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Foot and Mouth Disease_ UK_ 2_01

CEI ImageFoot and Mouth Disease, United Kingdom

Impact Worksheet, February 2001

Summary: The United Kingdom Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) confirmed on February 20, 2001 an outbreak of foot and mouth disease, virus type O, in Essex county, England. The disease was confirmed on two premises in close proximity; a slaughter plant and a nearby farm. On February 22, a third case of FMD was confirmed at a cattle farm inside the 8-kilometer exclusion zone. On February 23, MAFF confirmed two additional cases; one on a farm in Essex county, and one on a hog farm located 300 miles north of Essex. This latter farm had supplied hogs to the slaughter establishment mentioned above. The virus was confirmed as the same South East Asian strain as that found in Japan and Korea and associated with swill in South Africa. Prior to this outbreak, the UK was considered by the USDA to be free of FMD. The last outbreak of FMD in the UK was in 1981.

Movement restrictions, applying to all cloven hoofed animals, have been imposed around all five premises. Other farms that had done business with either the slaughter plant or the affected farms have also been placed under quarantine. On February 21, 2000 the UK banned exports of relevant live animals and animal products.

Imports into the US of live ruminants and ruminant products from the UK have been prohibited since late 1989 because of BSE. The US has imported other products that could potentially present a risk for FMD. These products include biologics, animal feeds, dairy products, and hides. The USDA, APHIS issued an interim rule, effective January 15, prohibiting the importation of all ruminants and swine, and most products derived from ruminants and swine, unless those products were processed in such manner as to inactivate the FMD virus.

The USDA, APHIS has issued an interim rule, effective January 15, 2001, removing the UK from the list of FMD-free countries. This action prohibits the importation of all ruminants and swine, and most products derived from ruminants and swine, unless those products were processed in such manner as to inactivate the FMD virus.

How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the country’s disease status prior to the outbreak?

The United Kingdom Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) confirmed on February 20, 2001 an outbreak of foot and mouth disease, virus type O, in Essex county, England. The virus was identified as the same South East Asian strain as that found in Japan and Korea and associated with swill in South Africa. The disease was confirmed on two premises in close proximity. The first was a slaughter establishment where clinical signs of FMD were observed by a State Veterinary Service veterinarian on February 19 in 27 pigs during a routine veterinary inspection. The slaughter plant had recently received pigs from farms throughout the UK, including Buckinghamshire, the Isle of Wight, and Northern Ireland. The second outbreak occurred in a bull located on a farm located approximately 1-kilometer from the slaughter facility. The third outbreak was confirmed on February 22 at a cattle farm inside the 8-kilometer exclusion zone set up around the affected premises. On February 23, MAFF confirmed two additional outbreaks; one on a farm near the affected slaughter establishment, and one on a hog farm located in Heddon-on-the-Wall, 300 miles north of Essex in northern England. According to MAFF officials, this farm had harbored FMD for some time and had sent its pigs to the affected slaughter facility. According to press reports, this farm could be the source of infection in Essex.

FMD UK

Susceptible animals on all affected premises were destroyed. Protection and surveillance zones with radiuses of 3 and 8-kilometers, respectively, have been established around all five premises. Four affected facilities are located about 30-kilometers east of London, and a few miles south of Brentwood, Essex county. The movement restriction zones apply to all cloven hoofed animals, including pigs, sheep, goats and cattle, and will remain in place pending further investigation. Other farms that had done business with either the slaughter plant or the affected four farms have also been placed under quarantine. Epidemiological investigations are underway to confirm the source of the outbreaks and to trace any animals which may have been in contact with affected livestock.

Prior to this outbreak, the UK (England, Scotland, Wales, and Isle of Man) was considered by the USDA to be free of FMD. The last outbreak of FMD in the UK was in 1981.

Sources: USDA, APHIS, VS; OIE

What is the country’s production and trade in affected animals and animal products?

The United Kingdom (UK) had 11.4 million cattle, 7.3 million swine, and 44.7 million sheep in 2000 (Table 1). These numbers represent less than 1 percent of world stocks for each of the three species.

The UK exported no live cattle in 1999. UK exports of live swine in 1999 went almost exclusively to EU countries, notably the Irish Republic, Germany, and the Netherlands (in rank order). Canada, Japan, and the US each imported several hundred live swine from the UK in 1999. Canada stopped importing live pigs in August 2000 following the outbreak of CSF in the UK. The UK also exported over 300 thousand live sheep in 1999. Their destinations were not specified.

In 1999, the UK exported 7,430 metric tons of beef and veal, 225,011 metric tons of pork, and 103,209 metric tons of mutton and lamb. Beef and veal went primarily to the Irish Republic and to the Netherlands, although lesser amounts also went to several other EU countries. About 85% of exported pig meat went to EU countries, primarily Germany, the Netherlands, and France. The top 5 countries outside of the EU that imported pig meat from the UK were Hong Kong, Japan, Russia, Poland, and the US. Canada imported no pork from the UK in recent years.

As a result of this outbreak, MAFF has withdrawn all certificates for export for relevant live animals and affected products.

Table 1: Production and trade in live animals and animal products, United Kingdom,

2000 (Production) and 1999 (Trade)

United Kingdom

% of World*

Live animal stocks (# head)

Cattle

11,423,000

Pigs

7,284,000

Sheep

44,656,000

Production (mt)

Beef and veal

720,000

1.3

Pig meat

942,000

1.0

Mutton and lamb

356,000

4.7

Live animal imports (# head)

Cattle

2,660

Pigs

180,251

1.2

Sheep (1998)

81,324

Live animal exports (# head)

Cattle

0

Pigs

148,923

1.0

Sheep (1998)

311,763

1.8

Product imports

Beef and veal

225,457

3.4

Pig meat

472,433

7.3

Mutton and lamb (1998)

115,000

13.0

Product exports

Beef and veal

7,430

Pig meat

225,011

3.5

Mutton and lamb (1998)

103,209

11.7

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization; USDA, FAS, Attaché Report, Feb 14, 2001
* World percentages for trade are approximate because world imports/exports and UK imports/exports were taken from 2 different sources. Unless otherwise specified, UK imports/exports were 1999 while all world imports/exports were 1998.

What are the US imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?

The US imported live swine from the United Kingdom in 1999 and January-November 2000 (Table 2). The five live swine in 2000 were imported in November.

Fresh or frozen pork was imported from the UK in both 1999 through November 2000. Pork was imported without restrictions into the US until August 4, 2000. After that date shipments of pork originating from Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex counties were not eligible to be exported into the US due to classical swine fever outbreaks in that area of England.

USDA, APHIS had banned imports of live ruminants and most ruminant products from the UK in 1989 because of BSE.

However, other products that could potentially present a risk for FMD were imported in 1999 and January-November 2000 (Table 2). These products include biologics, animal feeds, dairy products, and hides.

The USDA, APHIS has issued an interim rule, effective January 15, 2001, removing the UK from the list of FMD-free countries. This action prohibits the importation of all ruminants and swine, and most products derived from ruminants and swine, unless those products were processed in such manner as to inactivate the FMD virus. Pork products that had already arrived in the US from Great Britain were being quarantined at US ports.

Table 2: US imports of live animals and animal products from the UK, 1999 and January through November 2000

Product

1999

2000 (January - November)

Quantity or Value

Quantity or Value

Live animals - quantity

Live swine (# head)

93

5

Meat, frozen - quantity

Pork, frozen (kg)

3,381,329

2,334,783

Edible animal offal, frozen swine (kg)

17,904

0

Deer meat, fresh or frozen (kg)

4,607

4,460

Other products - value ($ million)

Biologics - hormones, vaccines, etc

250.5

392.4

Animal feeds

8.0

23.9

Dairy products

28.2

19

Animal fats

5.4

4.8

Hides & skins (not tanned), wool

2.5

2.1

Hair, guts, glands

0.9

1.1

Ice cream, protein concentrates

0.3

0.1

Prepared or preserved meat

0.1

0.02

Sources : World Trade Atlas; USDA, APHIS, VS, National Center for Import and Export

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?

In 1999, 16.4 million passengers arrived in the US on direct flights from the UK. Of these, 4.25 million were UK residents.

Mechanical transmission of FMD virus is important because the amount of virus present on shoes or clothes is generally sufficient for the infective dose. Thus, passengers themselves are significant in addition to the amount of potentially contaminated product that passengers are carrying.

A total of 20,515 passengers from the UK were sampled as part of APHIS, PPQ’s Agriculture Quarantine Inspection Monitoring in fiscal year 1999. Of these passengers from the UK, 462, or 2.3 percent, were carrying a total of 919 kg of potentially hazardous items such as meat products, cheese, or hides. By comparison, 5.1 percent of sampled passengers from all countries were carrying similar items. Twenty-two (22) of the sampled passengers from the UK who were carrying potentially hazardous items reported plans to visit or work on a farm or ranch while in the US; their reported destinations were Maryland (6), Georgia (4), New York (4), Virginia (4), California (2), and Texas (2).

Source: US Dept of Transportation; US Dept of Commerce; APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection Monitoring data base

CEI’s plans for follow up:

CEI will be prepared to provide more information as needed regarding consequences of this outbreak. If you seek more information or wish to comment on this worksheet, contact Milo Muller at (970) 490-7844, or Chris Kopral at (970) 490-7819.



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