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RVF_ Saudi Arabia_ 9_27_2004

CEI Logo Suspected Rift Valley fever, Saudi Arabia ,

September 27, 2004

Impact Worksheet

Summary: There have been unofficial reports of suspected Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Saudi Arabia . Five sheep reportedly tested positive for Rift Valley fever (RVF) in the Jizan region, Saudia Arabia, as part of disease surveillance activities. The sheep were located in the southern coastal region of Jizan, the same area that experienced an outbreak of RVF in 2000-2001. No human cases of RVF have been reported.

Saudi Arabia is the world’s largest importer of live sheep and the third largest importer of live goats and regularly imports these animals from African countries where RVF is assumed to be endemic. Saudi Arabia produced over one percent of world stocks of camels, and 14 percent of camel meat in 2003, but rarely exports these products.

Saudi Arabia is not recognized as free of foot and mouth disease by the USDA, therefore imports of livestock and non-processed livestock products to the US are restricted. The US imported pickled sheep and lamb skins from Saudi Arabia in 2003 and January-June 2004. These hides are processed and not a disease transmission risk, and therefore are legally imported products. Canada and Mexico did not import livestock or livestock products of risk from Saudi Arabia in 2003 or January-June 2004.

How extensive is Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia , and what was the prior status of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia ?

There have been unofficial reports of suspected Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Saudi Arabia . Five sheep have tested positive for RVF in the Jizan region, Saudia Arabia, as part of disease surveillance activities. The type of diagnostic test used was not reported. The sheep were located in the southern coastal region of Jizan, in the same area that experienced an outbreak of RVF in 2000-2001. No human cases of RVF have been reported. The outbreak in

2000 was the first reported occurrence of RVF in Saudi Arabia and Yemen and resulted in over 800 human cases and 125 deaths.

The impact worksheet completed in response to the 2000 RVF outbreak can be found at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/ceah/cei/IW_2000_files/rvf_saudi0900e.htm.

Rift Valley fever occurs throughout Africa and causes acute, severe disease including abortion in camels, cattle, sheep, goats and high mortality in neonatal animals. Viremia and high mortality can also occur in non-livestock species including dogs, cats, and some primate and rodent species.

Source: Arab News, ProMED, Foreign Animal Diseases - The Gray Book

What is Saudi Arabia ’s place in the international market for livestock and livestock production?

Previous to the 2000-2001 RVF outbreak, Saudi Arabia imported live sheep, goats and camels from several countries, including African countries where RVF is assumed to be endemic including Sudan , Kenya , Somalia , Eritrea , Ethiopia , Djibouti , and Yemen . In September 2000, Saudi Arabia banned imports of live sheep, goats and camels from seven northern African and Middle Eastern countries in response to the RVF outbreak and FMD outbreaks. Bans on the importation of live sheep from Sudan were lifted in early 2002, and up to two million live sheep annually were expected to be imported into Saudi Arabia from Sudan . Bans on importing livestock from the other six countries listed above are still in place.

Saudi Arabia is the largest world importer of live sheep and imported between two and five million live sheep annually between 1995-2002. Saudi Arabia was the third largest importer of live goats, importing 245,500 live goats in 2002. Saudi Arabia imported between 22,000-66,000 live camels annually through 1998. Beginning in 1999, live camel imports decreased substantially and no live camels were imported in 2000 or 2002.

Saudi Arabia produced over one percent of world stocks of camels, and 14 percent of camel meat in 2003, but rarely exports these products. Saudi Arabia produced one percent or less of the world’s stocks of cattle, sheep or goats or meat from these animals during 2002-2003.


Table 1: Animal stocks and production, Saudi Arabia , 2002 - 2003

2002

2003

Stocks

(1,000 head)

Stocks

(1,000 head)

% of world stocks

Camels

260

260

1.4%

Cattle

323

340

< 1%

Sheep

8,170

8,290

< 1%

Goats

2,500

2,700

< 1%

Production (metric tons)

Production (metric tons)

% of world production

Meat of camels

40,000

40,000

13.7%

Beef and veal

28,000

21,900

< 1%

Mutton and lamb

82,000

82,000

1.0%

Goat meat

23,100

25,500

< 1%

Table 2: Exports of live animal and animal products, Saudi Arabia , 2001 - 2002

Exports

2001

2002

% of World in 2002

Quantity

Value

($1,000)

Quantity

Value

($1,000)

Quantity

Value

($1,000)

Livestock (head)

Camels

2,859

492

0

0

0

0

Cattle

0

0

2,018

916

< 1%

< 1%

Sheep

31,717

1,439

71,207

6,233

< 1%

< 1%

Goats

597

44

6,425

376

< 1%

< 1%

Livestock meat (metric tons)

Camel meat

0

0

0

0

0

0

Beef and veal

1,676

3,433

538

1,121

< 1%

< 1%

Mutton and lamb

1,594

3,881

895

944

< 1%

< 1%

Goat meat

78

241

303

659

1.3%

1.2%

Source: United Nations FAO

What are the United States ’ imports of live animals or products from Saudi Arabia ?

Saudi Arabia is not recognized as free of foot and mouth disease by the USDA, therefore imports of livestock and non-processed livestock products are restricted. The US imported 96,000 pickled sheep and lamb skins, valued at $406,000, from Saudi Arabia in 2003. From January-June 2004, 108,000 skins valued at $468,000 were imported to the US . These hides are processed and not a disease transmission risk, and therefore are legally imported products.

Source: World Trade Atlas; VS Import Tracking System


What are Canada and Mexico ’s imports of live animals or products from Saudi Arabia ?

Canada and Mexico did not import live animals or products of risk from Saudi Arabia in 2003 or January-June 2004.

Source: World Trade Atlas

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from Saudi Arabia ?

A total of 18,727 passengers arrived on direct flights to the US from Saudi Arabia in 2003. This number does not include passengers who arrived in the US from the Saudi Arabia via indirect flights.

As part of APHIS-PPQ’s agriculture quarantine inspection monitoring, 201 air passengers whose travel originated from Saudi Arabia were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal year 2003. None of these passengers had items that could potentially be a transmission risk for RVF virus.

Source: Office of Travel & Tourism Industries, US Department of Commerce, USDA APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection databases, Bureau of Transportation Statistics

CEI’s plans for follow up: The Center for Emerging Issues has no plans for follow-up of RVF in Saudi Arabia at this time. If you need more information or if you want to comment on this worksheet, you may reply to this message, or contact Kathy Orloski at (970) 494-7221 or Wolf Weber at (970) 494-7329.



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