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Suspected BSE_ Japan 9_17_01

CEI Logo Suspected Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Japan

Impact Worksheet, September 17, 2001


Summary:

The Japan Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) reported its first suspected case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to the OIE on September 10, 2001. The suspected case was a five-year-old Holstein cow from a dairy farm in Chiba prefecture. At least four laboratory diagnostic tests were done between August 15 and September 10. A Prionics check test was negative, two histopathological tests were positive, and one immunohistochemical test was positive. Meanwhile, the Japan MAFF has requested confirmatory testing at reference laboratories in the United Kingdom and in Switzerland. Live cattle, sheep, and goat exports from Japan were less than 1.0 percent of the world’s trade in these animals during 1999. Japan exported less than one percent of the world’s total exports of beef and veal, mutton and lamb, and goat meat during 1999.

From 1998 to March 2000, 73 cattle were imported into the US from Japan. Small quantities of boneless, bovine meat, and prepared dairy cattle feed also were imported into the US during the same period. For some of the other products that were imported into the US, it is not clear whether these products contained meat products from any species. Regardless, the US Food and Drug Administration prohibits feeding of meat-and-bone meal to ruminants in the US. The US placed a ban on imports of any ruminant or swine, or any fresh (chilled or frozen) meat of any ruminant

or swine from Japan in March 2000, due to an outbreak of FMD in Japan. Although the ban imposed in March 2000 was on the verge of being removed by the US, the USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Veterinary Services (VS) has decided to continue the ban on the importation of ruminant meat, meat products and other ruminant products from Japan as of September 10, 2001.

How extensive is the suspected outbreak of BSE in Japan, and what was Japan’s disease status prior to this suspected outbreak?

The Japan Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) in Tokyo reported to the OIE its first suspected case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) on September 10, 2001. A five-year-old Holstein cow from a dairy farm in Chiba prefecture was slaughtered on August 6 2001 at an abattoir. Because there were clinical signs of dystaxia, a brain specimen was taken and sent to the National Institute of Animal Health (NIAH) and subjected to Prionics Check test with a negative result on August 15. A brain specimen from this cow was sent also to the prefecture Livestock Hygiene Service Center, was subjected to histopathological examination, and was found to have vacuoles on August 24. The same brain specimen was sent to the NIAH on September 6 for histopathological examination, and the result was the same as the result of the August 24 examination. The same specimen was subjected to immunohistochemical examination with a positive result on September 10. To control the suspected outbreak, the herd was placed under quarantine by the prefecture veterinary inspector immediately after BSE was suspected, widespread inspection of livestock operations by numerous health officials for animals with signs of BSE is underway, and a ban on the use of meat-and-bone meal in feed products for cattle is in progress. BSE had not been diagnosed in Japan prior to this suspected outbreak.

Source: OIE Weekly Disease Information Report

What is Japan’s production and trade in affected animals and animal products?

Japan was responsible for less than one percent of the world’s cattle, sheep, and goat stocks in year 2000 (Table 1). Live cattle, sheep, and goat exports from Japan were less than 1.0 percent of the world’s trade in these animals during year 1999. Japan imported less than 1.0 percent of the world’s imports of live cattle, sheep, and goats.

Table 1. Japan’s live animal stocks (year 2000) and imports and exports of live animals (year 1999).

Live Animal

Year 2000 Stocks

1999 Trade

1999 Exports

1999 Imports

Head

% World

Head

% World

Head

% World

Cattle

4,588,000

3

13,477

Sheep

11,000

0

58

Goats

31,000

0

24

Japan produced less than one percent of the world’s total beef and veal, mutton and lamb, and goat meat during year 2000 (Table 2). Japan exported less than one percent of the world’s total exports of these products during year 1999. Japan imported three percent of the world’s total imports of mutton and lamb, but less than one percent of the total imports of beef, veal, and goat meat during year 1999.

Table 2. Production (year 2000) and trade (year 1999) in relevant products by Japan.

Products

Year 2000 Production

1999 Trade

1999 Exports

1999 Imports

Metric ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Beef and veal

534,000

25

7,350

Mutton and lamb 1

120

0

29,878

Goat meat 1

140

0

191

Source: United Nations FAO

1 Sheep and goats were included in Table 1 and Table 2 as ‘affected’ animals because USDA/APHIS includes all ruminants and ruminant products in its restrictions pertaining to BSE.

What are the U.S. imports of affected animals or animal products from Japan?

From 1998 to March 2000, approximately 73 live cattle were imported into the US from Japan (Table 3). Small quantities of boneless, bovine meat, and prepared dairy cattle feed also were imported into the US during the same period. For some of the other products that were imported into the US, it is not clear whether these products contained meat products from any animal species. Regardless, the US Food and Drug Administration prohibits feeding of meat-and-bone meal to ruminants in the US. In addition, the US placed a ban on imports of any ruminant or swine, or any fresh (chilled or frozen) meat of any ruminant or swine from Japan in March 2000 due to an outbreak of FMD in Japan.

Source: World Trade Atlas; USDA APHIS VS Import Tracking System

Table 3. US Imports from Japan during years 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 (January - June).

Year

HS Code

Description

Unit

1998

1999

2000

2001 (Jan - June)

live animal

0102

Bovine

NO

Bovine (VS Import Tracking System database)

NO

meat & offal - ruminant

020130

Bovine Meat Cuts, Boneless

KG

160250

Other Bovine Meat

KG

feed - ruminant

2309901030

Dairy Cattle Feed, Prepared

T

other animal products - ruminants

3002100040

Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS)

KG

feed - non species specific

0511993000

Products Used as Food, For Animals

KG

0511993060

Products Used as Food, For Animals

KG

2309901050

Mixed Feeds or Mixed Feed Ingredients, Animal, NESOI

T

2309907000

Preps W/Vitamin B12, For Supplementing Animal Feed

KG

2309909500

Preparations Used in Animal Feedings, NESOI

KG

meat & offal- non species specific

210904000

Meat & Edible Meat Offal, including Flours & Meals of Meat/Meat Offal

KG

0504000040

Gut/Bladder/Stomach of Animals For Sausage Casing, Not Hog or Fish

KG

0504000060

Guts, Bladders and Stomachs of Animals, NESOI

KG

1602204000

Animal Livers Except Goose, Prepared or Preserved

KG

1603009010

Extracts And Juices of Meat

KG

What actions have been taken to protect US livestock from the outbreak of BSE in Japan?

Although the ban that was imposed on importations from Japan in March 2000 was on the verge of being removed, the USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Veterinary Services (VS) has decided to continue with a ban on importation of ruminant meat, meat products and other ruminant products from Japan as of September 10, 2001. The US suspended the importation of ruminant meat, meat products, and other ruminant products that have been stored, processed, or otherwise associated with any facility located in Japan. The prohibited products include, but may not be limited to, the following: (1) meat, (2) meat-and-bone meal (MBM), (3) meat meal, (4) bone meal, (5) blood meal, (6) protein meal, (6) tankage, (7) offal, or (8) any products containing such. In addition to ruminant products, imports from Japan of non-ruminant material will not be eligible for entry into the US until USDA APHIS can verify that these products have not been commingled or cross-contaminated with ruminant products. An interim rule concerning this action is being prepared and will be published in the Federal Register in the near future.

Source: USDA, APHIS, VS

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from Japan?

Approximately 6.84 million passengers on 29,826 direct flights from Japan arrived at US airports in fiscal year 2000. An undetermined number of passengers from Japan arrived in the US via indirect flights.

Under APHIS-PPQ’s agriculture quarantine inspection monitoring, 801 air passengers from Japan were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal year 2000. Of these 801 passengers, 10 carried meat (non-pork) items that could potentially harbor the pathogen(s) that cause BSE; most passengers carried an average of 1.7 kilograms of meat. None of these passengers from whom meat items were confiscated reported plans to visit or work on a ranch or farm during their visit to the US.

Source: US Department of Transportation, and APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection data base

CEI’s plans for follow up:

This suspected outbreak of BSE in Japan will continue to be monitored.

If you need more information or want to comment on this worksheet, you may reply to this message or contact (Reginald Johnson at 970-490-7896 or Carol A. Tuszynski at 970-490-7893).



Additional Information