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Ecology of Emerging Viral and Bacterial Diseases in Wildlife



Root, J.J., S.A. Shriner, K.T. Bentler, T. Gidlewski, N.L. Mooers, J.W. Ellis, T.R. Spraker, K.K. VanDalen, H.J. Sullivan, and A.B. Franklin. 2014. Shedding of a low pathogenic Avian Influenza virus in a common synanthropic mammal - the cottontail rabbit. PLoSOne 9(8): e102513. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102513.

Root, J.J., K.T. Bentler, S.A. Shriner, N.L. Mooers, K.K. VanDalen, H.J. Sullivan, and A.B. Franklin. 2014. Ecological routes of Avian Influenza virus transmission to a common mesopredator: An experimental evaluation of alternatives. PLoSONE 9(8): e102964. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102964.

Scotch, M., Lam, T.T-Y., K.L. Pabilonia, T. Anderson, J. Baroch, D. Kohler, and T.J. DeLiberto. 2014. Diffusion of influenza viruses among migratory birds with a focus on the Southwest United States. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 26:185-193. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2014.05.029.

Feng, Z., J.A. Baroch, L.-P. Long, Y. Xu., F.L. Cunningham, K. Pedersen, M.W. Lutman, B.S. Schmit, A.S. Bowman, T.J. DeLiberto, and X.-F. Wan. 2014. Influenza A Subtype H3 viruses in feral swine, United States, 2011-2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases 20(5): 843-846. doi: 10.3201/eid2005.131578.

Pedersen, K., C.R. Quance, S. Robbe-Austerman, A.J. Piaggio, S.N. Bevins, S.M. Goldstein, W.D. Gaston, and T.J. DeLiberto. 2014. Identification of Brucella suis from feral swine in selected states in the USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 50(2): 171-179. doi: 10.7589/2013-09-235.

Bevins, S.N., K. Pedersen, M.W. Lutman, T. Gidlewski, and T.J. DeLiberto. 2014.  Consequences associated with the recent range expansion of nonnative feral swine. BioScience Online 64(4): 291-299.  doi: 10.1093/biosci/biu015.

Pedersen, K., D.R. Marks, D.M. Arsnoe, C.L. Afonso, S.N. Bevins, P.J. Miller, A.R. Randall, and T.J. DeLiberto. 2014.  Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (Newcastle disease virus), avian influenza virus, and Salmonella spp. in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes region and Atlantic coast of the United States.  Avian Diseases 58(1): 129-136.  doi: 10.1637/10638-081413-Reg.1.

Pepin, K.M., E. Spackman, J.D. Brown, K.L. Pabilonia, L.P. Garber, J.T. Weaver, D.A. Kennedy, K.A. Patyk, K.P. Huyvaert, R.S. Miller, A.B. Franklin, K. Pedersen, T.L. Bogich, P. Rohani, S.A. Shriner, C.T. Webb, and S. Riley. 2014. Using quantitative disease dynamics as a tool for guiding response to avian influenza in poultry in the United States of America. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 113(4): 376-397. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.11.011.


Bayn, A., P. Nol, U.Tisch, J. Rhyan, C.K. Ellis, H. Haick. 2013. Detection of volatile organic compounds in Brucella abortus-seropositive bison. Analytical Chemistry 85: 11146-11152. doi: 10.1021/ac403134f.

Fry, T.L., K.K. VanDalen, C. Duncan, and K. Vercauteren. 2013. The safety of ONRAB® in select non-target wildlife. Vaccine 31: 3839-3842. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.06.069.

Piaggio, A. J., B. A. Coghlan, A. E. Miscampbell, W. M. Arjo, D. B. Ransome, and C. E. Ritland. 2013. Molecular phylogeny of an ancient rodent family (Aplodontiidae). Journal of Mammalogy 94:529-543.

Piaggio, A.J., R.M. Engeman, M.W. Hopken, J.S. Humphrey, K.L. Keacher, and M.L. Avery. 2013. Detecting an elusive invasive species: A diagnostic PCR to detect Burmese python in Florida waters and an assessment of persistence of environmental DNA. Mol Ecol Resource. Abstract. doi: 10.1111/1755-0998.12180.

Root, J.J., M.W. Hopken, T. Gidlewski, A.J. Piaggio. 2013. Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus infection in a desert cottontail (Sylvilagus audubonii) from Colorado, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 49(4): 1060-1062. doi: 10.7589/2013-02-033.


Bentler, K.T., D. N. Gossett, and J. J. Root. 2012. A novel isoflurane anesthesia induction system for raccoons. Wildlife Society Bulletin DOI: 10.1002/wsb.193

Carlson, J. C., C. K. Ellis, S. K. Tupper, A. B. Franklin, and G. M. Linz. 2012. The effect of European starlings and ambient air temperature on Salmonella enterica contamination within cattle feed bunks. Human-Wildlife Interactions 6:64-71.

Ellis, C. K., D. S. Carroll, R. R. Lash, A. T. Peterson, I. K. Damon, J. Malekani, and P. Formenty. 2012. Ecology and geography of human monkeypox case occurrences across Africa. J Wildl Dis 48:335-347.

Ellison J.A., Johnson S.R., Kuzmina N., Gilbert A., Carson W.C., Vercauteren K.C.,and C.E. Rupprecht. 2012. Multidisciplinary Approach to Epizootiology and Pathogenesis of Bat Rabies Viruses in the United States. Zoonoses Public Health. DOI: 10.1111/zph.12019.

Elmore, S. A., E. J. Jenkins, K. P. Huyvaert, L. Polley, J. J. Root, and C. G. Moore. 2012. Toxoplasma gondii in circumpolar people and wildlife. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 12:1-9.

Fry, T., Van Dalen K., Hurley J., Nash P. 2012. Mucosal adjuvants to improve wildlife rabies vaccination. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 48:1042-6. DOI: 10.7589/2011-11-331.

Huyvaert, K. P., J. S. Carlson, K. T. Bentler, K. R. Cobble, D. L. Nolte, and A. B. Franklin. 2012. Freshwater clams as bioconcentrators of avian influenza virus in water. Vector Borne Zoonotic Diseases 12:904-906.

Longcore, T., C. Rich, P. Mineau, B. Macdonald, D.G. Bert, L.M. Sullivan, E. Mutrie, S.A. Gauthreaux, Jr., M.L. Avery, R.L. Crawford, A.M. Manville, 2nd, E. R. Travis, and D. Drake. 2012. An estimate of avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada. PLoS ONE, 7(4), e34025. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034025.

Moore, B. A., P. Baumhardt, M. Doppler, J. Randolet, B. F. Blackwell, T. L. DeVault, E. R. Loew, and E. Fernández-Juricic. 2012. Oblique color vision in an open-habitat bird: spectral sensitivity, photoreceptor distribution and behavioral implications. The Journal of Experimental Biology 215:3442-3452.

Pepin, K. M., K. K. Vandalen, N. L. Mooers, J. W. Ellis, H. J. Sullivan, J. J. Root, C. T. Webb, A. B. Franklin, and S. A. Shriner. 2012. Quantification of heterosubtypic immunity between avian influenza subtypes H3N8 and H4N6 in multiple avian host species. Journal of General Virology 2012., 93, 2575-2583.

Rockweit, J. T., A. B. Franklin, G. S. Bakken, and R. J. Gutiérrez. 2012. Potential Influences of Climate and Nest Structure on Spotted Owl Reproductive Success: A Biophysical Approach. PLoS ONE 7:e41498.

Root J.J. 2012. West Nile virus associations in wild mammals: a synthesis. Archives of Virology:1-18. DOI: DOI 10.1007/s00705-012-1516-3.

Savidge, J. A., M. W. Hopken, G. W. Witmer, S. M. Jojola, J. J. Pierce, P. W. Burke, and A. J. Piaggio. 2012. Genetic evaluation of an attempted Rattus rattus eradication on Congo Cay, U.S. Virgin Islands, identifies importance of eradication units. Biological Invasions 14:2343-2354.

Shriner, S. A., K. K. VanDalen, N. L. Mooers, J. W. Ellis, H. J. Sullivan, J. J. Root, A. M. Pelzel, and A. B. Franklin. 2012. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild house mice. PLoS ONE 7:e39206.

VerCauteren, K. C., C. K. Ellis, R. Chipman, T. J. Deliberto, S. Shwiff, and D. Slate. 2012. Rabies in North America: A Model of the One Health Approach. S.N. Frey, editior. Proceeding sof the 14th Wildlife Damage Management Conference: 56-63.

Werner, S.J., S.K. Tupper, J.C. Carlson, S.E. Pettit, J.W. Ellis, and G.M. Linz. 2012. The role of a generalized ultraviolet cue for blackbird food selection. Physiology & Behavior 106(5): 597-601.


11-BAI, Y., C. H. CALISHER, M. Y. KOSOY, J. J. ROOT, AND J. B. DOTY. 2011. Persistent infection or successive reinfection of deer mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77:1728-1731.

11-CALISHER, C. H., J. N. MILLS, J. J. ROOT, J. B. DOTY, AND B. J. BEATY. 2011. Relative abundance of deer mice with antibody to sin nombre virus corresponds to the occurrence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in nearby humans. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 11:577-582

11-DOHERTY, P., R. G. MCLEAN. 2011. Conceptual and practical issues in monitoring disease in wild animal populations:a review of avian influenza programs. Pages 130-142 in S. K. Majumdar, F. J. Brenner, J. E. Huffman, R. G. McLean, A. I. Panah, P. J. F. Pietrobon, S. P. Keeler,and S. E. Shive, editors. Pandemic influenza viruses: science, surveillance and public health. Pennsylvania Academy of Science, Easton, Pennsylvania.

11-FARNSWORTH, M. L., W. L. KENDALL, P. F. DOHERTY JR , R. S. MILLER, G. C. WHITE, J. D. NICHOLS, K. P. BURNHAM, AND A. B. FRANKLIN. 2011. Targeted surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza in migratory waterfowl across the coterminous United States. Pages 143-155 in S. K. Majumdar, F. J. Brenner, J. E. Huffman, R. G. McLean, A. I. Panah, P. J. F. Pietrobon, S. P. Keeler,and S. E. Shive, editors. Pandemic influenza viruses: science, surveillance and public health. Pennsylvania Academy of Science, Easton, Pennsylvania.

11-FORSMAN, E. D., R. G. ANTHONY, K. M. DUGGER, E. M. GLENN, A. B. FRANKLIN, G. C. WHITE, C. J. SCHWARZ, K. P. BURNHAM, D. R. ANDERSON, J. D. NICHOLS, J. E. HINES, J. B. LINT, J. D. DAVIS, S. H. ACKERS, L. S. ANDREWS, B. L. BISWELL, P. C. CARLSON, L. V. DILLER, S. A. GREMEL, D. R. HERTER, J. M. HIGLEY, R. B. HORN, J. A. REID, J. ROCKWEIT, J. P. SCHABERL, T. J. SNETSINGER, AND S. G. SOVERN. 2011. Population demography of northern spotted owls. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. (Publication not available through NWRC)

11- FRANKLIN, A. B., K. K. VANDALEN, AND K. HUYVAERT. 2011. Avian influenza virus in aquatic environments--an ecological perspective. Pages 59-72 in S. K. Majumdar, F. J. Brenner, J. E. Huffman, R. G. McLean, A. I. Panah, P. J. F. Pietrobon, S. P. Keeler,and S. E. Shive, editors. Pandemic influenza viruses: science, surveillance and public health. Pennsylvania Academy of Science, Easton, Pennsylvania.

11-VAN LANEN, N. J., A. B. FRANKLIN, K. P. HUYVAERT, R. F. REISER II, AND P. C. CARLSON. 2011. Who hits and hoots at whom? Potential for interference competition between barred and northern spotted owls. Biological Conservation 144:2194-2201.


10-BLITVITCH, B. J., L. A. IBARA-JUAREZ, A. J. CORTES-GUZMAN, J. J. ROOT, A. B. FRANKLIN, H. J. SULLIVAN, AND I. FERNANDEZ-SALAS. 2010. Seroprevalence of equine influenza virus in northeast and southern Mexico. Veterinary Record 166:565-566. 604K

10-LORONO-PINO, M. A., J. A. FARFAN-ALE, J. E. GARCIA-REJON, M. LIN, E. ROSADO-PAREDES, F. I. PUERTO, A. BATES, J. J. ROOT, A. B. FRANKLIN, H. J. SULLIVAN, AND B. J. BLITVICH. 2009. Antibodies to influenza and West Nile viruses in horses in Mexico. Veterinary Record 166:22-23.

10-MCCLINTOCK, B. T., J. D. NICHOLS, L. L. BAILEY, D. I. MACKENZIE, W. L. KENDALL, AND A. B. FRANKLIN. 2010. Seeking a second opinion: uncertainty in disease ecology. Ecology Letters 13:659-674. 460K

10-NEMETH, N., N. O. THOMAS, D. S. ORAHOOD, T. D. ANDERSON, AND P. T. OESTERLE. 2010. Shedding and serological responses following primary and secondary inoculation of house sparrows ( Passer domesticus) and European starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris) with low pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Avian Pathology 39:411-418. 385K

10-OESTERLE, P., N. NEMETH, P. DOHERTY, R. MCLEAN, AND L. CLARK. 2010. Experimental exposure of swallow bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to West Nile virus. Journal of Medical Entonology 47:897-901. 246K

10-OESTERLE, P., N. NEMETH, G. YOUNG, N. MOOERS, S. ELMORE, R. BOWEN, P. DOHERTY, R. MCLEAN, AND L. CLARK. 2010. Cliff swallows, swallow bugs, and West Nile virus: an unlikely transmission mechanism. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 10:507-513. 246K

10-REYNOLDS, M. G., D. S. CARROLL, V. A. OLSON, C. HUGHES, J. GALLEY, A. LIKOS, J. M. MONTGOMERY, R. SUU-IRE, M. O. KWASI, J. J. ROOT, Z. BRADEN, J. ABEL, C. CLEMMONS, R. REGNERY, K. KAREM, AND I. K. DAMON. 2010. A silent enzootic of an Orthopoxvirus in Ghana, West Africa: evidence for multi-species involvement in the absence of widespread human disease. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 82:746-754. 740K

10-ROOT, J. J., K. T. BENTLER, N. M. NEMETH, T. GIDLEWSKI, T. R. SPRAKER, AND FRANKLIN ALAN B. 2010. Experimental infection of raccoons ( Procyon lotor) with West Nile virus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83:803-807. 445K

10-ROOT, J. J., K. T. BENTLER, H. J. SULLIVAN, B. J. BLITVICH, R. G. MCLEAN, AND FRANKLIN ALAN B. 2010. Antibody responses of raccoons naturally exposed to influenza A virus. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 10:821-823. 84K

10-VANDALEN, K. K., A. B. FRANKLIN, N. L. MOOERS, H. J. SULLIVAN, AND S. A. SHRINER. 2010. Shedding light on avian influenza H4N6 infection in mallards: modes of transmission and implications for surveillance. PLOS One 5:e12851 287K


09-ALLAN, B. F., B. LANGERHANS, W. A. RYBERG, W. J. LANDESMAN, N. W. GRIFFIN, R. S. KATZ, B. J. OBERLE, M. R. SCHUTZENHOFER, K. N. SMYTH, A. DE ST.MAURICE, L. CLARK, K. R. CROOKS, D. E. HERNANDEZ, R. G. MCLEAN, R. S. OSTFELD, AND J. M. CHASE. 2009. Ecological correlates of risk and incidence of West Nile virus in the United States. Oecologia 158:699-708.

09-DELIBERTO, T. J., S. R. SWAFFORD, D. L. NOLTE, K. PEDERSEN, M. W. LUTMAN, B. B. SCHMIT, J. A. BAROCH, D. J. KOHLER, AND A. FRANKLIN. 2009. Surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild birds in the USA . Integrative Zoology 4:426-439 1,097K

09-DUSEK, R. J., R. G. MCLEAN, L. D. KRAMER, S. R. UBICO, A. P. DUPUIS II, G. D. EBEL, AND S. C. GUPTILL. 2009. Prevalence of West Nile virus in migratory birds during spring and fall migration. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81:1151-1158.

09-106 NEMETH, N. M., J. F. DWYER, J. L. MORRISON, AND J. D. FRASER. 2009. Prevalence of antibodies to West Nile virus and other arboviruses among crested caracaras ( Caracara cheriway) in Florida. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45:817-822. 439K

09-107 NEMETH, N. M., P. T. OESTERLE, AND R. A. BOWEN. 2009. Humeral immunity to West Nile virus is long-lasting and protective in the house sparrow. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 80:864-869. 538K

09-108 NEMETH, N. M., G. YOUNG, C. NDALUKA, H. BIELEFELDT-OHMANN, N. KOMAR, AND R. BOWEN. 2009. Persistent West Nile virus infection in the house sparrow ( Passer domesticus). Archives of Virology 154:783-789. 195K

09-OESTERLE, P. T., N. M. NEMETH, K. VANDALEN, H. J. SULLIVAN, K. T. BENTLER, G. R. YOUNG, R. G. MCLEAN, L. CLARK, C. SMERASKI, AND J. S. HALL. 2009. Experimental infection of cliff swallows ( Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) with varying doses of West Nile virus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81:1159-1164. 561K

09-110 PIAGGIO, A. J., L. CLARK, A. B. FRANKLIN, AND S.O. KOLOKOTRONIS. 2009. Wild bird's-eye view of influenza virus A (H1N1) phylogenetic evolution. EcoHealth 6:346-350. 323K

09-REED, L. M., M. A. JOHANSSON, N. PANELLA, R. MCLEAN, T. CREEKMORE, R. PUELLE, AND N. KOMAR. 2009. Declining mortality in American crow ( Corvus brachyrhynchos) following natural West Nile virus infection. Avian Diseases 53:458-461. 264K300K

09-SULLIVAN, H. J., B. J. BLITVICH, K. K. VANDALEN, K. T. BENTLER, A. B. FRANKLIN, AND J. J. ROOT. 2009. Evaluation of an epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies to influenza A virus in domestic and wild avian and mammalian species. Journal of Virological Methods 161:141-146. 254K

09-VANDALEN, K. K., S. A. SHRINER, H. J. SULLIVAN, J. J. ROOT, AND A. B. FRANKLIN. 2009. Monitoring exposure to avian influenza viruses in wild mammals. Mammal Review 39:167-177. 87K

09-WANG, C., H. HE, M. LEI, J. J. ROOT, Y. WU, AND J. QIN. 2010. Parasite species associated with wild plateau pika ( Ochotona curzoniae) in south-eastern Qinghai Province, China. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45:288-294. 3,403K


08-HALL, J. S., R. B. MINNIS, T. A. CAMPBELL, S. BARRAS, R. W. DEYOUNG, K. PABILONIA, M. L. AVERY, H. SULLIVAN, L. CLARK, AND R. G. MCLEAN. 2008. Influenza exposure in the United States feral swine populations. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44:362-368. 243K

08-HALL, J. S., K. T. BENTLER, G. LANDOLT, S. A. ELMORE, R. B. MINNIS, T. A. CAMPBELL, S. C. BARRAS, J. J. ROOT, J. PILON, K. PABILONIA, C. DRISCOLL, D. SLATE, H. SULLIVAN, AND R. G. MCLEAN. 2008. Influenza infection in wild raccoons. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:1842-1848. 229K

08-MCLEAN, R. G., S. C. GUPTILL. 2008. Use of bird-banding information to investigate disease, safety, and economic issues of birds and their interactions with humans. Pages 231-244 in J. A. Jackson, W. E. Davis Jr.,and J. Tautin, editors. Bird banding in North America: the first hundred years. Memoirs of the Nuttall Ornithological Club No. 15, Nuttall Ornithological Club, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 659K

08-VANDALEN, K. K., M. L. KILLIAN, AND A. B. FRANKLIN. 2008. Increased detection of influenza A H16 in the United States. Archives of Virology 153:1981-1983. 155K


07-BENTLER, K. T., J. S. HALL, J. J. ROOT, K. KLENK, B. SCHMIT, B. F. BLACKWELL, P. C. RAMEY, AND LARRY CLARK. 2007. Serologic evidence of West Nile virus exposure in North American mesopredators. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 76:179. 210K

07-GRIFFING, S. M., A. M. KILPATRICK, L. CLARK, AND P. P. MARRA. 2007. Mosquito landing rates on nesting American robins ( Turdus migratorius). Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 7:437-443. 526K

07-MCLEAN, R. G. 2007. Introduction and emergence of wildlife diseases in North America. Pages 261-278 in T. E. Fulbright, and D.G. Hewitt, editors. Wildlife science: linking ecological theory and management applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 534K

07-MCLEAN, R. G., J. S. HALL, A. B. FRANKLIN, H. J. SULLIVAN, K. VANDALEN, S. SHRINER, M. FARNSWORTH, P. OESTERLE, G. YOUNG, J. CARLSON, K. COBBLE, S. ELMORE, T. ANDERSON, S. HAUSER, K. T. BENTLER, N. MOOERS, K. P. HUYVAERT, T. DELIBERTO, AND S. SWAFFORD. 2007. Avian influenza in wild birds: environmental sampling for the rapid detection of avian influenza viruses. Proceedings of the Wildlife Damage Management Conference 12:87-93. 38K

07-PEDERSEN, K., AND L. CLARK. 2007. A review of Shiga toxin Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in cattle and free-ranging birds: potential association and epidemiological links. Human-Wildlife Conflicts 1:68-77. (PDF; 893KB )

07-ROOT, J. J., P. T. OESTERLE, H. J. SULLIVAN, J. S. HALL, N. L. MARLENEE, R. G. MCLEAN, J. A. MONTENIERI, AND L. CLARK. 2007. Short report: fox squirrel ( Sciurus niger) associations with West Nile virus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 76:782-784. 59K


06-CLARK, L., AND J. HALL. 2006. Avian influenza in wild birds: status as reservoirs and risks to humans and agriculture. Ornithological Monographs 60:3-29. 622K

06-CLARK, L., J. HALL, R. MCLEAN, M. DUNBAR, K. KLENK, R. BOWEN, AND C. A. SMERASKI. 2006. Susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to experimental infection with West Nile virus. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42:14-22. 119K

06-MCLEAN, R. G. 2006. West Nile virus in North American birds. Ornithological Monographs 60: 44-64. 609K

06-PEDERSEN, K., L. CLARK, W. F. ANDELT, AND M. D. SALMAN. 2006. Prevalence of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in rock pigeons captured in Fort Collins, Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42:46-55. 99K

06-95 SULLIVAN, H., G. LINZ, L. CLARK, AND M. SALMAN. 2006. West Nile virus antribody prevalence in red-winged blackbirds ( Agelaius phoeniceus) from North Dakota, USA (2003-2004). Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 6:305-309. 167K


05-DUNBAR, M. R., M. A. GREGG, J. A. CRAWFORD, M. R. GIORDANO, AND S. J. TORNQUIST. 2005. Normal hematologic and biochemical values for prelaying greater sage grouse (Centrocerus urophasianus) and their influence on chick survival. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 36:422-429. 103K

05-OESTERLE, P., R. MCLEAN, M. DUNBAR, AND L. CLARK. 2005. Husbandry of wild-caught greater sage grouse. Wildlife Society Bulletin 33:1055-1061. 513K

05-ROOT, J. J., J. S. HALL, R. G. MCLEAN, N. L. MARLENEE, B. J. BEATY, J. GANOWSKI, AND L. CLARK. 2005. Serologic evidence of exposure of wild mammals to flaviviruses in the central and eastern United States. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 72:622-630. 188K

05-SANTAELLA, J., R. MCLEAN, J. S. HALL, J. S. GILL, R. A. BOWEN, H. H. HADOW, AND L. CLARK. 2005. West Nile virus serosurveillance in Iowa white-tailed deer (1999-2003). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 73:1038-1042. 130K


04-60 MARRA, P. P., S. GRIFFING, C. K. A. M. CAFFREY, R. MCLEAN, C. BRAND, E. SAITO, A. P. DUPUIS, L. KRAMER, AND R. NOVAK. 2004. West Nile virus and wildlife. Bioscience 54:93-402. 948K

04-63 MCLEAN, R. G. 2004. West Nile virus: impact on crow populations in the United States. Proceedings of the Vertebrate Pest Conference 21:180-184. 399K


03-61 MCLEAN, R. G. 2003. The emergence of major avian diseases in North America: West Nile virus and more. Pages 300-305 in K.A. Fagerstone, and G. W. Witmer editors. Proceedings of the 10th Wildlife Damage Management Conference. (April 6-9, 2003, Hot Springs, Arkansas). The Wildlife Damage Management Working Group of The Wildlife Society, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. 145K

03-62 MCLEAN, R. G. 2003. West Nile Virus: emerging threat to public health and animal health. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Education 30:143-144. 126K

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