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Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza_ Asia Summary 1_29_2004

Asia Outbreak Summary

January 29, 2004

Impact Worksheet

Summary: As of January 29, 2004, 9 Asian countries have reported highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), in an unprecedented spread of this disease in Asian poultry populations. Eight (8) countries have confirmed HPAI subtype H5N1: Cambodia , China including Hong Kong Special Administrative Region* (SAR), Indonesia , Japan , Laos , South Korea , Thailand , and Vietnam (Figure 1). Pakistan reported an outbreak of HPAI but of an H7 strain. Unofficial sources have reported poultry die-offs in Saudi Arabia and Myanmar .

There are close to 6 billion chickens and 843 million ducks in the countries of East and South-East Asia , representing 38% and 80% of world stocks, respectively. By far the primary poultry producer among these countries is China . The countries of South Asia account for 7% of the world’s chickens and 12% of the world’s ducks. The Asian countries of the former USSR and the Asian countries of the Near East have relatively small numbers of poultry.

The countries of East and South-East Asia exported 99 million live chickens and 8.8 million live ducks in 2002, accounting for 12% and 54% of world exports of these commodities. China and Malaysia are the primary exporters of live birds; the main destinations are Hong Kong and Singapore . Total exports of poultry meat and shell eggs from East and South-East Asia accounted for 18% and 20% of world exports, respectively. Malaysia was a significant exporter of shell eggs, and India exported 19% of the total world duck exports in 2002.

US poultry imports from East and South-East Asia are generally limited, with processed feathers being the most valuable imports. However, live birds other than poultry were imported in 2002-2003, primarily from Taiwan , Malaysia , and China . All l ive birds are quarantined in US ports prior to clearance for entry into the country, during which time testing for infectious diseases, including avian influenza, takes place. All other products received from East and South-East Asia in 2002 and through November 2003 were processed or cooked products with negligible risk of spreading avian influenza.

* Hong Kong , SAR: A single peregrine falcon was found dead and subsequently tested positive for HPAI, subtype H5N1 and reported on January 26, 2004 . HPAI, subtype H5N1 has not been isolated from commercial poultry.


What is the extent of the outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Asia ?

As of January 29, 2004, 8 countries have officially confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza, subtype H5N1, in an unprecedented spread of this disease in Asian poultry populations. These countries include Cambodia , China including Hong Kong SAR**, Indonesia , Japan , Laos , South Korea , Thailand , and Vietnam (Figure 1). HPAI, subtype H7, has been confirmed in Pakistan . Unofficial sources have reported poultry die-offs in Saudi Arabia and Myanmar . HPAI was first officially reported from South Korea on December 12, 2003; however, the first reports of disease activity in some Asian countries occurred as early as August 2 003. The remaining countries have reported outbreaks during January 2004, beginning with Japan . Complicating the HPAI outbreak, several countries are reporting concurrent outbreaks of Newcastle disease, which is endemic to most countries in Southeast Asia and the Middle East.

There are no reports of poultry die-offs from several countries adjacent to the outbreak area, including Philippines , Malaysia and North Korea .

Two countries, Vietnam and Thailand , have reported laboratory confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza, subtype H5N1. Eight cases have occurred in Vietnam (6 fatal); 3 in Thailand (2 fatal). The first known occurrence of human infection with avian influenza, subtype H5N1, occurred in Hong Kong in 1997, resulting in 18 human cases and 6 deaths. Extensive studies of that outbreak found that all patients had close contact with live infected poultry. Because influenza viruses can exchange genetic materials and shift, there is concern that avian and human influenza viruses concurrently infecting humans could shift into a novel subtype, resulting in a virus capable of being transmitted among humans and a subsequent influenza pandemic. To date, there is no evidence of human-to-human transmission in the current outbreak. Given these concerns, World Health Organization (WHO) team members have been sent to affected countries to provide diagnostic and investigative support.

A brief summary of HPAI activity, by country, is included below. For additional information, please see impact worksheets for HPAI in the Republic of Korea, Vietnam , Japan and Thailand at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/emergingissues/impactworksheet.shtml

Countries with confirmed outbreaks of HPAI

Cambodia : HPAI was reported on January 24, 2004 in one layer farm of 7,500 birds in Phnom Penh. Information on the last reported occurrence of HPAI in Cambodia is not available.

China : China confirmed the presence of HPAI, subtype H5N1 on January 27, 2004 to the World Health Organization. HPAI was detected on a duck farm in the southern province of Guangxi, south of Hong Kong. Culling and quarantine is underway in the affected province and testing is being conducted in the adjacent provinces of Hunan and Hubei. Information on the last reported occurrence of HPAI in China is not available.

Figure 1. Map of the areas where HPAI has been confirmed or suspected. Dark grey = countries with confirmed HPAI, subtype H5N1 or H7 ( Pakistan only); light grey = unofficial reports of poultry die-offs, cause unknown; white = no known reports of HPAI or poultry die-offs.

** Hong Kong , SAR: A single peregrine falcon was found dead and subsequently tested positive for HPAI, subtype H5N1 and reported on January 26, 2004. HPAI, subtype H5N1 has not been isolated from commercial poultry. Hong Kong has an intensive HPAI surveillance system on poultry farms and wholesale and retail poultry markets, and conducts extensive wild bird influenza surveillance. The last reported occurrence of HPAI, subtype H5N1, was in 1997.

         
           
Indonesia:
        
        
   On January 26, the Indonesian Director General for the Development of Animal Husbandry confirmed outbreaks of avian influenza and Newcastle disease in Indonesia, occurring as early as November, 2003, as reported by the Jakarta Post.  Media reports indicate that over 400 premises are infected and 4.7 million birds have been destroyed.
      

Japan : Japan reported the infection of one flock of 35,000 layer hens in Yamaguchi Prefecture on January 12, 2004. As of January 23, the flock had been destroyed. The last reported occurrence of HPAI in Japan was in 1925.

Laos : Laos reported HPAI, subtype H5 in a flock of 3,000 laying hens on January 27, 2004. Control measures underway include depopulation, quarantine, movement control, active surveillance and culling, and regional coordination with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The last reported occurrence of HPAI in Laos was 1999.

<st1:country-region>
        
           
Pakistan
        </st1:country-region>
        
           
: 
         <st1:country-region>
        
Pakistan</st1:country-region>
        
           
                
reported on January 28 an outbreak of HPAI, subtype H7, in the state of  
        
Karachi
        
.  Previous reports had indicated that up to 4 million chickens have been infected or died since November 2003.  The last reported occurrence of HPAI in <st1:country-region>
        
Pakistan</st1:country-region>  
        
was in 2000.  <st1:country-region>
        
Pakistan</st1:country-region>  
        
is endemic for  
        
Newcastle  
        
disease.
      
         

      

South Korea (Republic of Korea): On December 12, Korea reported HPAI on one premises in Chungcheong-buk province, in the central part of the country. A second infected premises was reported on December 19. Unofficial reports indicate a total of 24 million birds have been depopulated. This outbreak is the first reported occurrence of HPAI in South Korea .

Thailand : Three human cases (2 fatal) due to infection with avian influenza, subtype H5N1 have been reported from Thailand . Media reports indicate that 10.7 million birds have been destroyed. This outbreak is the first reported occurrence of HPAI in Thailand .

Vietnam : Eight human cases (6 fatal) due to infection with avian influenza, subtype H5N1 have been reported from Vietnam . A total of 28 out of 64 provinces have reported outbreaks in poultry and 3.7 million poultry have died or been destroyed. The disease has primarily occurred in northern Vietnam , but is moving south.

Countries suspected of having HPAI outbreaks

         
           
             
                  
      
         
           
             
Myanmar
          
          
             
: 
            
          
There have been rumors of poultry die-offs in January; no additional information is available.  The last occurrence of HPAI in  
          
Myanmar  
          
was in 1996.
        
      
         
           
             
                  
      

Saudi Arabia : There have been media reports of outbreaks of a poultry disease with 30 to 40 percent mortality in the Eastern Province. The last reported occurrence of HPAI was in 2001. Saudi Arabia is endemic for Newcastle disease.

Taiwan (Taipei , China ): Unofficial reports alleged HPAI, subtype H5N1 in 6 confiscated ducks in Taiwan , offshore of Quemoy Island; the ducks were destroyed. On January 20, Taiwan officially reported the occurrence of low pathogenic avian influenza, subtype H5N2 in Changhwa and Chiayi Prefectures involving table-egg laying hens and coloured-feather native chickens. A total of 55,000 birds were destroyed. HPAI had previously not been reported to occur on Taiwan .

Sources: OIE Disease Information Report; World Health Organization

What is the animal health infrastructure in the Asian countries?

The OIE collects information on numbers of veterinarians and animal health technical personnel from OIE member countries, giving an indication of the country’s veterinary infrastructure (Table 1).

Table 1. Number of Veterinarians and Technical Personnel by Country, 2002

Veterinarians

Technical Personnel*

Country

Government

Officials,

(central, local)

Laboratories, Universities,

Training Institutions

Private

Practitioners

Other

Total

Veterinarians

Total

Technical

Personnel

Cambodia

China

Indonesia

Hong Kong

Japan

Laos

Myanmar

Pakistan

Saudi Arabia

South Korea

Taiwan

Tailand

Vietnam

* includes animal health assistants (with formal training, animal health auxiliaries, and those involved in

food hygiene, including meat inspectors

na – not available

Source: OIE Handistatus II Database

Additional information regarding the veterinary infrastructure in China was found in a 2001 European Commission veterinary inspection report. The report indicated that there are 31 provincial veterinary stations, 407 regional and 3,117 county level regional stations. These stations are equipped for diagnosis and surveillance and each staff has avian influenza experts. These stations are also responsible for the prevention and quarantine of animal diseases. After the avian influenza outbreak in 1997 in Hong Kong, mainland China prohibited imports of poultry and poultry products from Hong Kong. However, poultry and poultry products transiting Hong Kong, are imported to the mainland as long as Chinese import protocols are followed in Hong Kong.

Source: EC Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-Genera, Report on a Mission Carried Out in China From 29 October to 5 November 2001 in Order to Assess the Monitoring Actions Undertaken by the Chinese Authorities with Regard to Avian Influenza.

What is the international market for poultry and poultry products in affected Asian countries?

Production and trade statistics are included for all of Asia, not just the affected countries, to give an overall perspective of the poultry industry in the Asian region.

There are close to 6 billion chickens and 843 million ducks in the countries of East and South-East Asia (see Appendix for country listing), representing 38% and 80% of world stocks, respectively (Table 2). These countries as a whole produced 27% of the world’s poultry meat in 2002 and 52% of the world’s egg production. By far the primary poultry producer among these countries is China (Appendix 1). Indonesia also has a significant number of chickens and ducks, with 5.5% and 2.8% of world stocks, respectively. Vietnam and Thailand both have substantial numbers of ducks, representing 5.6% and 2.7% of world stocks in 2002, respectively.

The countries of South Asia (see Appendix 1 for country groupings) account for 7.2% of the world’s chickens and 11.6% of the world’s ducks. Among this group of countries, India has the largest number of chickens and ducks, accounting for 5.2% and 10% of total world chicken and duck stocks, respectively. The Asian countries of the former USSR and the Asian countries of the Near East have relatively small numbers of poultry.

Table 2. Production of chickens, ducks, poultry meat, & eggs, 2002*

Chickens

Ducks

Poultry meat

Eggs

Num. head (1,000)

% of world

Num. head (1,000)

% of world

Metric tons

% of world

Metric tons

% of world

East & South-East Asia

South Asia

Asia - Former USSR

Asia – Near East

* East and South-East Asia includes Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, North Korea, Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam; South Asia includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka; Asia/Former USSR includes Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; Asia/Near East includes Afghanistan, Bahrain, Cyprus, Gaza Strip, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tyrkey, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Yemen .

The countries of East and South-East Asia exported 99 million live chickens in 2002, accounting for 12% of world exports of live chickens (Table 3). China and Malaysia are the primary exporters of live birds; the main destinations are Hong Kong and Singapore (Appendix 2). Although exports of live ducks were fewer at 8.8 million head, this represented 54% of world exports of live ducks. Total exports of poultry meat and shell eggs accounted for 18% and 20% of world exports, respectively. Malaysia was also significant exporter of shell eggs in 2002.

Most of the other Asian countries had negligible exports of live poultry, poultry meat, or shell eggs. One exception is India , which exported 19% of the total world duck exports in 2002, and Oman , which exported 6% of total world duck exports (Appendix 2).


Table 3. Exports of live chickens, live ducks, poultry meat, & shell eggs, 2002

Live chickens

Live ducks

Poultry Meat

Eggs in the shell

Num. head (1,000)

% of world

Num. head (1,000)

% of world

Metric tons

% of world

Metric tons

% of world

East & South-East Asia

South Asia

Asia - Former USSR

Asia – Near East

Sources: FAO; Reuters 1/24/04; Time Asia 2/18/2002.

What are the US imports of live birds or poultry products from affected countries?

East and South-East Asia

Poultry imports from East and South East Asia are generally limited, with processed feathers being the most valuable imports (Table 4). However, live birds other than poultry were imported from Taiwan , Malaysia , Singapore and Japan in 2003. Taiwan exported 30 thousand birds to the US and nearly 15 thousand birds were received from Malaysia . Singapore also exported 6 thousand birds to the US and fewer than 30 birds were received from Japan in 2003. In 2002, 90 thousand birds were imported into the US from Taiwan and Malaysia and China also exported 18 thousand birds to the US . Japan exported 5 dozen hatching eggs to the US in 2003. All live birds are quarantined in US ports prior to clearance for entry into the country, during which time testing for infectious diseases, including avian influenza, takes place.

All other products, including processed feathers, received from East and South East Asia in 2002 and through November 2003 were processed or cooked products, are not a disease transmission risk and are legally imported products.

Table 4. East and South-East Asian Imports, 2002-2003

2002

Jan-Nov 2003

2002

Jan-Nov 2003

Product

Country

Millions of US Dollars

Quantity

Birds, Live

NO

Taiwan

Malaysia

China

Singapore

Japan

Eggs, Hatching

DOZ

Japan

Meat, Prepared or Preserved

KG

China

India

Thailand

Eggs, In Shell, Preserved or Cooked

DOZ

China

Thailand

Taiwan

Hong Kong

Eggs, Cooked or Dried

KG

Thailand

Japan

Taiwan

China

Feathers

China

Taiwan

Japan

Korea , South

Hong Kong

Thailand

Vietnam

Philippines

No Quantity Information

Macau

No Quantity Information

Albumin

Korea , South

Singapore

South Asia

Very minor amounts of cooked poultry meat, feathers and albumin were imported from India or Bangladesh in 2002 and through November 2003 (Table 5). Those products imported as processed or cooked products, are not a disease transmission risk and are legally imported products.

Table 5. India and Bangladesh Imports, 2002 and 2003

2002

Jan-Nov 2003

2002

Jan-Nov 2003

Description

Country

Millions of US Dollars

Quantity (KG)

Meat, Cooked

India

Feathers

Bangladesh

India

Albumin

India

Asia – Near East

The only countries exporting poultry products to the US from Asian Near-East countries in 2002 and 2003 were Israel and Saudi Arabia (Table 6). The US imported 617 thousand kilograms of cooked poultry meat from Israel in 2003. Imports of the same products from Israel in 2002 were approximately 900 thousand kilograms. Imported poultry meat from Israel was mostly goose livers as Israel has been a significant producer of goose liver for pate. Israel also exported 700 thousand dozen preserved or cooked eggs to the US in 2003. Saudi Arabian exports to the US were a minor amount of processed feathers in both 2002 and 2003.

Table 6. Israel and Saudi Arabia Imports, 2002 and 2003

Description

2002

Jan-Nov 2003

2002

Jan-Nov 2003

Millions of US Dollars

Various Units

Country

KG

Meat, Prepared or Cooked

Israel

Feathers

Saudi Arabia

Israel

DOZ

Eggs, Preserved or Cooked

Israel

Source: World Trade Atlas

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from affected countries?

In 1999, 10.5 million passengers arrived in the US from East and South-East Asia on direct flights (Table 7). An additional 559 thousand passengers arrived on flights originating in other Asian countries. Some of these passengers would have been in transit and may not have originated their travel in the same country in which the flight originated.

As part of USDA, APHIS-PPQ’s Agricultural Quarantine Inspection Monitoring system, a total of 21,580 air passengers arriving in the US from the 14 East & South-East Asian countries in fiscal year 2002 were sampled for items of agriculture interest. Of these passengers, 30 were found to be carrying a total of 22 kg of chicken and/or eggs. One passenger that was carrying a poultry item reported plans to visit or work on a farm or ranch while in the US ; that passenger’s destination was Texas.

Only 6 of the passengers sampled by PPQ in FY 2002 from the other Asian countries were carrying poultry items. None of these passengers reported plans to visit or work on a farm or ranch while in the US .

Table 7. Airline passengers arriving in the US from Asia, 1999 and passengers with poultry products, 2002.


Number of passengers on direct flights, 1999

Number of passengers sampled by PPQ*, FY 2002

Number of sampled passengers found with poultry items

Type of poultry items found

East & South-East Asia

South Asia

Asia – Former USSR

Asia – Near East

*PPQ = Plant Protection and Quarantine

Source: US Department of Transportation, USDA APHIS-PPC Agricultural Quarantine Inspection database.

CEI’s plans for follow up: CEI will continue to monitor the situation and may issue additional reports. If you need more information or if you want to comment on this worksheet, you may reply to this message, or contact Kathy Orloski (970-494-7221) or Chris Kopral (970-494-7325).


Appendix 1. Production of chickens, ducks, poultry meat, & eggs, 2002

Chickens

Ducks

Poultry Meat

Eggs

Num. head (1,000)

% of world

Num. head (1,000)

% of world

Metric tons

% of world

Metric tons

% of world

East & South-East Asia

Cambodia

China

Indonesia

Hong Kong

Japan

Laos

Malaysia

Myanmar

North Korea

Philippines

South Korea

Taiwan

Thailand

Vietnam

South Asia

Bangladesh

Bhutan

India

Nepal

Pakistan

Sri Lanka

Asia - Former USSR

Armenia

Azerbaijan

Georgia

Kazakhstan

Kyrgyzstan

Tajikistan

Chickens

Ducks

Poultry Meat

Eggs

Num. head (1,000)

% of world

Num. head (1,000)

% of world

Metric tons

% of world

Metric tons

% of world

Turkmenistan

Uzbekistan

Asia – Near East

Afghanistan

Bahrain

Cyprus

Gaza Strip

Iran

Iraq

Jordan

Kuwait

Lebanon

Oman

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

Syria

Turkey

UAE

Yemen

Source: United Nations FAO


Appendix 2. Exports of live chickens, live ducks, poultry meat, & shell eggs, 2002

Live chickens

Live ducks

Poultry Meat

Eggs in the shell

Num. head (1,000)

% of world

Num. head (1,000)

% of world

Metric tons

% of world

Metric tons

% of world

East & South-East Asia

Cambodia

China

Indonesia

Hong Kong

Japan

Laos

Malaysia

Myanmar

North Korea

Philippines

South Korea

Taiwan

Thailand

Vietnam

South Asia

Bangladesh

Bhutan

India

Nepal

Pakistan

Sri Lanka

Asia - Former USSR

Armenia

Azerbaijan

Georgia

Kazakhstan

Kyrgyzstan

Tajikistan

Live chickens

Live ducks

Poultry Meat

Eggs in the shell

Num. head (1,000)

% of world

Num. head (1,000)

% of world

Metric tons

% of world

Metric tons

% of world

Asia – Near East

Afghanistan

Bahrain

Cyprus

Gaza Strip

Iran

Iraq

Jordan

Kuwait

Lebanon

Oman

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

Syria

Turkey

UAE

Yemen

Source: United Nations FAO



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