2301100000) T
Animal or vegetable fertilizers (code 3101000000) T
Sheep or lamb skins, fresh or preserved but not tanned (code 4102...) no
Goat or kidskins, fresh or preserved but not tanned (code 4103100000) no
Bovine or equine leather, after tanning (code 410439...) kg or sq m
Goat or kidskin leather, tanned (code 4106192000) sq m

Source: World Trade Atlas summary of U.S. Dept. of Commerce data

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?

The U.S. Dept. of Transportation reports a total of 345,170 passengers arriving in the U.S. on direct flights from Peru in 1997.

The Agricultural Quarantine Inspection (AQI) Monitoring Program conducted by USDA, APHIS, PPQ found 42 of the 1,335 sampled airline passengers arriving in the U.S. from Peru during the period 10/1/97 through 9/30/98 to be carrying a meat or dairy product, including pork, beef, and cheese. The AQI numbers are one indication of the amount of restricted agricultural products (of interest) illegally entering the U.S. via airline passengers. The top destinations reported by the 1,335 sampled passengers were FL, NY, NJ, CA, and TX. Ten passengers reported going to visit or work on a farm or ranch while in the U.S., although none of those found with meat or dairy products were among them.

Sources: U.S. Department of Transportation and USDA, APHIS, PPQ

CEI's interpretation:

At this time, the FMD outbreak in Peru poses little risk to the U.S. Since Peru is not considered by USDA to be free of FMD, few bovine, ovine, and swine products are imported, limiting U.S. exposure to the virus via imports. The U.S. does receive a significant number of travelers from Peru each year; however, the Peruvian outbreak appears to be fairly contained.

CEI's plans for follow up:

The CEI does not currently plan to produce more information on this outbreak. If you seek more information or wish to comment on this worksheet, please reply to this message or contact Chris Kopral at (970) 490-7819 or Carol Tuszynski at (970) 490-7893.

Prepared by: Center for Emerging Issues, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health



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