USDA APHIS determines type(s) of treatments when a pest of quarantine significance is prevalent in the country and/or for those which are difficult to inspect. Treatments can be chemical or non-chemical. There are various approved chemical treatments: fumigants, dips and spray. The fumigants include methyl bromide, phosphine and sulfuryl fluoride. Non chemical treatments include cold treatment, hot water immersion, vapor heat treatment, steam sterilization and irradiation. Irradiation treatments have been developed recently.
Procedures and schedules are described in the Treatment Manual.
Fresh fruits and vegetables that are admissible into the United States may require quarantine treatment prior to being allowed into the United States. Irradiation is considered a viable phytosanitary treatment option for mitigating against certain quarantine significant pests. Articles become eligible for entry and treatment, provided they have been approved for importation into the United States via the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) market access process and regulation amendment.