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Foot and Mouth Disease_ Netherlands_ March 2001

CEI LogoFoot and Mouth Disease, The Netherlands

Impact Worksheet, March 23, 2001

Summary

The Dutch Agriculture Ministry confirmed three outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) on March 22, 2001. All three outbreaks are in close proximity. The source of infection is thought to be calves that had recently been imported from Ireland and held in France at a holding point which had also held English sheep. With detection of FMD in the Netherlands following the detection of FMD in France on March 12, the February 2001 FMD (Type O) outbreak in the United Kingdom has now spread to a second country on the European continent. Control measures reported by Dutch authorities included movement restrictions inside the country, destruction of all animals on the affected farms, on farms within one kilometer of the affected farms, and on contact farms, and the use of vaccination when destruction of animals can not be accomplished quickly.

The Netherlands is currently one of the world’s five largest exporters of live pigs and pork, primarily to EU countries. Non-EU countries importing notable quantities of swine meat are Russia, South Korea, Hong Kong and Japan. Dutch exports of bovine meat account for 5 percent of world exports of bovine meat and go primarily to EU countries. However, non-EU countries importing notable quantities of bovine meat from the Netherlands are Egypt, Russia, and the Philippines.

The US imported no live ruminants or swine from the Netherlands during 1999, 2000, or January-February 2001. Imports into the US of live ruminants and ruminant products from the Netherlands had already been prohibited because of BSE. The US imported pork in 2000, as well as numerous other products that may be relevant to FMD, including dairy products and biologics such as hormones and vaccines.

The USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has intensified its ongoing measures to exclude the FMD virus from the US, including (1) temporary import bans on animals and animal products from all countries in the European Union, (2) heightened alerts, disinfection protocols, and traveler education campaigns at US airports and other ports of entry, and (3) disinfection procedures for US imports of agricultural equipment from European Union countries.

FMD Netherlands

How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the country’s disease status prior to the outbreak?

The Dutch Agriculture Ministry has confirmed three outbreaks of foot and mouth disease. All three outbreaks are in close proximity. The first outbreak, confirmed on March 21, occurred in four cows on a farm in Olst, province of Overijssel. A second outbreak was reported on the same day in nearby Welsum, province of Gelderland. A third outbreak was confirmed on a farm in Oene, also in the province of Gelderland.

The farm in Oene had recently received calves from Ireland via France. The calves had been at a holding point (in the French department of Mayenne) where English sheep had been held shortly before. The owner of the affected farm in Welsum is related to the owner of the farm in Oene, and occasionally worked on the Oene farm. The affected farm in Olst had reportedly not bought or sold animals this year; however, it is only 1 km from the Welsum farm.

Control measures reported by Dutch authorities include the following: all animals on the affected farms, on farms within a one kilometer radius of the affected farms, and on contact farms, will be destroyed; all farms within a radius of three kilometers of the affected farms will be inspected for signs of FMD. If animals cannot be destroyed immediately they will be vaccinated, followed by destruction later. Temporary restrictions have been imposed on the movements of cattle, poultry, transport vehicles for cattle and poultry, semen, ova and embryos of ungulates for the entire country. There is a three day ban on feed and milk transports across the entire country. A total export ban on all meat, meat products and dairy products was imposed.

The Netherlands had been considered free of foot and mouth disease prior to these outbreaks. The last outbreak of foot and mouth disease in the Netherlands was in 1984.

Sources: OIE; Press Release, Dutch Agriculture Ministry; Reuters ; Agworldwide

What is the country’s production and trade in affected animals and animal products?

The Netherlands had 4.15 million cattle, 13.14 million swine, 1.46 million sheep, and 119 thousand goats in 2000 (Table 1). These numbers represent less than one percent, 1.4 percent, less than one percent, and less than one percent of world stocks of cattle, swine, and sheep, and goats respectively.

In 1998, the Netherlands exported 66.2 thousand cattle, representing less than one percent of world cattle exports for that year. The USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) projects that 2000 live cattle exports were similar and went primarily to EU countries, notably Germany, Italy, Belgium/Luxumbourg, France, Spain, and Portugal (in rank order). Other countries which received cattle exports from the Netherlands were Poland, Morocco and Algeria. The Netherlands exported 1.5 million live swine in 1998, representing almost 10 percent of world swine exports. FAS projections for 2000 were much higher, at 4.0 million head exported. Live swine exported from the Netherlands in 2000 went primarily to EU countries, most notably Germany, Spain, Italy, Belgium/Luxumbourg, and France (in rank order). The Netherlands exported almost 446 thousand sheep in 1998. Their destinations were not specified.

The Netherlands exported almost 350 thousand metric tons of bovine meat in 1998; projections for 2000 were similar. Destination countries in 2000 were primarily EU countries, notably France, Germany, Italy, Denmark, and Greece (in rank order). Other countries which imported notable quantities of bovine meat from the Netherlands were Egypt, Russia, and the Philippines. The Netherlands exported almost 617 thousand metric tons of swine meat in 1998. FAS projects the Netherlands’ exports of swine meat in 2000 to have been somewhat higher, at 835 thousand metric tons, and to have gone primarily to EU countries, notably Germany, Italy, France, Greece, and Belgium/Luxumbourg (in rank order). Other countries importing notable quantities of swine meat from the Netherlands in 2000 were Russia, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Japan. The Netherlands exported 4,667 metric tons of mutton and lamb in 1998. Importers of mutton and lamb from the Netherlands were not specified.

In 1997/1998, the Netherlands experienced a large outbreak of classical swine fever which infected 429 farms and more than 60% of the total number of pig farms in the Netherlands were confronted with one or more control measure. Dutch pig stocks were reduced by the 1997/1998 classical swine fever outbreak and have not built back up to pre-outbreak levels due to government restrictions. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is currently one of the world’s five largest exporters of live pigs and pork.

Sources: UN Food and Agriculture Organization; USDA, FAS, Attaché Report, Feb 1, 2001

Table 1: Production and trade in live animals and animal products, Netherlands,

2000 (Production) and 1998 (Trade)

Netherlands

% of World

Live animal stocks (# head)

Cattle

4,150,000

Pigs

13,138,000

Sheep

1,465,000

Goats

119,000

Production (mt)

Beef and veal

505,000

Pig meat

1,625,000

Mutton and lamb

15,800

Goat meat

200

Live animal imports (# head)

Cattle

371,470

4.4

Pigs

174,655

1.2

Sheep

295,991

1.9

Goats

0

Live animal exports (# head)

Cattle

66,214

Pigs

1,502,570

9.9

Sheep

445,905

2.6

Goats

37,836

1.3

Product imports (mt)

Bovine meat

149,543

2.3

Meat of Swine

39,739

Mutton and lamb

7,540

Goat meat

1

Product exports (mt)

Bovine meat

348,539

Meat of Swine

616,869

Mutton and lamb

4,667

Goat meat

220

1.2

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization

What are the U.S. imports of affected animals and animal products from the Netherlands?

No live ruminants or swine were imported into the US from the Netherlands during 1999, 2000, or January-February 2001. Significant numbers of live horses were imported, as were unspecified live animals valued at $3.6 and $3.4 million in 1999 and 2000, respectively (Table 2).

The US imported some pork in 2000, as well as numerous other products that may have relevance to FMD, including dairy products, prepared or preserved meat, and biologics such as hormones and vaccines.

Table 2: US Imports of live animals and animal products from the Netherlands,

1999 - 2000

Product

1999

2000

Quantity or value

Quantity or value

Live animals

Horses (# head)

Unspecified live animals ($ million)

Meat

Pork (kg)

0

162,029

Other products - value ($ million)

Animal fats

0.2

0.1

Animal feeds

4.1

2.9

Biologics - hormones, vaccines, etc

31.7

14.1

Dairy products

45.0

55.2

Hair, guts, glands

4.0

3.8

Hides & skins (not tanned), wool

2.0

2.2

Prepared or preserved meat

12.6

17.6

Source: World Trade Atlas; APHIS Import Tracking System

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?

A total of 9,754 flights brought 2.2 million air passengers to the US from the Netherlands between Oct.1, 1999 and September 30, 2000. As part of APHIS, PPQ’s Agricultural Quarantine Inspection Monitoring, 2,898 passengers arriving from the Netherlands were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal 1999. One-hundred-five (105), or 3.6%, of these passengers were found to be carrying a total of 140 kg of items that could potentially pose a risk for FMD, such as cheese, sausage, or other meat. None of the passengers with product reported plans to visit or work on a farm or ranch while in the US.

Source: US Dept of Transportation; APHIS,PPQ - AQIM

What actions has the USDA taken relative to the FMD outbreak in the European Union?

With this detection of FMD in the Netherlands following the detection of FMD in France, the February 2001 FMD (Type O) outbreak in the United Kingdom has now spread to a second country on the European continent. Prior to the outbreaks, intra-European Union trade of animals and animal products was significant.

The USDA, APHIS has intensified its year round measures to ensure that the US remains an FMD-free country. Effective March 13, USDA temporarily prohibited US importation of animals and animal products from the EU; any relevant products en route to the US since February 21 were to be held. The import ban augments existing restrictions on importation of ruminants and ruminant products to prevent introduction of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the US.

International travelers arriving at US airports are routinely prohibited from carrying agricultural or animal products, and heightened alerts and inspections are in place at airports and other ports of entry. Passengers are required to identify any farm contact to US Customs and APHIS officials, and travelers arriving at 110 US ports of entry will be asked upon arrival if they visited a farm while in Europe. APHIS inspectors are conducting an outreach and education campaign for international travelers, including a public demonstration on April 14 of airport procedures to screen passengers, disinfect soiled footwear, and detect prohibited products in luggage. The public education campaign also includes additional signs in airports, public announcements, information hotline, and website to better inform the public about the importance of FMD and exclusion measures for the US.

New restrictions on agricultural equipment imported from Europe are also in place at US ports of entry. Effective March 13, cleaning and disinfection of used tractors, mowers, tillers, and other farm vehicles from FMD-affected countries is required for entry, regardless of whether the equipment appears clean on physical inspection. Rail manifests are also being carefully reviewed for used farm equipment.

APHIS veterinary and plant officials across the country have intensified outreach to state government and industry leaders to inform them of APHIS prevention and preparedness measures. APHIS officials in each state are reviewing protocols at ports of entry, visiting slaughter plants and livestock concentration facilities to emphasize surveillance and reporting procedures, and scheduling inspections of all swine waste feeders to ensure compliance and reporting of any diseases that may be suspicious for foreign animal disease. In addition, a team of 40 APHIS, state government, and university experts has traveled to Europe to monitor the outbreak and assist in containment efforts.

Sources: USDA press releases (2) on March 13, 2001; USDA-APHIS internal guidance to Area Veterinarians in Charge and State Plant Health Directors; and Agworldwide agriculture news

CEI’s plans for follow up:

CEI will be prepared to provide more information as needed regarding consequences of this outbreak. If you seek more information or wish to comment on this worksheet, please reply to this message or contact Chris Kopral (970-490-7819) or Judy Akkina (970-490-7852).



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