Web Content Viewer (JSR 286)

FMD in Brazil

CEI LogoFoot and Mouth Disease, Brazil

Impact Worksheet, August 2000

Summary: An outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) was reported by Brazil to the OIE on August 23, 2000. The outbreak is located in the Joia municipality in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Bovine and swine are involved in the outbreak and virus type O has been identified. The origin of the outbreak has not been determined. USDA, FAS reports that imports of cattle for slaughter increased significantly in 1999 to supply Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina which have trouble sourcing cattle from other areas in Brazil due to their FMD status. In 1999, Brazil had FMD outbreaks, virus type O, in its more northern states. The last clinical case of FMD in Rio Grande do Sul and the other southern states was found in 1993. The recent serologic cases in Argentina appear to have been Type A24.

FMD BrazilBrazil has an active FMD eradication program. The country is divided into FMD eradication circuits (see map on next page). Two of the circuits (the South Circuit, which includes Rio Grande do Sul, and the Center West Circuit) had been recognized by the OIE as FMD free with vaccination; the South Circuit in 1998, the Center West Circuit in May 2000. In May 2000, vaccination was terminated in the South Circuit in order to gain recognition as free without vaccination.

Brazil is the world's 2nd largest producer of cattle and bovine meat, accounting for about 12 percent of world production. Brazil is also the 3rd largest producer of pigs and the 7th largest pig meat producer. Brazil is also the world’s 6th largest milk producer, accounting for 4 percent of world production.

As of August 2000, Brazil was not considered by the USDA to be free of FMD, however, the US was considering a regionalization request from Brazil to recognize the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina as free of FMD with vaccination and allow imports of fresh (frozen/chilled) products. From January - May 2000, the US imported a variety of animal products from Brazil including: prepared/preserved bovine meat products; ham; beef sausages; extracts and juices of meat; guts, bladders and stomachs for use as sausage casings; animal parings and other waste; hides and skins; and small quantities of cheese; butter; pharmaceutical products; and wool. These meat and other animal product imports are either prepared/preserved in a manner to mitigate the risk of transmitting FMD or subject to specific conditions for importation which, if carried out properly, reduce the risk of introducing FMD.

How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the country’s disease status prior to the outbreak?

An outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) was reported by Brazil to the OIE on August 23, 2000. The outbreak is located in the Joia municipality in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Bovine and swine are involved in the outbreak and virus type O has been identified. Susceptible animals will be slaughtered. Sentinel animals will be used to monitor for virus. The origin of the outbreak has not been determined. An epidemiological investigation is underway to determine the origin and to look for evidence of spread. The last outbreaks of FMD in Brazil occurred in 1999 in several of the more northern states. These outbreaks were virus type O. The last clinical case of FMD in the southernmost states was found in 1993.

Brazil has an active FMD eradication program with the country divided into disease eradication circuits or zones. The goal is to achieve complete eradication by 2004. The South Circuit (consisting of the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and part of Parana) (see map) had been recognized by the OIE in May 1998 as FMD free with vaccination. In May 2000 vaccination was terminated in the South Circuit in order to gain recognition as free without vaccination. Also in May 2000, Brazil obtained OIE recognition for the Center-West circuit as FMD free with vaccination.

FMD Brazil

Source: OIE, 24 August 2000 ; OIE 12 May 2000; USDA FAS Attache reports ; USDA,APHIS trade risk analysts

What is the country’s production and trade in affected animals and animal products?

Brazil is the 2nd largest producer of cattle in the world. At more than 163 million head, 1999 stocks represented over 12 percent of the world's cattle population (Table A). Brazil is the world’s 3rd largest producer of pigs, with its 27.4 million animals accounting for 3 percent of world's pig population. Brazil also ranks 10th in world goat production and 14th in sheep production.

In 1998, Brazil did only minimal amounts of trade in live animals as seen in Table A. USDA, FAS reports that in 1999, cattle imports for slaughter increased markedly to over 250,000 head mostly from Uruguay. USDA, FAS reports that this increase in imports reflects "difficulties faced by Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina to source cattle from other areas of Brazil, in view of their status as FMD-free with vaccination".

Table A: Stocks and Trade in Live Animals, Brazil

Live Animal

1999 Stocks

Trade

1998 Exports

1998 Imports

Head

% World

Head

% World

Head

% World

Cattle

163,470,000

12.2

3,729

<0.1

43,179

0.5

Sheep

18,300,000

1.7

0

0

95,945

0.6

Goats

12,600,000

1.8

0

0

377

<0.1

Pigs

27,425,000

3.0

96

<0.1

1,072

<0.1

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization

The approximate animal population in the South Circuit (see map above) in 1999 was as follows:

South Circuit 1999 Stocks

% of Total Brazilian 1999 Stocks

Bovine

14,955,593

9.1

Swine

6,300,000

23.0

Ovine

10,600,000

57.9

Source: USDA, APHIS trade risk analysts, personal communication

Brazil is the 2nd largest producer of bovine meat in the world, having produced over 6 million metric tons in 1999 (Table B). Brazil's production was more than 11 percent of world production. Brazil was the 11th largest exporter of bovine meat in 1998, exporting over 240,000 metric tons, which was nearly 4 percent of the world export market. Brazil ranks 6th in world milk production, with over 22 million metric tons, accounting for 4 percent of world production in 1999. Brazil also is the world’s 7th largest producer of pig meat, with over 1.7 million metric tons, which was 2 percent of world production in 1999. As seen in Table B, Brazil is a relatively small producer and exporter of other relevant animal products. Brazil imported 1.8 million metric tons of milk, which was 3 percent of world imports in 1998. Brazil is a relatively small importer of other meat and animal products.

Table B: Production and Trade in Relevant Products, Brazil

Products

1999 Production

Trade

1998 Exports

1998 Imports

Metric ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Bovine meat

6,182,400

11.1

246,456

3.6

81,080

1.2

Pig meat

1,751,600

2.0

100,439

1.6

1,732

<0.1

Ovine meat

88,000

1.2

50

<0.1

6,692

0.8

Milk, total

22,636,000

4.0

12,166

<0.1

1,850,023

3.0

Hides and skins

22,740

1.0

21,747

0.8

7,094

0.3

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization; USDA FAS Attache reports; Personal contact with USDA APHIS trade risk analysts

What are the US imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?

As of August 2000, Brazil was not considered by the USDA to be free of FMD, however, the US was considering a regionalization request from Brazil to recognize the FMD free with vaccination status of the South Circuit and permit imports of fresh (frozen or chilled) meat products.

Recent US imports from Brazil (Appendix 1) include: prepared/preserved bovine meat products; ham; beef sausages; extracts and juices of meat; guts, bladders and stomachs for use as sausage casings; animal parings and other waste; hides and skins; and small quantities of cheese; butter; pharmaceutical products; and wool. The imported meat products are all prepared or preserved. The other animal products are also processed in some manner or subject to import conditions which, if carried out properly, mitigate the risk of FMD transmission.

Brazil is the leading supplier of prepared/preserved bovine meat products to the US, providing approximately 61 percent of the product imported in that category (harmonized codes 16025*) during 1999 and Jan - May 2000. Brazil is also a leading supplier of US imports of extracts and juices of meat providing approximately 76 percent of US imports of this product in 1999 and over 60 percent of imports from Jan - May 2000. The US also imports considerable quantities of non-edible animal parts for use as animal feed from Brazil.

Source: USDA FAS Attache reports; Personal contact with USDA APHIS trade risk analysts; World Trade Atlas

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?

A total of 1,233,403 passengers arrived in the US on direct flights from Brazil in 1998. This number does not include passengers who arrived in the US from Brazil via indirect flights. About 10,000 direct flights, or about 27 flights per day, arrive in the US from Brazil annually.

As part of APHIS-PPQ’s agriculture quarantine inspection monitoring, 2921 air passengers from Brazil were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal 1999. Three percent or ninety-three of these passengers were carrying a total of 168 kg of restricted items, such as cheese or meat, that could potentially harbor the FMD virus. Eight of the passengers with restricted items reported plans to visit or work on a ranch or farm while in the US. Texas, Florida, Massachusetts, New York, and Wyoming were their reported destinations.

Source: US Department of Transportation, and APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection data base

CEI’s plans for follow up:

CEI has no further activity planned regarding the Brazilian situation. If you seek more information or wish to comment on this worksheet, contact Carol Tuszynski at (970) 490-7893 or Ken Geter at (970) 490-7817.

Appendix 1: Relevant Animal Products Imported from Brazil Into the U.S.

1999

January - May 2000

02 Salted, dried meat

0210200000 Meat of bovine animals, salted, in brine, dried or smoked

16 Prepared Meat

Bovine

16025 (1602500900, 1602501020, 1602501040, 1602502020, 1602502040, 1602506000) Other bovine meat (includes corned beef, cured/pickled meat, and other prepared bovine meat products, NESOI)

Swine

1602412020 Hams and cuts thereof, of swine, boned and cooked and packed in airtight containers holding less than 1 kg

Sausages

16010 (1601004010, 1601004090) Beef sausages and similar products packed in airtight containers

Extracts and Juices of Meat

1603009010 Extracts and juices of meat

04 Dairy

Milk, Cream

0402999000 Milk and cream, concentrated, sweetened, NESOI

Buttermilk, Yogurt

0403109000 Yogurt NESOI whether or not sweetened, flavored or containing add fruit or cocoa NESOI

Butter, Oils from Milk

0405100500 Butter

Cheese

0406109500 Fresh (unripened or uncured) cheese, including whey cheese and curd, NESOI

0406909900 Cheese and substitutes for cheese including mixtures, NESOI

05 Other of Animal Origin

Hog Hair

0502100000 Pigs', hogs', or boars' bristles and hair and waste thereof

Guts, Bladders, Stomachs

0504000020 Hog guts, bladders and stomachs, whole and pieces thereof, prepared for use as sausage casings

0504000040 Guts, bladders and stomachs of animals except hog and fish, whole and pieces, prepared for use as sausage casings

Bones

0506900020 Bones, crude, steamed, or ground

Dead Animal, Not Edible

0511992000 Parings and similar waste of raw hides or skins, glue stock, NESOI

0511993060 Products chiefly used as food for animals or as ingredients in such food, NESOI

Glands, etc for Pharmacy

0510004040 Cantharides; glands except pancreas, organs and other animal products used in the preparation of pharmaceutical products, fresh, chld, frz, preserve

30 Pharmaceutical Products

3001200000 Extracts of glands or other organs or of their secretions

3001900000 Heparin and its salts; other human or animal substances prepared for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, NESOI

35 Gelatin, Proteins and Derivatives

Edible Gelatin

3503005510 Edible gelatin

Proteins and Derivatives

3504001000 Protein isolates

41 Hides and Skins

Raw Bovine Hides and Skins

4101100000 Hides and skins of bovine animals, whole, weight per skin not over 8 kg dried, 10 kg dry-salted, or 14 kg fresh, wet-salted or otherwise preserved

4101210020 Cattle hides, whole, fresh or wet salted

4101220000 Butts and bends of bovine animals, fresh or wet salted

4101290000 Hides and skins, bovine animals, NESOI, fresh or wet salted

4101300090 Hides and skins of bovine animals, NESOI, dried, limed, pickled or otherwise preserved, but not tanned, parchment-dressed or further prepared

Other raw hides and skins, fresh not tanned

4103900090 Hides and skins, NESOI, fresh or salted, dried, limed, pickled or otherwise preserved but not tanned, parchment dressed or further prepared

51 Wool

5101 (5101116060, 5101214060) Wool, not carded or combed

Source: World Trade Atlas, US Dept of Commerce



Additional Information